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ac pertaining to

al pertaining to
ar pertaining to
ary pertaining to
eal pertaining to
ial pertaining to
ic pertaining to
ous pertaining to
agra excessive pain
algia pain
apheresis removal
ase enzyme
asthenia weakness
atresia absence of a normal body opening; occlusion; closure
capnia carbon dioxide
cele hernia; protrusion
centesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid
cidal killing
clasia break
clasis break
clast break
clysis irrigating; washing
coccus (pl.
berryshaped ( a form of bacterium)
crine separate; secrete
crit to separate
cyte cell
desis surgical fixation; fusion
drome run; running
ectasis stretching out; dilatation; expansion
ectomy excision or surgical removal
ectopia displacement
emesis vomiting
emia blood condition
er one who
esis condition
iasis condition
gen substance or agent that produces or causes
genesis origin; cause
genic producing; originating; causing
gram record; x-ray film
graph instrument used to record
graphy process of recording; xray filming
ia condition of diseased or abnormal state
iatry physician; treatment
ician one who
ictal seizure; attack
ism state of
itis inflammation
lepsy seizure
lysis loosening; dissolution; separating
lytic destroy; reduce
malacia softening
mania madness; insane desire
megaly enlargement
meter instrument used to measure
metry measurement
morph form; shape
odia smell
odynia pain
oid resembling
ologist one who studies and practices (specialist)
ology study of
oma tumor; swelling
opia vision (condition)
opsy to view
oorhagia rapid flow of blood
orrhaphy suturing; repairing
orrhea flow; excessive discharge
orrhexis rupture
abnormal condition (means increased when used with blood cell
word roots)
ostomy creation of an artificial opening
otomy cut into or incision
oxia oxygen
paresis slight paralysis
pathy disease
penia abnormal reduction in number
pepsia digestion
pexy surgical fixation; suspension
phagia eating; swallowing
philia love
phily love
phobia abnormal fear of or aversion to specific objects or things
phonia sound or voice
phoria feeling
physis growth
plasia formation; development; a growth
plasm growth; substance; formation
plasty plastic or surgical repair
plegia paralysis
pnea breathing
poiesis formation
porosis passage
prandial meal
praxia in front of; before
ptosis dropping; sagging; prolapse
ptysis spitting
salpinx fallopian tube
sarcoma malignant tumor
schisis split; fissure
sclerosis hardening
scope instrument used for visual examination
scopy visual examination
scopic visual examination
sepsis infection
sis state of
spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction
stasis control; stop
stalsis contraction
stenosis constriction; narrowing
thorax chest
tocia birth; labor
tome instrument used to cut
tripsy surgical crushing
trophy nourishment
ule little
uria urine; urination

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Ancient Greek α-/αν- (a-/an-

a-, an- Denotes an absence of Apathy, Analgia
), without, not

ab- away from Latin Abduction

Of or relating to the Latin (abdōmen), abdomen,

abdomin(o)- Abdomen
Abdomen fat around the belly

-ac pertaining to Greek -akos cardiac

Ancient Greek ακανθα

acanth(o)- thorn or spine acanthocyte
(akantha), thorn

Greek ακουστικός
acous(o)- Of or relating to hearing (acoustikos), of or for

Greek άκρον (akron),

acr(o)- extremity, topmost Acromegaly
highest or farthest point

-acusis hearing Greek ακουστικός

(acoustikos), of or for

-ad toward, in the direction of dorsad

increase, adherence,
ad- Latin Adduction
motion toward, very

Ancient Greek αδην, αδέν-

Of or relating to a gland (adēn, aden-), an acorn; a Adenology

Of or relating to fat or fatty

adip(o)- Latin (adeps, adip-), fat Adipocyte

Of or relating to adrenal
adren(o)- adrenal artery

Greek Ἀναιμία, without

-aemia (BrE) blood condition Anaemia

aer(o)- air, gas Aerosinusitis

sensation Greek

-al pertaining to Latin -alis abdominal

Denoting a white or pale

alb- Latin albus, white Albino

alge(si)- pain Greek Analgesic

-algia pain Myalgia

alg(i)o- pain Myalgia

Denoting something as Ancient Greek αλλος (allos), Alloantigen,

different, or as an addition another, other allopathy

Denoting something as
Latin (ambi-, ambo), both,
ambi- positioned on both sides; Ambidextrous
on both sides
Describing both of two

Pertaining to the
amnio- membraneous fetal sac Greek Amniocentesis

an- not, without Greek Analgesia

an(o) anus

andr(o)- pertaining to a man Greek

angi(o)- blood vessel Angiogram

Describing something as Ancient Greek ανῑσος

aniso- Anisotropic
unequal (anīsos), unequal

ankyl(o)-, Denoting something as Ancient Greek ανκύλος

ancyl(o)- crooked or bent (ankýlos), crooked, curved

ante- Describing something as

Latin (āntē), before, in front antepartum
positioned in front of
another thing of

Describing something as
Ancient Greek αντι (anti), Antibody,
anti- 'against' or 'opposed to'
against antipsychotic

separated from, derived

apo- Ancient Greek Apoptosis

Ancient Greek αρτηρία

Of or pertaining to an (artēría), a wind-pipe, artery
arteri(o)- Artery, Arteriole
artery (used distinctly versus a

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek αρθρος

arthr(o)- Arthritis
joints, limbs (arthros), a joint, limb

articul(o)- joint Latin Articulation

-ary pertaining to Latin -arius bilary tract

-ase enzyme Lactase

-asthenia weakness

-ation process Latin

aur(i)- Of or pertaining to the ear Latin (auris), the ear Aural

aut(o)- self Greek Autoimmune

Of or pertaining to the
axill- armpit [uncommon as a Latin (axilla), armpit Axilla

