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CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM

THE ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS IN

THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA

BY

NAWARU MOHAMMED FUSEINI

PATIENCE FOFO AMOAH

ZEMEME AKOTO

1
SEMPTEMBER 2006

CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM

THE ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS IN


THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA

BY

NAWARU MOHAMMED FUSEINI 02/03/0054/D/TOR

PATIENCE FOFO AMOAH 02/03/0019/D/TOR

ZEMEME AKOTO 02/03/0016/D/TOR

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM,


SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ARTS OF CAPE COAST
POLYTECHNIC IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER
NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN TOURISM

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SEPTEMBER 2006

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that except for references to other people’s work, which have

been duly cited, this project work is the result of our own original research and no

part of it has been presented for another Higher National Diploma in any

institution.

NAME OF STUDENT’S SIGNATURE

Nawaru Mohammed Fuseini ………………………

Patience Fofo Amoah …………………………

Zememe Akoto …………………………

DATE: ……………………………………..

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CERTIFICATION

The undersigned certify that he has read and recommend to the Tourism

Department of the School of Applied Sciences and Arts of Cape Coast

Polytechnic for the acceptance of this project.

Supervisor’s signature…………………………………..… Date………………………

MR. FRANKLIN DACOSTA

(SUPERVISOR)

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DEDICATION

We dedicate this project work to the Almighty God and the late Mr. Andrews

Obidiaba, the former Head of Tourism Department, Cape Coast Polytechnic.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All thanks and praises to the Almighty God for sustaining us throughout all these

years. It is by His Grace and Mercy that this project work has come into

existence.

We wish to express our profound gratitude to all those who have contributed in

one way or the other in bringing this research work into being. Space will not

permit us to list names of all of them. However, special mention should be made

of Mr. Franklin Dacosta, our project supervisor for his valuable suggestions,

comments and criticisms which extremely enriched the contents of this work.

Special thanks go to all lecturers of the Tourism Department, especially Mr.S.B.

Owusu-Mintah (Head of Tourism Department) and Mr. U.S. Tetteh (Liberal

studies Department).

Also, we owe a debt of gratitude to all those who supported us spiritually and

financially namely: Mr. Felix Akoto and family, Mr. Baba Hafiz and family, Mr.

Seth Nii Akwei Allotey, Mrs. Faustina Lomo and Mr. Johathan Nartey and family.

Our gratitude also goes to all the staff of EDSAM Computers, especially Jennis

Hackey for typing and printing the manuscripts.

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Finally, profound thanks go to all those who contributed in one way or the other

towards our education and also to the Tourism class of 2006, it has been a

pleasure knowing all of you.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT PAGE

Title page …………………………………………………………………….i

Declaration …………………………………………………………………..ii

Certification ………………………………………………………………….iii

Dedication …………………………………………………………………...iv

Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………..v

Table of Contents …………………………………………………………...vi

List of Figures ……………………………………………………………….vii

List of Tables ………………………………………………………………..viii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the Study…………………………………………….…...1

1.1 Statement of the Research Problem……………………………..……..7

1.2 Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………8

1.3 Justification of the Study……………………………………………….....8

1.4 Research Questions………………………………………………………9

1.5 Organization of the Study…………………………………………………9

1.6 Definition of Terms………………………………………………………...10

1.7 Significance of the Study………………………………………………….11

1.8 Study Area………………………………………………………………….11

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………16

2.1 The role of culture in tourism development ……………………………..16

2.2 Cultural Tourism …………………………………………………………...19

2.3 “Homowo” festival as an attraction ………………………………………21

2.4 Promotion of “Homowo” festival to be part of cultural tourism in La….26

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………32

3.1 Research method ………………………………………………………......32

3.2 Population and sample size …………………………………………….…33

3.3 Methods of data collection ……………………………………………..…..33

3.4 Time for data collection …………………………………………………….34

3.5 Limitation of the study ……………………………………………..……..…34

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………36

4.1 Characteristics of respondent ……………………………………………….36

4.2 Analysis of main data …………………………………………………………37

4.3 Educational Background of Respondents …………………………………..38

4.4 Occupation of Respondents …………………………………………….……39

4.5 Marital status of respondents ………………………………………………...40

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4.6 Economic benefits of “Homowo” Festival …………………………………..41

4.7 Generation of Employment ……………………………………………….….41

4.8 Social impacts from respondents …………………………………………...42

4.9 Types of social problems …………………………………………………….43

4.10 Environmental impacts from respondents ……………………………...43

4.11 Effects of Environmental pollution ………………………………………44

4.12 Suggested ways of solving environmental pollution ……………….….45

4.13 Personal characteristics of Tourists ………………………………….…45

4.14 Respondents age group ……………………………………………….…46

4.15 Nationality of respondents ……………………………………………….47

4.16 Occupation of respondents …………………………………………...…48

4.17 Educational background of respondents ……………………………….48

4.18 Respondents perception about Ghanaian hospitality ………………...49

4.19 Local resentment by respondents …………………………………..….50

4.20 Admiration of local culture by respondents ………………………....…51

4.21 How respondents obtained …………………………………………..….51

4.22 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………...52

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CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………….53

5.1 Summary ………………………………………………………………………..53

5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………...54

5.3 Recommendations …………………………………………………………….54

BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………..…56

APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE ...............................................57

APPENDIX B LETTER OF INTRODUCTION ……………………66

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. A map of Accra Metropolitan Area showing the Study Area - La.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

1. Sex of respondents………………………………………………37

2. Age group of respondents ………………………………………38

3. Educational background of respondents ……………………...39

4. Occupation of respondents ……………………………………..40

5. Marital status of respondents …………………………………..40

6. Economic benefits from respondents ………………………….41

7. Generation of employment ……………………………………..42

8. Social impacts from respondents ……………………………...42

9. Types of social problems………………………………………..43

10. Environmental impact from respondents ……………………44

11. Effects of environmental pollution ……………………………44

12. Suggested ways of solving environmental pollution ……….45

13. Sex of respondents ……………………………………………46

14. Respondent’s age group ……………………………………...46

15. Nationality of respondents ……………………………………4

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Cooper et al (1993) grouped attractions into those which are natural and

those which are man-made. The former includes landscapes, climate,

vegetation, forests and wildlife. The latter are principally the products of

history and culture.

According to Odeneho Gyapong Ababio II, Paramount Chief of Sefwi

Bekwai Traditional Area (1998), “culture is the totality of the people’s way

of life”. It is the advanced development of human power; of body, mind

and spirit by training and experience. It gives people their unique

character and identity.

Cultural heritage, on the other hand, is the creative time pile up of many

generations of people in the values of spiritual culture and embodied in

books, works of arts, scientific discoveries and production of material

goods. Preservation of cultural heritage includes the promotion of cultural

festivals, institutional support, study of culture and the attitude of the

people.

