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NEHRU SMARAKA VIDYALAYA

BANGALORE

Investigatory Project in Chemistry


Topic:
"Program in C++ on Employee Salary Calculator "

Submitted to

Mrs. Kalpana
Submitted by

Grade XI
NEHRU SMARAKA VIDYALAYA

Certificate

This is to certify that bonafide student of


class XI has successfully completed the project titled "
Determination of Contents of Tooth Paste " in the laboratory of
Chemistry prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary
Education for the AISSCE for the year 2018-19.

Teacher in–Charge HOD Principal

External Examiner

Date:
Acknowledgement

I wish to express my gratitude to my Chemistry teacher


Mrs. Kalpana, who has been instrumental in helping me complete
this project.

I also wish to express my sincere thanks to our beloved Principal


Dr Arokia Raj.P, and the management of BIGI for having
changed our focus from exam-based learning to knowledge-
learning which I now understand will go a long way in molding
my future ahead for better prospects.

I wish to thank my parents, friends and all those who have directly
or indirectly contributed towards completion of this project
successfully and effectively.
INDEX
Contents PAGE NOS

Abstract

Theory

Ingredients

Test for acid radical I

Test for acid radical II

Colour of the paste-white

Colour of the paste-Colgate

Colour of the paste- Red Gel

Homemade toothpaste

Bibliography
Abstract

The Aim is the Determination of Contents of Tooth Paste /To test the
acid and basic radicals in the toothpaste
Toothpowder is a powder used with hands or with a toothbrush to clean
and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to
promote oral hygiene: it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food
from the teeth, aid in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis and
deliver active ingredients such as fluoride or xylitol to prevent tooth and
gum disease
Theory

Every toothpaste contains the following ingredients: binders, abrasives,


subsers, humectants, flavours, sweeteners, fluorides, tooth whiteners, a
preservative and water. Binders thicken toothpaste- they prevent
separation of the solid and liquid component, especially storage. They
also effect the speed and volume of foam production, rate of flavor
release and product dispersal, the appearance of toothpaste ribbon on the
toothbrush. Some binders are gum solid alignate, methyl cellulose,
carrageen and magnesium aluminium silicate
Ingredients

While the exact formula of each brand of toothpaste is proprietary, most


toothpastes contain the same basic ingredients. These include:

 Fluoride: Perhaps the most important toothpastes ingredient is


fluoride. Fluoride incorporates itself into tooth enamel making your
teeth more resistant to acids produced by plaque bacteria, as well as
acids found in fruit juices, soda (both regular and diet) and certain
foods. In toothpastes, fluoride is found in the form of sodium
monofluorophosphate, stannous fluoride, or sodium fluoride.

 Abrasives: Abrasives give toothpastes its cleaning power. They


remove stains and plaque, as well as polish teeth. Common abrasives
include calcium phosphates, alumina, calcium carbonate, and silica.
Toothpastes should be abrasive enough to remove plaque and stains,
but not abrasive enough to damage tooth enamel. Damaged tooth
enamel also causes yellowing as the thinned enamel reveals the
yellowish dentin layer below. Over the years, manufacturers have
been quietly reducing the abrasiveness of their toothpastes.

 Preservatives: Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms


in toothpastes and eliminate the need to refrigerate toothpastes.
Common preservatives include sodium benzoate, methyl paraben,
and ethyl paraben.

 Flavoring Agents: These are added to improve the taste of


toothpastes. You may have noticed that toothpastes have very strong
flavoring. This is necessary to cover up the horrid taste of most
detergents, especially SLS.

 Sweeteners: Sweeteners also improve the taste of toothpastes. Most


toothpaste sweeteners are artificial and contribute very little to
cavity formation. Saccharin is a common toothpaste sweetener.
TEST FOR ACID RADICAL I:

TEST FOR ACID RADICAL II


TEST FOR BASIC RADICAL

Result:
The given toothpowder contains anions namely CO32- and PO43- and
cations namely Ca2+.

Conclusion
Several of the ingredients in toothpastes are found by some
environmentally damaging or hazardous to the personal health.
These ingredients include:
• Artificial flavoring
• Artificial colors
• Triclosan
• Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
• Detergents
• Fluoride
• Preservatives such as Methylparaben and Ethylparaben-parabens
• Pyrophosphate

Colour Of The Paste- White

Chemical Reaction
1. CO3 +MgSO4 → MgCO3 + SO4 (white ppt.)
2. CO3 + 2CH3COOH → (CH3COO)2Ca + H2O
(CH3COO)2Ca + (NH4)2C2O4 → 2CHCOONH4 +CaC2O4
3. NaHPO4 + MgCl2+ NH4OH → Mg(NH4)PO4 + 2NaCl + H2O
4. I+ AgNO3 →NO3+AgI (yellow ppt.)
5. (COOH)2 + 2CH3COONa → NO REACTION
6. Pb + 2KI→ NO REACTION
7. MgCl2 + NH4OH+ (NH3)2HPO4 → Mg(NH4)PO4 + 2NH4 +H2O
Test On Colgate

Colour of Paste- Colgate


IONS PRESENT:- Mg, I, PO4, Ca, CO3
Chemical Reactions
1. CO3 +MgSO4 → MgCO3 + SO4
(white ppt.)
2. CO3 + 2CH3COOH → (CH3COO)2Ca + H2O
(CH3COO)2Ca + (NH4)2C2O4 → 2CHCOONH4 +CaC2O4
3. NaHPO4 + MgCl2+ NH4OH → Mg(NH4)PO4 + 2NaCl + H2O
4. I+ AgNO3 →NO3+AgI
(yellow ppt.)
5. (COOH)2 + 2CH3COONa → NO REACTION
6. Pb + 2KI→ NO REACTION
7. MgCl2 + NH4OH+ (NH3)2HPO4 → Mg(NH4)PO4 + 2NH4 +H2O
Test On Close Up Colour Of The Paste- Red Gel

IONS PRESENT:- Mg, I, PO4, Ca, CO3, CH3COO


Chemical Reactions
1. CO3 +MgSO4 → MgCO3 + SO4 (white ppt.)
2. CO3 + 2CH3COOH → (CH3COO)2Ca + H2O
(CH3COO)2Ca + (NH4)2C2O4 → 2CHCOONH4 +CaC2O4
3. NaHPO4 + MgCl2+ NH4OH → Mg(NH4)PO4 + 2NaCl + H2O
4. I+ AgNO3 →NO3+AgI (yellow ppt.)
5. (COOH)2 + 2CH3COONa → NO REACTION
6. Pb + 2KI→ NO REACTION
7. MgCl2 + NH4OH+ (NH3)2HPO4 → Mg(NH4)PO4 + 2NH4 +H2O
Homemade Toothpaste

Homemade tooth powders are made by mixing 3 parts baking soda


(cleanser) thoroughly with 1 part salt (the abrasive). As a direct result of
these concerns, some people have started making their own tooth paste
instead, which -while still not completely ecologic due to the use of
baking soda- still eliminates much environmentally or health damaging
ingredients. Also, commercial toothpowders are made which are less or
even non-environmentally damaging. Such preparations are made from
herbal resins, propolis and myrrh.
Bibliography

1. NCERT Chemistry Text Books


2. www.seminarsonly.com
3. www.wikipedia.com
4. www.gmail.com /Google