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Of the glans penis or

balano- Greek balanos, acorn, glans Balanitis
glans clitoridis

bi- twice, double Latin

bio- life Ancient Greek Biology

blast(o)- germ or bud Blastomere

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek βλέφαρον

blephar(o)- Blepharoplast
eyelid (blépharon), eyelid

Of or relating to the Latin (brachium), from Ancient

brachi(o)- Brachium
arm Greek βραχίων (brachiōn), arm

Indicating 'short' or Ancient Greek βραχυς (brachys),

brachy- brachycephalic
less commonly 'little' short; little, shallow

Ancient Greek βραδυς (bradys),

brady- Indicating 'slow' Bradycardia

bronch(i)- bronchus Bronchiolitis


Of or pertaining to the
bucc(o)- Latin (bucca), cheek Buccolabial

burs(o)- bursa Bursitis

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Of or pertaining to
capill- Latin (capillus), hair Capillus

Pertaining to the head

capit- Latin (caput, capit-), the head Capitation
(as a whole)

carcin(o)- cancer Carcinoma

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek καρδία (kardía),

cardi(o)- Cardiology
heart heart

Latin (carpus) < Ancient Greek

καρπός (karpós), wrist; NOTE:
Of or pertaining to the
carp(o)- This root should not be Carpopedal
confused with the mirror root
carp(o)- meaning fruit.

cata- down Greek (kata) Cataract

-cele pouching, hernia Ancient Greek (kēlē) Hydrocele

surgical puncture for
-centesis Ancient Greek (kentēsis) Amniocentesis

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek κέφαλή

cephal(o)- Cephalalgy
head (as a whole) (képhalē), the head

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek κέρας, κερατ-

cerat(o)- Ceratoid
cornu; a horn (kéras, kerat-), a horn

Of or pertaining to the
cerebell(o)- Latin (cerebellum), little brain Cerebellum

Of or pertaining to the
cerebr(o)- Latin (cerebrum), brain Cerebrology

Of or pertaining to the Latin (cervix, cervīc-), neck,

cervic- Cervicodorsal
neck, the cervix cervix

chem(o)- chemistry, drug Chemotherapy

chir(o)-, Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek χείρ, χειρο-

cheir(o)- hand (cheir, cheiro-), hand

Ancient Greek χλορος (chloros),

chlor(o)- Denoting a green color Chlorophyll
green, yellow-green

chol(e)- Of or pertaining to bile Ancient Greek χολή (cholē), bile Cholaemia

Ancient Greek χοληκύστις

Of or pertaining to the (cholēkýstis), gallbladder <
cholecyst(o)- Cholecystectomy
gallbladder χολη (cholē), bile, gall + κύστις
(kýstis), bladder
cartilage, gristle,
chondr(i)o- Ancient Greek (chondros) Chondrocalcinosis
granule, granular

chrom(ato)- color Ancient Greek Hemachromatosis

-cidal, -cide killing, destroying Latin

Of or pertaining to the
cili- cilia, the eyelashes; < Latin (cilium), eyelash; eyelid Ciliary

Denoting something as
circum- Latin (circum), around Circumcision
'around' another

cis- on this side Latin (cis)

clast break Greek

with, together, in
co- Latin

col-, colo-,
colon Colonoscopy

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek κόλπος (kólpos),

colp(o)- Colposcopy
vagina bosom, womb; hollow, depth

com- with, together Latin

contra against Latin Contraindicate

cor- with, together Latin

cor-, core-, Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek κόρη (kórē), girl,

coro- eye's pupil doll; pupil of the eye

Of or pertaining to the
cordi- heart [Uncommon as a Latin (cor, cordi-), heart Commotio cordis

Applied to processes
and parts of the body
cornu- describing them Latin (cornū), horn
likened or similar to

Of or pertaining to the
cost(o)- Latin (costa), rib Costochondral

Of or relating to the
cox- hip, haunch, or hip- Latin (coxa), hip Coxopodite

Latin (cranium) < Ancient Greek

Belonging or relating
crani(o)- κρᾱνίον (krānion), the cranium, Craniology
to the cranium
skull, bones enclosing the brain

-crine to secrete Endocrine

cry(o)- cold Cryoablation

cutane- skin Subcutaneous

Ancient Greek κύανος, κυάνεος
cyan(o)- Denotes a blue color Cyanopsia
(kýanos, kyáneos), blue

cycl- circle, cycle Greek (kuklos)

Denotes something as
Ancient Greek κυφός (kȳphós),
cyph(o)- bent [uncommon as a Cyphosis
bent, hunchback

cyst(o)-, Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek κύστις (kýstis),

cyst(i)- urinary bladder bladder; cyst

cyt(o)- cell Greek Cytokine

-cyte cell Greek Leukocyte

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

dacrio- tear Greek

Of or pertaining to a finger, Ancient Greek δάκτυλος

dactyl(o)- Dactylology
toe (dáktylos), finger, toe

de- away from, cessation Latin de-

dent- Of or pertaining to teeth Latin (dens, dentis), tooth Dentist

Ancient Greek δέρμα,
Of or pertaining to the skin δέρματ- (dérma, démat-), Dermatology
skin, human skin

-desis binding Greek (desis) arthrodesis

dextr(o)- right, on the right side Latin dexter Dextrocardia

di- two Greek

di- apart, separation Latin

Ancient Greek διά (diá),

dia- (same as Greek meaning) Diacetyl
through, during, across

dif- apart, separation Latin

Of or pertaining to the
digit- Latin (digitus), finger, toe Digit
finger [rare as a root]

dis- separation, taking apart Latin dis- Dissection

dors(o)-, Dorsal,
Of or pertaining to the back Latin (dorsum), back
dors(i)- Dorsocephalad

duodenum - upper part of

duodeno- the small intestine, Latin duodeni Duodenal atresia
connects to the stomach

dynam(o)- force, energy, power Greek δυναμις (dunamis)

-dynia pain

dys- bad, difficult Greek δυσ-

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

-eal pertaining to Latin

ec- out, away Greek (ek-)

ect(o)- outer, outside Greek Ectopic pregnancy

-ectasis expansion, dilation Ancient Greek Bronchiectasis

Denotes a surgical
Ancient Greek εκτομή
-ectomy operation or removal Mastectomy
(ectomē), excision
of a body part