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Chieftaincy, as it is known, is a central and dynamic institution which

clearly exhibits the rich and unique cultural identity of the land of Gold

(Ghana). Customs, traditional sculpture, arts and crafts, music and dance,

poetry, architecture and literature radiates from this institution. In Ancient

Ghana, chiefs provided facilities and workshops where artists and

craftsmen settled to work, almost extensively for royal courts, producing all

the royal paraphernalia it takes to maintain royalty. In addition, the

celebration of the week-long traditional festivals of “Homowo”, “Odwira,”

“Damba” to mention a few are all deliberate works of ritual art. Festivals

comprise many artistic forms and actions in songs, dance, poetry and

religion. It is at festivals that chiefs express their link between God and

their people; the dead and the living; harvest and the people’s welfare,

which is all among the reasons for the institutions of chieftaincy.

In respect to tourism, festivals are man-made attractions and generally a

period of celebration, merry-making and even revelry. The motives,

trends, patterns and general organization of festivals have always been in

consonance with norms, cultural practices and belief system held by the

society or community undertaking that function. Cooper et al (1993) stated

that, “the more unusual the cultural background, the more attractive the

destination may become”. Undoubtedly, festivals may vary from one

community, tribe, ethnic group or society to another. In Ghana, each

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ethnic group has it festival which encapsulates the ethos and peculiarities

of a particular region.

Festivals are defined as the annual celebrations at which community, tribe

or an ethnic group meet to remember, honour and give thanks to God,

gods and ancestors for their protection and help. It is an important aspect

of our culture because it is an occasion for a tribe, community, ethnic

group or society to recount its historical past. It is within such festivals that

the art and culture of the people find their practical expression. Traditional

festivals invoke all the available artistic and cultural forms and practices

orchestrated to a common purpose, which is spiritual, recreational and

entertaining.

The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary explains festival as, “a day or

time of religious and other celebration”. In keeping with this definition, the

“Homowo” festival is not solely a period of festivity, but also a moment of

solemn and even spiritual cogitation. According to A.A. Opoku (1970), the

history behind how the “Homowo” festival came to be with the Ga people

is unknown. The Ga mythology has two explanation; one has it that, the

“Homowo” festival came about as a result of bumper harvest after famine

had broken out during their migration to their present-day settlement on

the South – eastern coast of present-day Ghana. This explains why the

festival is called the “Homowo” meaning “hooting at hunger”.

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Another explanation to it is derived from the Jewish Passover in the Holy

Bible. This is based on the use of unleavened cornmeal for ritual meal, the

application of red clay to the door post, and the hurried and communal

manner in which food is eaten, A. A. Opoku (1970). Basically, this is done

to promote peace and unity among the Ga people.

One common feature of the “Homowo” festival which is also associated

with other traditional festivals in Ghana is its relations with the traditional

occupation of the Ga people which is mainly fishing and farming. The

“Homowo” season begins with the coming of the rain in early May, when

the seven principal priests do the ritual sowing of corn, and ends in late

September when the corn is harvested. After the sowing of the ritual corn,

a ban is placed on drumming and dancing and other forms of noise-

making. The ban is lifted after thirty days with a special ceremony by the

Priests and the “Gbese Mantse”, the chief of Ga Mashi Traditional Area.

The actual “Homowo” day or “Koyeligbi” falls in August. It is celebrated on

a Saturday in Accra or Ga Mashi; on a Tuesday, ten days later, in the

suburbs of Osu, La, and Ningo; on a Friday at Tema.

Furthermore, the Ga Mashi “Homowo” is heralded by the return to town of

Ga citizens living outside Ga Mashi on the Thursday immediately

preceding “Homowo” Saturday, A. A. Opoku (1970). These people are

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called “Soobii”. They match in groups corresponding to the seven quarters

of Ga Mashi up to a point where they break up and each group goes to its

quarter.

In other towns where “Homowo” day falls on a Tuesday, the Ga people

who have travelled return home on the preceding Monday singing the

“Kpa” songs. The entry of the Ga citizens who have return from other

towns is draped with flags and blunting, it is a sight to see. The groups vie

with one another in presenting the best turn-out and they go to the extent

of presenting themselves in attractive uniforms and decorations. Later in

the evening, the corn is soaked to get it ready for milling process the next

day.

The next day after the arrival of “Soobii” is the traditional yam festival and

lustral day of all twins, A.A. Opoku (1970). The twins and their parents and

relations clad in white and make merry in their homes with feasting,

singing and dancing. At sunset they troop out to the seashore to cast

away the leftovers of the feast with some ceremony. The final and feverish

preparations for the “Homowo” day go on at the same time with the feast

of twins. The women make sure the milled corn, the oil palm, the fish

faggots and other essentials for the great feast are ready. It is also the

time to besmear and polish the hearths and to paints the lintel of the main

gateway into the house with red clay, A.A. Opoku (1970). This reminds

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one of the application of the blood of paschal lamb, Exodus 12:6-7 during

the Jewish feast of the Passover.

The following day begins with the preparation of “Kpoikpoi”, which is the

ritual food for the “Homowo” festival, by the women. It is made from the

steamed unleavened corn dough mashed by beating in mortar. This is

later salted and mixed with palm oil. “Homowo kpoikpoi” is always eaten

with palm soup.

In the afternoon of the “Homowo” day, the ritual food is sprinkled for the

spirits of the departed and not the gods of the Ga people, A.A. Opoku

(1970). The sprinkling of “kpoikpoi” is done by the “Mantsemεi” within their

areas of influence or authority. There is a royal procession which is

accompanied by drumming, flourishes of horn, singing, dancing and

sprinkling of “kpoikpoi” by the “Mantse”. Both young and the old male

members of the households mingle and gather round the ritual food and

eat from the same bowl. This fosters solidarity between the young and the

old.

The day that follows the “Homowo” day is spent in visiting relations,

friends and in-laws to exchange “Noowala” greetings. It is also a period of

settling disputes and misunderstanding. This day falls on a Sunday in Ga

Mashi, while it is observed on a Wednesday in other towns.

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1.1. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

The problem statement of this research is that the “Homowo” festival of the

Gas of has lost its traditional value due to some reasons below:

i. Firstly, the fading away of the traditional value in the “Homowo” festival

has being mainly due to the increasing filtration of western values in

the African society. This factor has caused the youth who are to take

over from the elders in performing the rites during the celebration to

ignore the “Homowo” festival.

ii. Secondly, the medicine, culture, technology and other areas of human

endeavour in the African milieu is instructed by the means of oral

tradition. Much knowledge is lost through distortions, while passing on

knowledge from “the mouth to the ear” over to generations.

iii. Finally, the existing misunderstandings and conflicts between the

leaders is also a problem of “Homowo” festival. These conflicts deprive

the Gas of La off certain socio-economic benefits derived from the

celebration of the “Homowo” festival. These problems can be

hindrance to the tourism industry.

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1.2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aims of this study include:

i. To identify the economic benefits derived from the celebration of the

“Homowo” festival at La.

ii. To identify the role of “Homowo” in promoting cultural tourism in La.

iii. To find whether or not there are any negative impacts on the physical

environment when “Homowo” festival is celebrated.

iv. To examine how tourist impact socially on the lives of the local people

when they take part in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival.

v. To investigate how local people behave towards tourist during the

celebration of “Homowo” festival at La.