-emesis vomiting condition Hematemesis

blood condition Greek Ἀναιμία, without

-emia Anemia
(AmE) blood

Of or pertaining to
Ancient Greek ενκέφαλος
encephal(o)- the brain. Also see Encephalogram
(enképhalos), the brain
Denotes something as Ancient Greek ενδο- Endocrinology,
'inside' or 'within' (endo-), inside, internal Endospore

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek έντερον

enter(o)- Gastroenterology
the intestine (énteron), intestine

Ancient Greek επι- (epi-),

[Same as Greek Epistaxis, epicardium,
epi- before, upon, on, outside,
meaning: on, upon] episclera, epidural
outside of

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek επίσιον-

episi(o)- the pubic region, the (epísion), the pubic area, Episiotomy
loins loins; vulva

Ancient Greek ερυθρος

erythr(o)- Denotes a red color Erythrocyte
(erythros), red

-esophageal, -
gullet (AmE)

esthesio- sensation (AmE) Greek

eu- true, good, well, new Greek Eukaryote

ex- out of, away from Latin

Denotes something as Ancient Greek εξο- (exo-),

exo- Exoskeleton
'outside' another outside of, external

extra- outside Latin

Origin language and
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Latin (faciēs), the face,

faci(o)- Of or pertaining to the face Facioplegic

fibr(o) fiber Fibroblast

filli- fine, hair like

-form, - Used to form adjectives indicating

Latin (forma), form, shape Cuneiform
iform 'having the form of'

Latin (frōns, front-), the

front- Of or pertaining to the forehead Frontonasal

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

galact(o)- milk Galactorrhea

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek γαστήρ

gastr(o)- Gastric bypass
stomach (gastēr), stomach, belly

(1) Denotes the sense

Ancient Greek -γενής (-
'born in, from' (2) (1) Endogen; (2)
-gen genēs) < γεν-νάειν
Denotes the sense 'of a Heterogenous
(gen-náein), to be born
certain kind'
-genic Formation Cardiogenic shock

Of or pertaining to the
genu- Latin (genū), knee Genu valgum

Of or pertaining to the
gingiv- Latin (gingīva), gum Gingivitis

Ancient Greek γλαυκός

Denoting a grey, bluish-
glauc(o)- (glaúkos), grey, bluish- Glaucoma
grey color

Ancient Greek γλῶσσα,

gloss(o)-, Of or pertaining to the
γλῶττα (glōssa, glōtta), Glossology
glott(o)- tongue

gluco- glucose Glucocorticoid

glyco- sugar Glycolysis

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek γνάθος

gnath(o)- Gnathodynamometer
jaw (gnáthos), jaw

seed, semen; also,

gon(o)- Ancient Greek Gonorrhea

-gram record or picture Angiogram

Ancient Greek -γραφία

(-graphía), written,
-graph record or picture Electrocardiograph
drawn, graphic
-graphy process of recording Angiography

(BrE), gyn(ec)o- woman Gynecomastia

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)]][[Media

Classical Latin to
halluc- to wander in mind Hallucinosis
wander in mind

Latin (hæma) <

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek αίμα, Hematology, older form
blood αίματ- (haima, haimat- Haematology
(haem-, hem-)
), blood

hema or hemo- blood (AmE)

Ancient Greek ἡμι-

hemi- one-half Cerebral hemisphere
(hēmi-), "half"

Ancient Greek ηπαρ,

hepat- (hepatic- Of or pertaining to the
ηπατο- (hēpar, Hepatology
) liver
hēpato-), the liver

Denotes something as Ancient Greek έτερος

'the other' (of two), as (héteros), the other
heter(o)- Heterogeneous
an addition, or (of two), another;
different different
hidr(o)- sweat Greek Hyperhidrosis

hist(o)-, histio- tissue Histology

Ancient Greek όμοιος

home(o)- similar Homeopathy

Denotes something as Ancient Greek ομο-

hom(o)- 'the same' as another (homo-), the same, Homosexuality
or common common

Of or pertaining to the Incorrect Etymology <

humer(o)- shoulder (or [rarely] Latin (umerus), Humerus
the upper arm) shoulder

hydr(o)- water Greek Hydrophobe

Ancient Greek υπερ

Denotes something as
(hyper), over, above;
hyper- 'extreme' or 'beyond Hypertension
beyond, to the

Denotes something as Ancient Greek υπ(ο)-

hyp(o)- Hypovolemia,
'below normal' (hypo-), below, under

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek υστέρα

hyster(o)- Hysterectomy
womb, the uterus (hystéra), womb
Origin language
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)
and etymology

-ia(sis) condition Mydriasis

Of or pertaining to medicine, or a Ancient Greek ιᾱτρός

iatr(o)- physician [uncommon as a prefix; (iātrós), healer, Iatrochemistry
common as as suffix, see -iatry] physician

Ancient Greek ιᾱτρός

Denotes a field in medicine of a Podiatry,
-iatry (iātrós), healer,
certain body component Psychiatry