1.3. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

This work is a modest attempt at documenting how cultural tourism is

being promoted in Ghana and to know why the “Homowo” festival has lost

its traditional values. It is also a token contribution toward, an African and

for that matter Ghanaian cultural renaissance.

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1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

At the end of the study, any reader should be able to answer the following

research questions:

i. Do the hotels, guesthouses and lodges meet international

requirements to accommodate foreigners and other visitors who join in

the celebration of the “Homowo” festival at La?

ii. During and after the celebration of the “Homowo” festival, is there any

negative or positive Impact (effects) on the local people?

iii. How positively or negatively is the physical environment affected?

iv. Do the lives of the local people get better or not when tourists take part

in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival.

v. Finally, what role has “Homowo” got to play in promoting cultural

tourism in La?

1.5. ORGANIZATION OF STUDY

The study would be made up of five chapters.

Chapter one comprises:

i. Background of the study.

ii. Statement of the research problem.

iii. Objectives of the study.

iv. Justification of the study.

v. Definition of terms.

vi. Significance of the study.

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vii. Study area.

The second chapter would be made up mainly of literature review to find

out what other scholars said concerning the study area under discussion.

The third chapter would be made up of the methodology used in the

collection of data. The tools or instruments to be used in the collection of

data include:

i. Interviews and

ii. Questionnaires

The fourth would comprise presentation of data and analysis.

The fifth chapter would deal with summary, conclusion, recommendation and

references.

1.6. DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms and vocabulary relates to the Ga people and celebration

of the “Homowo” festival would be used extensively:

i. “Odwira” – A festival celebrated by the Akuapims.

ii. “Damaba” – A festival celebrated by The Dagomba, The Gonja, The

Mpamprusi, the Nanumba and the Wala.

iii. “Homowo” – A festival celebrated by the Ga people meaning hooting at

hunger.

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iv. “Koyeligbi” – day of feasting.

v. “Kpa”- The local god of some sections of the Ga people.

vi. “Soobii”- the return to town Ga citizens who are living outside Ga

Mashi.

vii. “Kpoikpoi” – A ritual food prepared from unleavened corn dough.

viii. “Mantsemεi” – chiefs.

1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This work seeks to help in the study of tourism by defining the role

“Homowo” plays in the promotion of cultural tourism in La. Also, this study

would identify the effects of the festival on the lives of the people of La.

1.8. STUDY AREA

1.8.1. PROFILE OF LA

La is found within the jurisdiction of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly

(AMA). It is bounded on the south by the Gulf of Guinea and on the North

by Cantonment and Burma Camp. It is also bounded on the west by Osu,

while on the east, it is bounded by Teshie

1.8.2 RELIEF AND DRAINAGE

The landscape of La is generally low lying. The Kpeshie Lagoon is found

on its eastern boundary with Teshie. The wetlands of the lagoon serve as

barriers to physical development. Moreover, the low lying landscape of La

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has made it suitable for the cultivation of various vegetables and crops

such as cabbage, garden eggs, carrots and many more.

1.8.3 CLIMATE

La is located in littoral anomalous Zone of Ghana and it experiences

relatively high temperatures throughout the year. The hottest months are

in February and March, just before the main rainy season, while the

coolest months are between June and August. La is humid and the total

rainfall is between 800mm and 1000m.

1.8.4 VEGETATION

The natural vegetation of La consists of shrubs of about 1.5m high,

grasses and a few scattered trees. The original vegetation of dense shrub

which the rainfall supported has been replaced by secondary vegetation

as a result of activities of human.

1.8.5. UTILITIES

5.1. WATER

La is well supplied with portable drinking water from the Weija Dam. Over

90 percent of the local residents are supplied with water from this source.

However, seasonal shortages occur as a result of the drying up of the

Densu River.

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5.2. ELECTRICITY

La is allocated on the national grid. Electricity is supplied to all parts of La

from the Akosombo Dam. Electricity Company of Ghana has the sole

responsibility of supplying electricity to the people of La.

5.3. TELECOMMUNICATION

La is endowed with more public phone booths, in addition to the fixed lines

provided by Ghana Telecom and Westel Telecom. There are also private

mobile telecommunication networks such as Areeba, Kasapa, Tigo and

One touch, which operate in La.

1.8.6. SERVICES

6.1. BANKING

Apart from the La community Bank, there are also wide ranges of banking

facilities found in La. These include Ghana commercial Bank, National

Investment Bank, in addition to many ‘susu’ groups in La.

6.2 TRANSPORTATION

The main mode of transportation is by road. This is supported by taxis and

“trotros”.

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1.8.7. EMPLOYMENT

The employment scene in La is dominated by petty trading, institutional

workers, professionals, traditional arts and crafts, agriculture (fishing and

farming) and other manufacturing. La is noted as a predominately fishing

community, with just a handful of people engaged in farming.

1.8.8. MARKET

The compact nature of La has ensured that the International Trade Fair

site capture the bulk of commodity flows into the country. These flows

emanate from other countries and within the countries. Other satellite

market and small selling centres are found at Palm-wine Junction, Kojo

Sardine, Olympia and La Jauhe.

1.8.9. TOURISM

One of the fastest growing industries in La is the tourism industry. Tourism

activities emanate from and in La. La is endowed with beautiful beaches,

big hotel chains, restaurants, shrines, historical sites and other leisure

facilities. Interestingly, the only five-star hotel in Ghana is found in La,

which is the La palm Royal Beach Resort. Also tourism facilities found in

La are the La pleasure Beach, Labadi Beach Hotel, Jokers Restaurant,

Formula One Leisure Centre and so on.

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1.8.10. HEALTH

The La General Hospital is the main health post provided by the

Government for the people of La. In addition to this hospital are the

numerous private health posts.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0. INTRODUCTION.

The celebration of festivals including the “Homowo” of the Gas at La has

played a major role in the development of cultural tourism. They serve as

potential attractions for tourist and other visitors into the country.

This chapter would provide comprehensive information on what other

scholars have said about the role of culture in tourism development,

cultural tourism, “Homowo “ festival as an attraction and promoting

“Homowo “ festival to be part of tourism from the marketing point of view.

2.1. THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

Culture has been defined as, “the totality of a people’s way of life”,

(Odeneho Gyapong Ababio II, 1998). Probing further into this definition,

one could say, it is the people’s way of doing things and their cherished

values. Culture is the various forms of creative expressions that are

traditionally recognized in a society. It includes language, beliefs, values

and norms that combine to make up the way of life, art forms, literature,

etc. It serves as an avenue for providing identity to a community, ethic

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group or country, thereby creating awareness for self realization and

subsequently self confidence as a result of pride.

Cultural heritage is also the various artifacts, dresses, oral tradition,

norms, beliefs, music and dance of various ethnic groups in a country. It is

one of the greatest treasures of mankind which was amassed over

thousands of years. Cultural heritage is all about mastering the creative

time pile up of past generations, manifested in cultural values. Using this

treasure most efficiently and developing it further, man makes his

contribution to the priceless treasure of the future, (Odeneho Gyapong

Ababio II, 1998). In other words mastering of the culture values of the past

by each person, rather than by only some individuals is an essential and

necessary pre–requisite for turning out abundant products of spiritual

culture. Thus, by obtaining the creative energy of human thought and

labour from the values of spiritual culture of past generations man benefits

from it today and, what is more, he may apply it efficiently for making new

progress in the future that is development.

The Cambridge International Dictionary of English defines development

as, “a recent important event which is the last in a series of latest events”.

Development of society on the other hand, means forward motion and

consequently improvement, success and progress. Contemporary society

is a continuation of the past and future of mankind. The celebration of

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traditional festival is a way of preserving cultural heritage and developing

the contemporary society. A major significance of these festivals including

“Homowo” is that, they afford the people of the community opportunity to

correct mistakes and to plan the future. During festive celebrations, chiefs

and their people raise funds for development projects like community

centre, electricity, water and so forth. In addition, where the festival is well

organized it serves as tourist attraction. Tourist and other visitors also use

these projects when they join in the celebration of the festivals.

Definitely, culture plays a crucial role in the development of tourism,

especially in La. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council

(1996), the tourism industry generates two hundred million jobs and an

estimated three point four million dollars worldwide. Tourism is an

economic activity that has become the fastest growing industry in the

world. A. K. Bhatia (2001) stated that “, for tourism to succeed it must be

sustainable economically, culturally, socially and environmentally“. This

implies that culture and the other factors play significant role in the tourism

planning and development process. This could be done by involving local

people in the planning and development of tourism.

Finally, Cooper et al (1993) stated that,”any economic development carry

with it implications on the social structure and cultural aspects of the

population”. This situation has helped in culture playing a key role in

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tourism development. Culture is an essential tool for tourism development,

because one aim of tourism is to promote the understanding of different

cultures of both the host community and the visiting tourists.

2.2. CULTURAL TOURISM

One of the main reasons for undertaking tourism activities is to give

people the opportunity to be well–informed about others at different

locations. A.K. Bhatia (2001) said, “An increasing number of people are

visiting different lands especially those places having important historical

or cultural heritage of antiquity or those holding special art festival, music

festival and other cultural events of importance. For instance is the

celebration of the “Homowo” festival, it is one of the platforms that other

people would use to learn about the cultural heritage of the Ga people in

Ghana, especially La.

In the present day world, technological advancement in the area of mass

media has made it possible for people to read, see and learn about

different places. The quest and zest to probe is a factor that has

contributed to people visiting different lands. The interest shown by many

in architecture, dance, art, music and paintings of exotic origin, is another

aspect of man’s quest and zest to acquire knowledge. This curiosity has

led people to reading and learning about the cultural heritage of other

people and consequently visiting those places with unique cultural

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heritage for leisure, recreation and entertainment. Valene L. smith (1995)

classified tourism destination into six categories. It includes cultural

tourism, ethnic tourism, environmental tourism, historical tourism,

business tourism and recreational tourism.

Cultural tourism is all aspects of travel whereby people learn about each

other’s way of life and thought “. Thus cultural tourism is an important

means of promoting cultural relations and international co-operation.

Events such as Panafest, “Homowo” festival and others are examples of

tourism activities that provide the platform for cultural relations and

international co-operations. During such events people who come learn

certain ways of life that make up the culture of the local people.

Ultimately, tourism discovers all the areas through which a destination

could gain publicity to both existing and potential tourism market. This is

more than just providing reliable transportation system and relaxing in

deluxe accommodation facilities. Goeldner et al (2000) stated that, “to

increase accessibility, cultural institutions needs to be tailored to visitor

needs sometimes providing multilingual guides and sinage among others”.

This indicates how culture of the local people enhances the experience of

tourists at a destination. Culture is a basic and vital raw material for every

tourism industry. Therefore, cultural tourism could be used to promote not

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only knowledge and idea, but also the image of the country among

foreigners in t he travel market.

2.3. “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL AS AN ATTRACTION

The destination, with its attraction and amenities is the most important

asset and this is very basic to tourism, A.K. Bhatia (2001). Unless these

are there, tourists would not be motivated to go to a particular place.

Festivals such “Homowo” form part of the attractions in Ghana that

promote tourism. However, since the interests and tastes of tourists vary

widely, they might choose from a wide range of attractions available at the

various destinations all over the world.

According to Cooper et al (1993) attractions generate the visit to a

destination. In other words, attractions provide initial motivation to visit a

particular place before introducing what a destination has to offer, a

distinction between attraction and other support services should be made.

Attractions provide the single most important reason for undertaking

tourism activity at a destination, while other support services and facilities

are also essential for tourism at the destination, but would not exist without

attractions. This is because demand is as a result of tourists been drawn

to the area by attractions. For instances tourist and other visitors who join

in the celebration of “Homowo” would need accommodation, transport,

catering and other services to enjoy their stay away from their normal

33
residence. Consequently, attractions are those elements in the tourist

product which determine the choice of particular destination rather than

another.

A common feature among attractions of which “Homowo” is part, is that

they are shared with the host community. There are many different types

of attractions and number of attempts has been made to classify them.

Cooper et al (1993) classified attractions based on a number of

dimensions. These dimensions include ownership, capacity, catchments

area, permanency and type. In the proceeding sections of the study much

care would be taken to explain each of them as a dimension which impact

on cultural tourism.

2.3.1. OWNERSHIP

One dimension that Cooper et al (1993) based on to classify attractions is

the type of ownership. Many attractions, both man –made and natural, fall

with the domain of the public sector, while others are owned by voluntary

organizations and private sector. Traditional festivals like “Homowo” are

elements of Ghanaian culture which are privately owned by the local

community that celebrates the said festival. These unique cultural

practices cannot be taken away from the local people nor exchanged for

the culture of other people. Each ethnic group in Ghana has its festival

which encapsulates the ethos and peculiarities of that particular ethnic

34
group. Facilities that are owned by both private and public sectors are

used by tourists who join in the celebration of “Homowo”. For example

provision of water, electricity, telecommunication network, hospital and

roads that are found in the areas where the festival is celebrated are

owned by the public sector. Other support services such as hotels,

insurance, forex bureau, catering services and entertainment facilities are

owned by the private sector.

2.3.2. CAPACITY

The seasonal nature of attractions does not make it possible for product

and visitor experience to be stored. The seasonal nature of attraction is

divided into two namely: the peak season and the lean season. Cooper et

al (1993) based the classification of attraction on the number of visitors

that an attraction gets within specific periods of the year. In most cases,

the peak season determines the capacity of an attraction while during lean

season the attraction receives low patronage. This implies that most time

of the year the attraction has to match capacity. “Homowo” festival for

example is celebrated during the summer season, so it receives higher

patronage from tourists who are on summer holidays in Ghana. This

capacity of attraction is closely linked to the number of visitors and

population of the catchments area.

35
2.3.3. CATCHMENTS AREA.