-ic pertaining to Greek (-ikos) Hepatic artery

-icle small Ovarian follicle

-ics organized knowledge, treatment

Greek ἴδιος, idios,

idio- self, one's own Idiopathic
"one's own"

ileo- ileum Ileocecal valve

infra- below Latin

inter- between, among Latin

intra- within Latin Intracranial


irid(o)- iris Iridectomy

Ancient Greek ισχιόν

Of or pertaining to the ischium, the
ischio- (ischión), hip-joint, Ischiorrhogic

-ism condition, disease Dwarfism

-ismus spasm, contraction

Denoting something as being Ancient Greek ίσος

iso- Isotonic
'equal' (ísos), equal

-ist one who specializes in Greek (-istes) Pathologist

-ite the nature of, resembling Hermaphrodite

-itis inflammation Tonsillitis

-ium structure, tissue pericardium

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

karyo- nucleus Greek κάρυον, "nut" Eukaryote

cornea (eye or
kerat(o)- Keratoscope

kin(e)-, kin(o),
movement Greek Kinesthesia

koil(o)- hollow Greek (koilos) Koilocyte

kyph(o)- humped Kyphoscoliosis

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

labi(o)- Of or pertaining to the lip Latin (labium), lip Labiodental

lacrim(o)- tear

milk Lactation

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek λαπάρᾱ

lapar(o)- Laparotomy
abdomen-wall, flank (lapárā), flank

Of or pertaining to the larynx, Ancient Greek λάρυγξ,

laryng(o)- the lower throat cavity where λαρυγγ- (lárynx, laryng-), Larynx
the voice box is throat, gullet

latero- lateral Lateral pectoral


lei(o)- smooth Leiomyoma

-lepsis, -lepsy attack, seizure

lept(o)- light, slender Greek (leptos)

leuc(o)-, Ancient Greek λευκος

Denoting a white color Leukocyte
leuk(o)- (leukos), white, bright

Of or pertaining to the tongue Latin (lingua), tongue Linguistics

lip(o)- fat Liposuction

lith(o)- stone, calculus Lithotripsy

log(o)- speech

Denotes someone who Ancient Greek λογιστης

-logist studies a certain field: _____- (logistēs), studier,
logy practitioner

Denotes the academic study Ancient Greek λογoς hematology,

or practice of a certain field (logos) study urology

lymph(o)- lymph Lymphedema

lys(o)-, -lytic dissolution Lysosome

-lysis Destruction Paralysis

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

macr(o)- large, long Macrophage

-malacia softening Osteomalacia

Of or pertaining to the Latin (mamma), breast;

mamm(o)- Mammogram
breast udder

Of or pertaining to the
mammill(o)- Latin (mammilla), nipple

Of or pertaining to the
manu- Latin (manus), hand Manufacture

Ancient Greek μαστός

Of or pertaining to the (mastós), breast, women's
mast(o)- Mastectomy
breast breast; man's pectoral

megal(o)-, enlargement Splenomegaly

Ancient Greek μελας,

melan(o)- Denoting a black color μελανο- (melas, melano-), Melanin
black; dark
mening(o)- membrane Meningitis

Ancient Greek μέσος

mes(o)- middle Mesoderm
(mesos), "middle"

meta- after, behind Metacarpus

-meter measurement Sphygmomanometer

-metry process of measuring Optometry

Pertaining to
conditions or Ancient Greek μήτρᾱ
metr(o)- Metrorrhagia
instruments of the (mētrā), womb, uterus

denoting something
Ancient Greek μικρος
micro- as small, or relating to Microscope
(mikros), small

mon(o)- single

morph(o)- form, shape Morphology

muscul(o)- muscle

Ancient Greek μυς, μυ-

Of or relating to
my(o)- (mys, my-), muscle; Myoblast
mouse; mussel
myc(o)- fungus Onychomycosis

Ancient Greek μυελον

Of or relating to bone
myel(o)- (myelon), marrow; bone- Myeloblast

myring(o)- eardrum Myringotomy

myx(o)- mucus Myxoma

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

narc(o)- numb, sleep Greek narcolepsy

nas(o)- Of or pertaining to the nose Latin (nāsum), nose nasal

necr(o)- death Greek

neo- new Greek Neoplasm

Of or pertaining to the Ancient Greek νεφρός

nephr(o)- Nephrology
kidney (nephrós), kidney

Of or pertaining to nerves Latin (nervus), tendon;

and the nervous system nerve; Cognate with the
nerv- Nerve
[Uncommon as a root: neuro- Greek νευρον (neuron)
mostly always used] (see below)
Ancient Greek νευρον
neur(i)-, Of or pertaining to nerves
(neuron), tendon, sinew; Neurofibromatosis
neur(o)- and the nervous system

normo- normal Normocapnia

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Of or pertaining to
ocul(o)- Latin (oculus), the eye Oculist
the eye

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek οδούς, οδοντ-

odont(o)- orthodontist
teeth (odoús, odont-), tooth

odyn(o)- pain stomatodynia

oesophago- gullet

-oid resemblance to Sarcoidosis

ole small or little

Denoting something
Ancient Greek ολιγος (oligos),
olig(o)- as 'having little, Oligotrophy
having few'
Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek ωμος (ōmos),
om(o)- Omoplate
the shoulder shoulder

-oma (singular), - Sarcoma,

omata (plural) Teratoma

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek ομφαλός

omphal(o)- the navel, the (omphalós), navel, belly- Omphalotomy
umbilicus button

onco- tumor, bulk, volume Oncology

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek < όνυξ, όνυχο-

onych(o)- the nail (of a finger (ónyx, ónycho-), nail; claw; Onychophagy
or toe) talon

Of or pertaining to
the an egg, a Ancient Greek ωόν, ωο- (ōón,
oo- Oogenesis
woman's egg, the ōo-), egg, ovum

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek ωφόρον

oophor(o)- Oophorectomy
the woman's ovary (ōphóron), ovary, egg-bearing

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek οφθαλμός

ophthalm(o)- Ophthalmology
the eye (ophthalmós), the eye

Middle French (optique) <

Of or relating to
Greek οπτικός (optikós);
optic(o)- chemical properties Opticochemical
Cognate with Latin oculus,
of the eye
relating to the eye

Of or pertaining to
or(o)- Latin (ōs, or-), mouth Oral
the mouth
orchi(o)-, Orchiectomy,
testis Greek (orkhis, orkhi-)
orchido- Orchidectomy