This involves classifying attractions based on the areas served by an

attraction. There are large varieties in the size of catchments from which

attraction attract visitors. Local catchments area draw tourist from within

few miles. Country parks are example of attraction that has local

catchments area, whilst the regional deals with attractions that attract

tourist from the region in which it is located. Only a handful of attractions

draw tourists from international catchments area. Attractions that have

international catchments area have unique cultural, environmental and

historical features literally well–known around the world. Celebration of

“Homowo” festival is a unique cultural event that attracts tourists from

around the globe.

2.3.4. PERMANENCY

This refers to classification of attractions based on how a particular

attraction could maintain its unique cultural, environmental and historical

features without detrimental effects. Cooper et al (1993) based the

classification on the commercial viability is terms of investment cost and

operating cost to establish and maintain attraction. In other words

permanency means the potential for attraction to remain the same and

continue for a long time. For instance, the celebration of “Homowo” festival

is the cultural heritage of the Ga people. It is celebrated annually with the

performance of all the necessary cultural practices. The cultural practices

36
including sprinkling of “Kpoikpoi“ have been with people since time

immemorial and cannot be taken from the nor exchanged for any other

thing.

2.3.5. TYPES

Attraction type is one of dimensions that Copper et al (1993) based on to

classify. Attractions were grouped into natural and man- made attractions.

The natural attractions are made up of landscapes, forests, climates,

vegetation and wildlife, while the man-made attractions are all products of

history and culture. In respect to natural attraction they are generally fixed

in supply and are able to provide any limited amount of service at any

given time frame. It is the quality of the natural resource that often

provides the attraction. Man–made attractions are most commonly results

of history and culture of a country which have legacy of historic

monuments and buildings, but they also include artificially created

entertainment complexes. Cooper et al (1993) further subdivided the basic

classification made. It was subdivided into site (because of physical

location of facilities) and therefore acts as a destination and attractions

which are intangible and ephemeral because they are events. For events,

it is what is happening at the time that takes priority rather than the

location. Thus, some of the most spectacular event in the forms of

festivals and carnival takes place in societies, ethnic groups and countries,

because they provide access to a large market and have the economic

37
base to support them. “Homowo” is an example of attraction that is

intangible and ephemeral.

2.4. PROMOTION OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL TO BE PART OF CULTURAL

TOURISM AT LA

Promotion, according to Cooper et al is “the descriptive term for the mix of

communication activities which tourism companies, or tourist board, carry

out in order to influence those public on whom the sales depend “(1993:

page 258). Keeping with the dimensions Cooper et al (1993) based on to

classify attractions; it was evident that “Homowo” festival is a man-made

attraction which could be promoted to give the festival an international

dimension. Methods that can be used in the promotion of attractions

including “Homowo”, as part of tourism from the marketing point of view

have been outlined by Cooper et al (Principles and practice of tourism -

1993). This is done to achieve high patronage at a facility or event. The

methods outlined include advertising, sales promotion, personal selling,

public relations and other promotional activities. In this section of the

study, the methods that can be used to promote “Homowo” would be

discussed.

38
2.4.1. ADVERTISING

Advertising is any paid form of non-personal communication through the

media about a product or service that has an identified sponsor. The sales

media is delivered through a paid medium for the purpose of influencing

the buying behaviour of purchasers. The paid medium may include travel

guides, newspaper, magazines, radio, television, direct mail and bill

boards. One advantage of advertising is that, it is a better method of

reaching a large number of people at low cost. Other objectives of

advertising is about changing attitudes and building image as well as

achieving sales.

A.K. Bhatia (2001) also defined advertising as “any activity designed to

spread information with the view of promoting sales of marketable goods

and service”. From the definitions given about advertising, one could say,

advertising operates in two ways; firstly by spreading information among

existing and potential customers about possibilities of consumption, and

secondly by seeking to influence the judgment in favour of the particular

goods and services which are subject of advertising. Also, both definitions

dealt with goods and services which are marketable. Issues mentioned

above reveals that, “Homowo” could be advertised to create awareness

since it takes place within a specific period within the year. This would go

a long way in promoting “Homowo” festival to be part of cultural tourism in

La.

39
2.4.2. SALES PROMOTION

Sales promotion involves any activity which offers an incentive to induce a

desired result from either existing and potential customers or trade

intermediaries. Most incentives are planned short term in nature. For

example, free palm wine or free “kpoikpoi” offer can be used by a hotel

and restaurant to promote sales during “Homowo” festival. This is used to

improve demand at certain specific periods. Advertising and sales

promotion are said to be the most widely used forms of promotion,

(Cooper et. al, 1993). As a part of sales promotion, an important area is

known as merchandising. Merchandising involves materials used in travel

agents to stimulate sales. This is important as a means of creating

impulse buying or reminding the customer of what is on offer. The

celebration of “Homowo” could be published in brochures or leaflets of

travel agents with an attempt to sell their tour packages, cocktail, posters

and souvenirs.

2.4.3. PERSONAL SELLING

Personal selling is an attempt to gain benefits through face-to-face or

telephone contact between the sales representative and those people with

whom the seller wants to communicate. This sort of selling may be used

by non-profit making museum as well as by the manager of a larger hotel.

For example, the communications manager of a large hotel like La Palm

Royal Beach Resort can communicate with customers about the

40
celebration of “Homowo” at La and the package that awaits them when

they join in the celebration of the festival. As compared to advertising,

personal selling has a high potential for achieving objectives, but only a

relatively small number of people can be contracted.

2.4.4. PUBLIC RELATIONS

Public relations are a non-personal communication which charges

opinions and achieves coverage is a mass medium, and which is not paid

for by source. The coverage could include a space given for a press

release or favourable editorial comment. Public relations are important not

only in obtaining editorial coverage, but also suppressing bad coverage. In

simpler terms, public relations involve measures designed to improve the

image of goods and services to create more favourable climate for its

advertisement and sales promotion activities. Public relations in the field of

tourism assume special importance because of the peculiar nature of the

product. It is very essential in public relations to provide complete

information and facts to both existing and potential customer about the

tour package or goods. Hence, public relations assume special

significance in tourism. An example is promoting “Homowo” festival as

part of cultural tourism in La through favourable editorial comment or a

space given for press release in the Daily Graphic or Ghanaian Times

newspapers. Such promotional activity would help create and maintain a

positive image of the “Homowo” festival in the minds of people who are in

41
position to influence public opinions (includes journalists, editors and

travel writers) or in the minds of sales intermediaries (travel agents and

tour operators). Basically, the objective of public relations in the promotion

of “Homowo” as part cultural tourism may be divided into two parts; firstly,

the dissemination of information, and secondly, for the creation of

favourable image of the tourist product, that is the “Homowo” festival.

2.4.5. OTHER PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

There is a growing use of sponsorship and direction marketing, which

according to Cooper et al (1993) does not fit comfortably into the other

four promotion categories. Sponsorship is defined as the material and

financial support for a specific activity, which does not form part of the

sponsoring company’s normal business. Ghana Breweries Company

(producers of Star beer) for example, provides sponsorship for festivals in

Ghana including “Homowo” festival. This is done to get the message of

their product to both existing and potential customers.

Direct marketing, on the other hand, is used extensively by direct-sell tour

operators such as Expert travel. The main method is by direct mail, which

is a postal communication by an identified sponsor.

Finally, due to the intangible nature of tourist product including the

“Homowo” festival, a great deal of promotion includes the production of

42
printed communication such as brochures and leaflets. The design,

compilation and printing of tourism brochures is one of the most important

promotion method that could be employed to promote “Homowo” festival

as part of cultural tourism in La.

43
CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter would basically deal with the research methods employed for

the study. The target population, sampling methods used for data collection

and tools, used in the data analysis would be described in the chapter.

3.1. RESEARCH METHOD

In line with achieving the earlier stated objectives, questionnaires, were

designed to obtain information from both the literate and illiterate groups of

the selected area. When the questionnaires were designed, much attention

and care was taken to make sure that difficult questions were avoided with

regards to the various standards of educational attainment of the general

public. Also the questions were developed in two forms: open-ended and

close ended questions. The respondents are expected to tick [√] appropriate

answers to the close ended questions, while space would be provided for the

open-ended questions.

44
3.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE

Actually, the topic and research objectives are focused on both local

residents and tourists who take part in the celebration of the “Homowo”

festival. La was chosen because of the topic to be researched into. Due to

time constraints and other resources a sample of sixty (60) was to represent

a whole population of two hundred thousand (200,000) residents.

3.3. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

Questionnaires and interviews are methods to be used in the collection of

data for the research.

A. QUESTIONNAIRE

A questionnaire that served as a data collection instrument was developed

and tested to ensure that questions were fully understood by respondents.

The questionnaire would be sent personally to the general public to

ensure safe delivery. This personal distribution approach was adopted so

that researchers would be in the position to explain what has been stated

in the questionnaire and also what is expected from the respondents. This

approach would help respondents to know what research is about and

would make answering easier.

45
B. INTERVIEWS

Interviews were undertaken so that the researchers could obtain essential

information from the population sample selected.

3.4. TIME FOR DATA COLLECTION

Enough time was actually given to respondents to react to questionnaire

before collection. The interviews were conducted on several occasions

with the time that favoured the selected sample.

3.5. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

A whole lot of problems were encountered during the conduct of the

research. The problems encountered when the research was been

conducted on the field of study include:

i. The lack of funds to conduct the research. This was a major problem

encountered during the research. The research study involved a lot of

money. Transportation cost to contact respondents and other people

as well as purchasing certain materials for the research really posed

problem during the research.

ii. Furthermore, respondents felt reluctant in answering the questions with

the notion that they might expose certain information that were not

supposed to be exposed. Another reason was that, they do not have

46
enough time since it has to take then some time to finish answering the

questionnaires.

iii. Thirdly, the conduct of the interview was another problem encountered

during the research. Some people who fell within the sample selected

made the interview a difficult one, because the time scheduled for the

conduct of interviews were changed several times. Also, most of the

people interviewed during the research did not allow their voices to be

recorded on tape. Other interviewers who had bad experiences form

other students through research interviews were not allowed to be

interviewed. Most vital information were lost during the interview

because listening, writing and asking questions at the same time made

the interview boring and difficult.

iv. Also, resentment and annoyance were received at times because

respondents saw it as disturbance to their daily schedules.

v. Finally, it wasted a whole lot if time for our studies in school. These

problems were solved by allocating a particular period barely a month

for conducting the research and was financially supported by the

students loan, relatives and friends to conduct the study.

47
CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals basically with the presentation and analysis of data, which

involves the tools used for data analysis. The analysis covered sex of

respondents, their age, educational background, occupation and nationality.

This is followed by the views of some selected sample of the population to

know their perception on economic, social and environmental impacts of the

celebration of “Homowo” festival of the Gas in La.

Tables, which covered frequencies and percentages, were used in the study

to analyze the data that were gathered on both illiterate and literate groups in

La. The tables presented were prepared after the answered questionnaires

have been carefully edited and tallied. Descriptive analyses were also used in

analyzing the data collected.

4.1 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL RESIDENTS

Table one (1) shows that 18 respondents representing 60 percent of the

sample selected were males, while 12 female respondents represented 40

percent. This is shown below.

48
TABLE 1: SEX OF RESPONDENTS

SEX FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)

Male 18 60

Female 12 40

Total 30 100

Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.2 AGE GROUP OF RESPONDENTS

Table two (2) indicates that majority of the respondents were within the

ages of 18-25 which represented 33 percent of the sample selected, whilst

56 and above had 2 respondents representing 7 percent, which also

represented the least sample selected. The table below implies that

majority of the respondents were within the ages of 18-25. This is shown

in table 2 below.

TABLE 2: AGE GROUP OF RESPONDENTS

49
AGE GROUP FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)

18-25 10 33

26-30 5 17

31-35 3 10

36-45 6 20

46-55 4 13

56+ 2 7

Total 30 100

Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.3 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS

Fifteen (15) respondents representing 50 percent of the selected sample

have had tertiary education, while one (1) respondent had formal

education, which represented 3 percent of sample selected. This vividly

shows that the selected sample had more people with high educational

background. This is shown in the table below.

TABLE 3: EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS

LEVEL OF EDUCATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)

50
Informal education 1 3
Basic education 5 17
Sec/ tech. education 6 20
Post-sec. education 3 10
Tertiary education 15 50
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006

4.4 OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS

The self employed formed 30 percent of the selected sample, whilst one

(1) unemployed represented 3 percent of those interviewed. This is shown

in the table below.

TABLE 4: OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS

OCCUPATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)


Farming / fishing 3 10
Student 8 27
Self employed 9 30
Public/civil servant 5 17
Unemployed 1 3
other 4 13
Total 30 100

51
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.5 MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS

The table below shows that majority of the respondents are married and

they represented 43 percent of the selected sample, while the widowed

were the least in the selected sample and this represents 2 respondents

or 7 percent.

TABLE 5: MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS

MARITAL STATUS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)


Single 11 37
Married 13 43
Widowed 4 13
Divorced 2 7
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.6 ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL FROM

RESPONDENTS

From the sample selected, 20 respondents representing 67 percent

responded yes to positive economic benefits derived from the celebration

of the “Homowo” festival, while 10 respondents representing 33 percent

responded no to any positive economic benefits of the “Homowo” festival.

This is shown below.

TABLE 6: ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF THE “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL FROM

RESPONDENTS

52
RESPONDS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)
Yes 20 67
No 10 33
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.7 GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT

The table below depicts that 9 respondents representing 30 percent are of

the view that the sale of traditional arts and crafts generates a lot of

employment for the local people during the celebration of “Homowo”

festival in La, while the sale of drugs (pharmacy) generated the least

employment for the local people, which had 2 respondents representing 7

percent of the selected sample. This is shown in table 7 below.