Denoting something Ancient Greek ορθος (orthos),

orth(o)- Orthodontist
as straight or correct straight, correct, normal

a condition, disease Harlequin type

or increase ichthyosis

osseo- bony

ossi- bone
ossifying fibroma

ost(e)-, oste(o)- bone Osteoporosis

Of or pertaining to Ancient Greek ους, ωτ- (ous,

ot(o)- Otopathy
the ear ōt-), the ear

-ous pertaining to

Of or pertaining to
ovari(o)- Latin (ōvarium), ovary Ovariectomy
the ovaries

Of or pertaining to
ovo-, ovi-, ov- Latin (ōvum), egg, ovum Ovogenesis
the eggs, the ovum

oxo- addition of oxygen

sharp, acid, acute,

Origin language and
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

pachy- thick pachyderma

Of or pertaining to the eyelid

palpebr- Latin (palpebra), eyelid Palpebra
[uncommon as a root]

Denoting something as
Ancient Greek πας, παν- panophobia,
pan-, pant(o)- 'complete' or containing
(pas, pan-), all, every panopticon

Latin (papilla), nipple;

Of or pertaining to the nipple
papill- dimunitive of papula Papillitis
(of the chest/breast)
(see below)

Indicates papulosity, a small Latin (papula), pimple,

papul(o)- elevation or swelling in the pustle; a small elevation Papulation
skin, a pimple, swelling or swelling in the skin

para- alongside of, abnormal Ancient Greek

-paresis slight paralysis hemiparesis

path(o)- disease Pathology

Ancient Greek παθος

Denotes (with a negative sociopathy,
-pathy (pathos), suffering,
sense) a disease, or disorder neuropathy
ped-, -ped-, - Of or pertaining to the foot; -
Latin (pēs, pēd-), foot Pedoscope
pes footed

hip bone Pelvis

-penia deficiency osteopenia

peo- Of or pertaining to the penis Greek (peos) Peotomy

Ancient Greek πεπτός

Denotes something relating to (peptós) cooked,
-pepsia digestion, or the digestive digested < πέσσω Dyspepsia
tract. (péssō) I boil, cook;

per- through

Denoting something with a

Ancient Greek περι-
peri- position 'surrounding' or Periodontal
(peri-), around
'around' another

-pexy fixation Nephropexy

phaco- lens-shaped

Forms terms denoting Ancient Greek φαγἰα

-phage, -phagia conditions relating to eating (phagía) eating < Sarcophagia
or ingestion φαγειν (phagein) to eat

phago- eating, devouring phagocyte

Forms nouns that denote a Ancient Greek
-phagist: person who 'feeds on' the first φαγιστης (phagistēs) Lotophagis
element or part of the word eater; see -phagia

Forms nouns that denotes Ancient Greek φαγια

-phagy 'feeding on' the first element (phagia) eating; see - Anthropophagy
or part of the word phagia

phallo- phallus Greek (phallos) Aphallia

pharmaco- drug, medication pharmacology

Ancient Greek φάρυγξ,

Of or pertaining to the
φάρυγγ- (phárynx, Pharyngitis,
pharyng(o)- pharynx, the upper throat
pháryng-), throat, Pharyngoscopy
windpipe; chasm

-phil(ia) attraction for Hemophilia

Ancient Greek φλεψ,

Of or pertaining to the (blood) Phlebography,
phleb(o)- φλεβ- (phleps, phlebo-),
veins, a vein Phlebotomy
blood-vessel, vein

phob(o)- exaggerated fear, sensitivity arachnophobia

phon(o)- sound

Of or pertaining to light or its

chemical properties, now Ancient Greek φλως,
phos- historic and used rarely. See φλωτ- (phōs, phōt-), Phosphene
the common root phot(o)- light
Ancient Greek φλως,
phot(o)- Of or pertaining to light φλωτ- (phōs, phōt-), Photopathy

phren(o)-, diaphragm Phrenic nerve

-plasia formation, development Achondroplasia

surgical repair,
-plasty rhinoplasty

-plegia paralysis paraplegia

Latin (pleura) < Ancient

pleur(o)-, Greek πλευρόν
Of or pertaining to the ribs Pleurogenous
pleur(a) (pleurón), rib, side of
the body

-plexy stroke or seizure Cataplexy

Ancient Greek πνευμων,

πνευμον- (pneumōn,
pneum(o)- Of or pertaining to the lungs pneumon-), lung <
πνευμα (pneuma),
wind, spirit

pneumat(o)- air, lung

pod-, -pod-, - Of or pertaining to the foot, - Ancient Greek πούς,

pus footed ποδ- (poús, pod-), foot
-poiesis production hematopoiesis

Ancient Greek πολιός

polio- Denoting a grey color Poliomyelitis
(poliós), grey

Denotes a 'plurality' of Ancient Greek πολυς

poly- Polymyositis
something (polys), much, many

por(o)- pore, porous

Ancient Greek πορπύρα

porphyr(o)- Denotes a purple color Porphyroblast
(porphýra), purple

Denotes something as 'after' Latin (post), after, Postoperation,

or 'behind' another behind Postmortem

Denotes something as 'before' Medieval Latin (pre-) <

pre- another (in [physical] (Classical) Latin (præ), Prematurity
position or time) before, in front of

presby(o)- old age Presbyopia

Denotes something as 'first' Latin (prīmus), first,

prim- Primary
or 'most-important' most important

Denotes something as 'before'

Ancient Greek προ
pro- another (in [physical] Procephalic
(pro), before, in front of
position or time)

proct(o)- anus, rectum proctology

Ancient Greek πρωτος
Denotes something as 'first'
prot(o)- (prōtos), first; principle, Protoneuron
or 'most-important'
most important

Ancient Greek ψυχή

psych(e)-, Psychology,
Of or pertaining to the mind (psyché), breath, life,
psych(o) Psychiatry

falling, downward placement,

-ptosis Apoptosis

(a spitting), spitting,
hemoptysis, the spitting of
blood derivied from the lungs
or bronchial tubes