TABLE 7: GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT

SOURCE OF EMPLOYMENT FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Sale of traditional arts and crafts 9 30
Sale of food 7 23
Tour guiding 4 13
Sale of drugs (pharmacy) 2 7
Hotel accommodation 5 17
Tour/travel operation 3 10
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.8 SOCIAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS

Seventeen (17) respondents representing 57 percent of the sample

selected responded yes to negative social impacts on the local people

possibly from tourists, but 13 responded no to any negative social impacts

53
from tourists during the celebration of “Homowo” festival. This is shown

below.

TABLE 8: SOCIAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS

RESPONDS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)


Yes 17 57
No 13 43
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.9 TYPES OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Table nine (9) below clearly depicts that 12 respondents representing 40

percent are of the view that during the celebration “Homowo” festival, the

level of cultural infiltration such as drinking and smoking by the youth are

on the rise. They youth are the victims of such bad habits or attitudes

possibly copied from tourists. While 7 respondents representing 23

percent did not pass any comment. This is shown below.

TABLE 9: TYPES OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS

PROBLEMS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)


Overcrowding 6 20
Cultural infiltration 12 40
Prostitution 5 17
No comment 7 23
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006

4.10 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS

From the table below, 18 respondents or 60 percent of the selected

sample responded yes to environmental pollution as a result of the

54
possibly tourists’ influx during the celebration of “Homowo” festival. Also,

12 respondents representing 40 percent of the selected sample

responded no to any environmental pollution created by tourists.

TABLE 10: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS

RESPONDENTS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)


Yes 18 60
No 12 40
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.11 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Thirteen (13) respondents representing 43 percent as shown in Table 11

below mentioned the outbreak of diseases as a result of pollution possibly

by the influx of tourists during the celebration of “Homowo” festival. While

8 respondents or 27 percent of the selected sample mentioned noise

making as a pollutant and 9 respondents or 30 percent of the sample

selected did not pass any comment. This is shown below.

TABLE 11: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

EFFECTS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Noise making 8 27
Diseases 13 43
No comment 9 30
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006

4.12 SUGGESTED WAYS(S) OF SOLVING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

55
From the sample selected, 11 respondents representing 37 percent

mentioned that environmental sanitation should be improved, while 10

respondents representing 33 percent mentioned that both host community

and tourists should be educated on the dangers of environmental

pollution. Also, 8 respondents or 27 percent of the selected sample

mentioned the enforcement of environment laws as ways of solving

environmental pollution. This is shown below.

TABLE 12: SUGGESTED WAY(S) OF SOLVING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

SUGGESTED WAY(S) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)


Education 10 33
Environmental sanitation 11 37
Enforcement of environmental laws 1 3
No comment 8 27
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.13 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISTS

The table below shows that 18 respondents representing 60 percent of the

selected sample were males, while 12 respondents representing 40

percent were females. This is shown below.

TABLE 13: SEX OF RESPONDENTS

SEX FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Male 18 60
Female 12 40
Total 30 100

56
Source: field survey, September 2006

4.14 RESPONDENTS AGE GROUP

Table fourteen (14) shows that the majority of the respondents were within

the ages of 26-30 representing 30 percent sample selected, while the

least in the selected sample were 56 and over had 2 respondents

representing 7 percent. This signifies that majority of the respondents are

within the ages of 26-30. This is shown below.

TABLE 14: RESPONDENTS AGE GROUP

AGE GROUP FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


18-25 8 27
26-30 9 30
31-35 3 10
36-45 4 13
46-55 4 13
56+ 2 7
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.15 NATIONALITY OF RESPONDENTS

Majority of the respondents were domestic tourists form Ghana and they

were represented by 11 respondents or 37 percent of the sample

selected. The least respondents were from Togo, South Africa, Cuba,

Spain, Singapore and Jamaica, which had one (1) respondent or 3

percent of the sample selected each. This is shown below.

57
TABLE 15: NATIONALITY OF RESPONDENTS

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Nigeria 2 7
U.S.A 2 7
Ghana 11 37
Germany 2 7
Togo 1 3
South Africa 1 3
Spain 1 3
Sweden 2 7
Singapore 1 3
England 3 10
Cuba 1 3
Jamaica 1 3
France 2 7
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.16. OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS

Table seventeen (17) below indicates that majority of the respondents

were self employed, that is 12 respondents represented 40 percent of the

selected sample were self employed. While one (1) respondent each or 3

percent of the sample selected were farming/ fishing or public/ civil

servants. This is shown below.

TABLE 17: OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS

OCCUPATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)


Farming / fishing 1 3
Student 8 27
Self employed 12 40
Public/civil servant 1 3

58
Unemployed - -
Others 8 27
Total 3 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.17 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS

Twenty-two (22) respondents representing 73 percent of the selected

sample have had tertiary education, while 1 respondent or 3 percent of the

sample selected have had secondary / technical educational background.

This vividly shows that majority of the respondents had attained high

educational background. This is shown below.

TABLE 17: EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS

LEVEL OF EDUCATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Informal education - -
Basic education 2 7
Sec. / Tech. education 1 3
Post-sec. education 5 17
Tertiary education 22 73
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.18 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTION ABOUT GHANAIAN HOSPITALITY

According to table eighteen (18), majority of respondents viewed the

Ghanaian hospitality as good. In other words, 16 respondents

representing 53 percent of the sample selected viewed the Ghanaian

hospitality as good, while 2 respondents viewed the Ghanaian hospitality

as normal. Also, 12 respondents which represented 40 percent of the

59
selected sample indicated that the Ghanaian hospitality is very good. This

is shown below.

TABLE 18: RESPONDENTS PERCEPTION ABOUT GHANAIAN

HOSPITALITY

RESPONDS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Very good 12 40
Good 16 53
Normal 2 7

Bad - -
Very bad - -
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.19 LOCAL RESENTMENT BY RESPONDENTS

The table below vividly depicts that 12 respondents representing 40

percent of the selected sample responded that the local people are

friendly. Whilst, only 2 respondents or 7 percent of the sample selected

responded that the local people are apathy to tourists.

TABLE 19: LOCAL RESENTMENT BY RESPONDENTS

RESPONDS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Friendly 12 40
Apathy 2 7
Acceptable 6 20

60
Good 10 33
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006

4.20 ADMIRATION OF LOCAL CULTURE BY RESPONDENTS

All indications from the table below shows that 27 respondents

representing 90 percent of the selected sample responded yes that they

admired the local culture, while three (3) respondents or 10 percent of the

sample selected responded no to the admiration of the local culture. This

is shown below.

TABLE 20: ADMIRATION OF LOCAL CULTURE BY RESPONDENTS

RESPONDS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Yes 27 90
No 3 10
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.21 HOW RESPONDENTS OBTAINED INFORMATION ABOUT THE

CELEBRATION OF THE “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL.

Table twenty-one (21) clearly shows that majority of the respondents

obtained information about the celebration of the “Homowo” festival

through word-of–mouth. That is 12 respondents representing 40 percent

of the sample selected responded that they obtained the information

through either friends or relatives. But only 2 respondents or 7 percent of

the sample selected received the information through the radio. This is

shown below.