Latin (pulmo, pulmōn-,

Of or relating to the lungs. usually used in plural), a pulmonary

pyel(o)- pelvis Ancient Greek (pyelos) Pyelonephritis

pyo- pus Pyometra

pyro- fever Antipyretic

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)

quadr(i)- four quadriceps

Origin language and
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

rachi(o)- spine

radio- radiation,

re- again, backward

rect(o)- rectum

ren(o)- Of or pertaining to the kidney Latin (rēnes), kidney Renal

reticul(o)- net

retro- backward, behind retroverted

rhabd(o)- rod shaped, striated

Ancient Greek ρῑς, ρῑνο- (rhīs,

rhin(o)- Of or pertaining to the nose Rhinoceros
rhīno-), nose

Ancient Greek ρόδον

rhod(o)- Denoting a rose-red color Rhodophyte
(rhódon), rose

-rrhage burst forth Hemorrhage

-rrhagia rapid flow of blood

-rrhaphy surgical suturing

-rrhea (AmE) flowing, discharge Galactorrhea

-rrhexis rupture

flowing, discharge Diarrhoea

Of or pertaining to the red

rubr(o)- Latin (ruber), red Rubrospinal
nucleus of the brain

Origin language and

Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Ancient Greek
Of or pertaining to the σάρπιγξ, σαρπιγγ-,
salping(o)- Salpingectomy
fallopian tubes (sálpinx, salpingo-)
trumpet [literally]

sangui-, Latin (sanguis,

Of or pertaining to blood Sanguine
sanguine- sanguin-), blood

sarco- muscular, fleshlike Greek sarcoma

schist(o)- split, cleft Greek (schistos)

Denoting something 'split' or Ancient Greek;

'double-sided' Irregular formation of Schizophrenia
the verb σχιζειν
(schizein), to cut, split

scler(o)- hardness Greek atherosclerosis

scoli(o)- twisted Greek (skolios) scoliosis

-scope instrument for viewing Greek stethoscope

-scopy use of instrument for viewing endoscopy

semi- one-half, partly Latin

sial(o)- saliva, salivary gland Greek (sialon)

sigmoid(o)- sigmoid, sigmoid colon Greek

sinistr(o)- left, left side Latin

Latin (sinus), a curve,

sinus- Of or pertaining to the sinus Sinusitis
bend, bay

-sis condition of Greek osteoperosis

sito- food, grain

body, bodily Greek

spasmo- spasm Greek

spermo-, semen, spermatozoa Greek (sperma) Spermatogenesis


splen(o)- spleen Splenectomy

Greek σπόνδθλος /
Of or pertaining to the spine,
spondyl(o)- (spóndylos / Spondylitis
the vertebra
sphóndylos), the

Denoting something as 'full of Latin (sqāmōsus), full

squamos(o)- Squama
scales' or 'scaly' of scales; scaly

-stasis stop, stand Greek

-staxis dripping, trickling Greek

Denoting something as Ancient Greek στενος

sten(o)- 'narrow in shape' or (stenos), narrow; Stenography
pertaining to narrow-ness short

Of or pertaining to the upper Ancient Greek στηθος

steth(o)- chest, chest, the area above (stēthos), chest, Stethoscope
the breast and under the neck cuirass

stheno- strength, force, power

stom(a) mouth Greek

Ancient Greek στόμα,

stomat(o)- Of or pertaining to the mouth στοματ- (stóma, Stomatogastric
stomat-), mouth

-stomy creation of an opening colostomy

sub- beneath Latin

super- in excess, above, superior Latin superior vena cava

supra- above, excessive Latin supraorbital vein

Indicates similarity, likeness,

or being together; Assimilates Synalgia,
sy(l)-, sym-, Ancient Greek συν-
before some consonants: Synesthesia,
syn-, sys- (syn), with, together
before l to syl-, s to sys-, Syssarcosis
before a labial to sym-.

Origin language
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)
and etymology

Denoting something as fast, Ancient Greek ταχυς

tachy- Tachycardia
irregularly fast (tachys), fast, quickly

-tension, -
blood pressure Hypertension
Of or pertaining to a nipple Ancient Greek θηλή
thel(e)-, thel(o)- Theleplasty
[uncommon as a prefix] (thēlē), a teat, nipple

Denoting something as Ancient Greek θηλυς

thely- 'relating to a woman, (thēlys), female, Thelygenous
feminine' feminine

therm(o)- heat

Of or pertaining to the Latin (thōrāx) <

upper chest, chest; the area Ancient Greek θώραξ
thorac(o)-, Thorax
above the breast and under (thōrax), chest,
the neck cuirass

Ancient Greek
Of or relating to a blood θρόμβος (thrómbos), Thrombus,
clot, clotting of blood lump, piece, clot of Thrombocytopenia

thyr(o)- thyroid

-tic pertaining to

toco- childbirth

-tome cutting instrument

-tomy cutting operation Cystotomy

tono- tone, tension, pressure

-tony tension

top(o)- place, topical

tox(i)-, tox(o)-,
toxin, poison Toxoplasmosis

trache(o)- trachea

Ancient Greek
trachel(o)- Of or pertaining to the neck τράχηλος (tráchēlos), Tracheotomy

Denoting something as
Latin (trāns), across,
trans- moving or situated 'across' Transfusion
or 'through'

Ancient Greek τρίξ,

trich(i)-, trichia, Of or pertaining to hair,
τριχ(ο)- (tríx, Trichotomy
trich(o)- hair-like structure
trich(o)-), hair

-tripsy crushing Lithotripsy

-trophy tissue, Muscular Dystrophy

-trophy nourishment, development

tympan(o)- eardrum
Origin language and
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

-ula, -ule small Latin Nodule

ultra- beyond, excessive Latin

Of or pertaining to the navel, the Latin (umbilīcus),

umbilic- Umbilical
umbilicus navel, belly-button

Latin (unguis), nail, Unguiform,

ungui- Of or pertaining to the nail, a claw
claw Ungual

un(i)- one Latin (unus)
hearing loss

Of or pertaining to urine, the

urinary system; (specifically) Ancient Greek ουρον
ur(o)- Urology
pertaining to the physiological (ouron), urine
chemistry of urine

uric acid

Latin (ūrīna), urine <

Of or pertaining to urine, the
urin- Ancient Greek ουρον Uriniferous
urinary system
(ouron), see above.

Of or pertaining to the uterus or Latin (uterus), womb,

uter(o)- Uterus
womb uterus
Origin language and
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Latin (vāgīna), sheath,

vagin- Of or pertaining to the vagina Vagina

varic(o)- swollen or twisted vein Latin varicose

vas(o)- duct, blood vessel vasoconstriction

vasculo- blood vessel

Of or pertaining to the (blood)

veins, a vein [used in terms Latin (vēna), blood- Vein,
pertaining to the vascular vessel, vein Venospasm
system ]

Of or pertaining to the belly; Latin (venter), the belly,

ventr(o)- Ventrodorsal
the stomach cavities the stomach; the womb

Latin (vēsīca), bladder;

vesic(o)- Of or pertaining to the bladder Vesica

Latin (viscera), internal

Of or pertaining to the internal organs; plural of
viscer(o)- Viscera
organs, the viscera (viscerum), internal
Origin language and
Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s)

Denoting a yellow color, an Ancient Greek ξανθός

xanth(o)- Xanthopathy
abnormally yellow color (xanthós), yellow

xen(o)- Foreign, different Greek (Xenos), stranger Xenograft

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)

-y condition or process of Surgery

Prefix/suffix Meaning Origin language and etymology Example(s)

zo(o)- animal, animal life Greek

zym(o)- fermentation, enzyme

Bodily Concept Greek Root Latin Root Other Root

Digestion -pepsia - -

Disease -pathy - -
Eating -phagia - -

Body Part/Component Greek Root Latin Root Other Root

abdomen lapar(o)- abdomin- -

aorta aort(o)- aort(o)- -

arm brachi(o)- - -

armpit - axill- -

artery arteri(o)- - -

back - dors- -

big toe - allic- -

bladder cyst(o)- vesic(o)- -

haemat-, hemat- (haem- sangui-,

blood -
, hem-) sanguine-

blood clot thromb(o)- - -

blood vessel angi(o)- vascul-, vas- -

body somat-, som- corpor- -

bone oste(o)- ossi- -

bone marrow, marrow myel(o)- medull- -

brain encephal(o)- cerebr(o)- -

breast mast(o)- mamm(o)- -

chest steth(o)- - -

cheek - bucc- -

ear ot(o)- aur- -

eggs, ova oo- ov- -

eye ophthalm(o)- ocul(o)-

eyelid blephar(o)- cili-; palpebr- -

face - faci(o)- -

fallopian tubes salping(o)- - -

fat, fatty tissue lip(o)- adip- -

finger dactyl(o)- digit- -

forehead - front(o)- -

gallbladder cholecyst(o)- fell- -

genitals, sexually
gon(o)-, phall(o)- - -

gland aden(o)- - -

glans penis or clitoridis balan(o)- - -

gums - gingiv- -

hair trich(o)- capill- -

hand cheir(o)-, chir(o)- manu- -

head cephal(o)- capit(o)- -

heart cardi(o)- cordi- -

hip, hip-joint - cox- -

horn cerat(o)- cornu- -

intestine enter(o)- - -
jaw gnath(o)- - -

kidney nephr(o)- ren- -

knee gon- genu- -

lip cheil(o)-, chil(o)- labi(o)- -

liver hepat(o)- (hepatic-) jecor- -

loins, pubic region episi(o)- pudend- -

lungs pneumon- -

marrow, bone marrow myel(o)- medull- -

mind psych- ment- -

mouth stomat(o)- or- -

muscle my(o)- - -

nail onych(o)- ungui- -

navel omphal(o)- umbilic- -

neck trachel(o)- cervic- -

nerve; the nervous system neur(o)- nerv- -

nipple, teat thele- papill-, mammill- -

nose rhin(o)- nas- -

ovary oophor(o)- ovari(o)- -

pelvis pyel(o)- pelv(i)- -

penis pe(o)- - -

pupil (of the eye) cor-, core-, coro- - -

rib pleur(o)- cost(o)- -

rib cage thorac(i)-, thorac(o)- - -

shoulder om(o)- humer(o)- -

sinus - sinus- -

skin dermat(o)- (derm-) cut-, cuticul- -

skull crani(o)- - -

stomach gastr(o)- ventr(o)- -

testis orchi(o)-, orchid(o)- - -

throat (upper throat cavity) pharyng(o)- - -

throat (lower throat

laryng(o)- - -
cavity/voice box])

thumb - pollic- -

tooth odont(o)- dent(i)- -

tongue gloss-, glott- lingu(a)- -

toe dactyl(o)- digit- -

tumour cel-, onc(o)- tum- -

ureter ureter(o)- ureter(o)- -

urethra urethr(o)-, urethr(a)- -

urine, urinary System ur(o)- urin(o)- -

uterine tubes sarping(o)- sarping(o)- -

uterus hyster(o)-, metr(o)- uter(o)- -

vagina colp(o)- vagin- -

vein phleb(o)- ven- -

vulva episi(o)- vulv- -

womb hyster(o)-, metr(o)- uter(o)- -

wrist carp(o)- carp(o)- -

Color Greek Root in English Latin Root in English Other Root

black melano- nigr- -

blue cyano- - -

gray, grey polio- - -

green chlor(o)- vir- -

purple porphyr(o)- purpur-, purpureo- -

red erythr(o)-, rhod(o)- rub-, rubr- -

red-yellow cirrh(o)- - -

white leuc-, leuk- alb- -

yellow xanth(o)- flav- jaun - [French]

Greek Root in English Latin Root in English Other Root


bad, incorrect cac(o)-, dys- mal(e)- -

bent, crooked ankyl(o)- prav(i)- -

big mega-, megal(o)- magn(i)- -

biggest megist- maxim- -

broad, wide eury- lat(i)- -

cold cry(o)- frig- -

dead necr(o)- mort- -

equal is(o)- equ(i)- -

false pseud(o)- fals(i)- -

female, feminine thely- - -

flat platy- plan(i)- -

good, well eu- ben(e)-, bon(i)- -

great mega-, megal(o)- magn(i)- -

hard scler(o)- dur(i)- -

heavy bar(o)- grav(i)- -

hollow coel(o)- cav- -

huge megal(o)- magn(i)- -

incorrect, bad cac(o)-, dys- mal(e)- -

large; extremely large mega- magn(i)- -

largest megist- maxim- -

long macr(o)- long(i)- -

male, masculine arseno- vir- -

narrow sten(o)- angust(i)- -

new neo- nov(i)- -

normal, correct; straight orth(o)- rect- -

old paleo- veter- -

sharp oxy- ac- -

sh耀ᄴt brachy- brev(i)- -

small micr(o)- parv(i)- (rare) -

smallest - minim- -

slow brady- tard(i)- -

fast tachy- celer- -

soft malac(o)- moll(i)- -

straight, normal, correct orth(o)- rect(i)- -

thick pachy- crass(i)- -

varied, various poikilo- vari- -

well, good eu- ben(e)- -

wide, broad eury- lat(i)- -

[edit] Roots of Position

Latin Root Other
Description Root in
in English Root

around peri- circum- -

left - sinistr- -

middle mes(o)- medi- -

right dexi(o)- dextr(o)- -

surrounding peri- circum- -

[edit] Roots of quantity

(Amount, Quantity)

Greek Latin
Description Root in Root in
English English

double diplo- dupli- -

equal iso- equi- -

few oligo- pauci- -

half hemi- semi-
poly- multi- -

twice dis- bis- -

All 113 Terms

Term Definition

-ac suffix meaning pertaining to

-er suffix meaning one who

-iatrician suffix meaning practitioner

-iatry suffix meaning medical profession or treatment

-ic suffix meaning pertaining to

-ist suffix meaning one who

-logist suffix meaning one who studies; specialist

-logy suffix meaning study or science of

cardi/o cf meaning heart

crin/o cf meaning to secrete

dermat/o cf meaning skin

esthesi/o cf meaning feeling or sensation

gastr/o cf meaning stomach

enter/o cf meaning intestines

ger/a, ger/o, geront/o cfs meaning elderly

gynec/o cf meaning female

immun/o cf meaning immune

ne/o cf meaning new

nat/o cf meaning birth

neur/o cf meaning nerve

obstetr/o cf meaning midwife

onc/o cf meaning tumor

opthalm/o cf meaning eye

orth/o cf meaning straight

ped/o cf meaning child (sometimes foot)

ot/o cf meaning ear

laryng/o cf meaning larynx

path/o cf meaning disease

psych/o cf meaning mind

radi/o cf meaning radiation (sometimes radius)

rheumat/o cf meaning rheumatism

rhin/o cf meaning nose

ur/o cf meaning urinary tract

-centesis suffix meaning surgical puncture to aspirate or remove fluid

-ectomy suffix meaning excision

-lysis suffix meaning process of loosening, freeing, or destroying

-pexy suffix meaning surgical fixation

-plasty suffix meaning surgical repair

-rrhaphy suffix meaning suture

-scopy suffix meaning visual examination with a lighted instrument

-stomy suffix meaning formation of an opening

-tripsy suffix meaning surgical crushing

aden/o cf meaning gland

angi/o cf meaning vessel

appen/o, appendic/o cfs meaning appendix

bi/o cf meaning life or living

blephar/o cf meaning eyelid

cerebr/o, encephal/o cf meaning brain

chir/o cf meaning hand

col/o cf meaning colon or large intestine

cutane/o, derm/a, dermat/o cf meaning skin

faci/o cf meaning face

hepat/o cf meaning liver

mamm/o, mast/o cf meaning breast

muscul/o, my/o cf meaning muscle

myel/o cf meaning bone marrow or spinal cord

oste/o cf meaning bone

pulm/o, pulmon/o, pneum/o, pneumon/o cfs meaning lungs

tonsill/o cf meaning tonsil

trache/o cf meaning trachea

vas/o cf meaning vessel

-algia suffix meaning pain

-dynia suffix meaning pain

-cele suffix meaning hernia

-ectasia suffix meaning dilation or enlargement

-ectasis suffix meaning dilation or enlargement

-edema suffix meaning swelling

-emesis suffix meaning vomiting

-emia suffix meaning condition of the blood

-ia suffix meaning condition

-iasis suffix meaning condition

-itis suffix meaning inflammation

-lith suffix meaning stone

-malacia suffix meaning soft, softening

-mania suffix meaning excessive preoccupation

-megaly suffix meaning enlargment

-oid suffix meaning resembling

-oma suffix meaning tumor

-osis suffix meaning condition (often abnormal, sometimes increased)

-pathy suffix meaning disease

-penia suffix meaning deficiency

-phobia suffix meaning abnormal fear

-ptosis suffix meaning prolapse (sagging)

-rrhage suffix meaning excessive bleeding or hemorrhage

-rrhagia suffix meaning hemorrhage

-rrhea suffix meaning flow or discharge

-rrhexis suffix meaning rupture

-spasm suffix meaning twitching, cramp

-stasis suffix meaning stopping, controlling

-able suffix meaning capable of, able to

-ible suffix meaning capable of, able to

-ac, -al, -an, -ar, -ary, -eal, -ic, -ive, -tic suffixes meaning pertaining to

-ase suffix meaning enzyme

-eum suffix meaning membrane

-ium suffix meaning membrane

-ia suffix meaning condition or theory

-ism suffix meaning condition or theory

-iac suffix meaning one who suffers

-opia suffix meaning vision

-ose suffix meaning sugar

-ous suffix meaning pertaining to or characterized by

-y suffix meaning state or condition

amyl/o cf meaning starch

glyc/o cf meaning sugar

hemat/o cf meaning blood

lact/o cf meaning milk

lip/o cf meaning fat

lith/o cf meaning stone

micro- prefix menaing small

muc/o cf meaning mucus

prote/o cf meaning protein

protein/o cf meaning protein

pyr/o cf meaning fire