61
TABLE 22: HOW RESPONDENTS OBTAINED INFORMATION ABOUT THE

CELEBRATION OF THE “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL

RESPONDS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE(%)


Word-of –mouth 12 40
Internet 9 30
Television 3 10
Radio 2 7
Newspaper 4 13
Total 30 100
Source: field survey, September 2006.

4.22. CONCLUSION

From the tables and analysis in this chapter, the frequencies or

percentages which are higher are the very heart beats of the respondents

and need to be concentrated on to enhance the achievement of the earlier

stated objectives of this study.

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

62
5.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter entails the summary, conclusion and recommendations

outlined by the team of researchers.

5.1 SUMMARY

This chapter presents the summary of the entire study.

Chapter one (1) comprised of the background of the study, the statement

of research problem, objectives of the study, justification of study,

research questions, organization of the study, definition of terms,

significance of the study and the study area.

The chapter two(2) was made up of the literature review to find out what

other authors said about the role of culture in tourism development,

cultural tourism, “Homowo” as an attraction and promotion of “Homowo”

festival to be part of cultural tourism in La.

Chapter three (3) covered the methodology used in the sampling and

collection of data, interviews conducted, how questionnaires were

distributed , the time of data collection and the problems encountered on

the study and how they were solved.

The chapter four (4) dealt with the presentation and analysis of the data.

63
Finally, for the crucial role of the “Homowo” festival in the promotion of

cultural tourism in La, there is the need for strategic planning and effective

managerial methods on the part of all stakeholders.

5.2 CONCLUSION

From the research conducted, it could be concluded that the Government

in collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism and Diaspora Relations and

the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) must support the “Homowo”

festival planning committee with all the necessary expertise, logistics and

facilities to promote the festival within and outside Ghana.

5.3. RECOMMENDATIONS

Following the outcome of the research, these recommendations have been

outlined below to help all stakeholders involved in the celebration of the

“Homowo” festival in La.

i. It is recommended that the “Homowo” festival be launched at the

beginning of the year and this should be followed by effective publicity

to create awareness of the celebration of the festival

ii. Another recommendation is that the publicity of the festival should go

hand-in-hand with the national campaign against HIV/AIDS, so that the

level of prostitution could decline.

iii. Also, the Ministry of Tourism and Diaspora Relations, The centre for

National culture, Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) as well as the

64
“Homowo” festival planning committee should make efforts at

packaging the festival in an attractive way.

iv. Churches should be educated on the relevance of celebrating the

“Homowo” festival in La

v. Furthermore, facilities needed to make the stay of tourists and other

visitors a success before and after the celebration of the “Homowo”

festival should be created to encourage repeat visits.

vi. Private organizations and investors should also be encouraged to

invest in the celebration of “Homowo” festival

vii. It is also recommended that the marketing of the “Homowo” festival

should be undertaken to portray the natural beauty of the culture of the

Gas in La.

viii. Finally, to prevent, reduce or eliminate possible social and

environmental impacts, it is recommended that stakeholders educate

both host community and tourists. Also, it is recommended that laws

and regulations should be enforced during and after the celebration of

the “Homowo” festival to prevent or eliminate immoral behaviours on

the part of both tourists and local community.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adagio Gyapong Odeneho II, The Role of Culture in Tourism Development: A


paper presented at the 1st Western Regional Tourism Development
Conference (1998).

65
Bhatia, A.K, International Tourism Management (Revised Edition), New Delhi:
Sterling Publishers Limited, (2001).

Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge University press, New


York, (1997).

Cooper, Fletcher, Gilbert and Wanhill, Tourism Principles and Practices,


London: Pitman Publishing, (1993).

Goeldner, C.R. et al, Tourism: Principle, Practices and Philosophies, New


York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. (2000).

Opoku A.A, Festivals of Ghana, Accra; Ghana Publishing Corporation, (1970).

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Oxford University press, (1999).

Valene, L. Smith, Host and Guest: The Anthropology of Tourism,


Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, (1989).

CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM

TOPIC: THE ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS IN THE

PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA

66
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR LOCAL RESIDENTS

STUDY AREA: LA

This questionnaire is aimed at finding out the economic benefits derived from the

celebration of “Homowo” festival.

Your responses will be kept as confidential as possible and be used mainly for

the purpose for which it is intended.

Please tick [√] and provide information where appropriate.

Thank you very much.

MODULE A

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

1. Age Group

a. 18-25 [ ]

b. 26-30 [ ]

c. 31-35 [ ]

d. 36-45 [ ]

e. 46-55 [ ]

f. 56 + [ ]

2. Sex: (a) Male [ ] b. Female [ ]

3. Marital status: a. Single [ ] b. Married [ ]

c. Divorced [ ] d. Widowed [ ]

67
4. Educational Background

a. Informal education [ ]

b. Basic education [ ]

c. Sec. /Tech. education [ ]

d. Post-sec education [ ]

e. Tertiary education [ ]

5. Occupation

a. Farming/ Fishing [ ]

b. Student [ ]

c. Self employed [ ]

d. Public / Civil Servant [ ]

f. Other (Specify) …………………………...…………………………………………….

We very much value you willingness to answer the questions frankly.

MODULE B

ECONOMIC BENEFITS

6. Do you get money from tourists during the “Homowo” festival celebration?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

68
7. What job do you do to get money from tourists during the celebration?

………………………………………………………………………………………………

8a. Have you ever received any help from any tourist? If yes, in which way?

………………………………………………………………………………………………

b. if no, why..............................................................................................................

9. Have you gained employment through the help of any tourists?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

10. Are you gainfully employed when tourists come to participate in the

celebration of “Homowo” festival?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

MODULE C

SOCIAL IMPACT

11. Do tourists give you problems when they take part in the celebration of the

“Homowo” festival?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

69
12. Mention some of the problem (s) they give you

i. …………………………………………..………………………………………………..

ii…………………………………………….……………………………………………….

MODULE D

ENVIRONMENT IMPACT

13. Do tourists pollute the environment when they come for the celebration

“Homowo” festival?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

14a. If yes, how is the environment polluted?

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

…...

b. If no, give reasons why you think they do not.

……………………………………………..……………………………………………….

15. Do you suffer from the pollution?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

16. Mention some problem(s) as a result of the pollution

70
i……………………………………………………………………………………………..

ii…………………………………………………………………………………………….

iii…………………………………………………………………………………………….

17. Do you think the problem(s) of pollution of the environment by tourists’ influx

can be solved?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

18. In what way(s) can it be solved?

i. …………………………………………………………………………………….

ii. …………………………………………………………………………………

CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM

TOPIC: ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS

IN THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA

71
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TOURISTS

STUDY AREA: LA

This questionnaire is aimed at finding out how local people behave towards

tourists during the celebration of “Homowo” festival.

Your responses will be kept as confidential as possible and used mainly for the

purpose for which it is intended.

Please tick [√] and provide information where necessary.

Thank you very much.

MODULE A

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

1. Age Group

a. 18-25 [ ]

b. 26-30 [ ]

c. 31-35 [ ]

d. 36-45 [ ]

e. 45-55 [ ]

f. 56+ [ ]

2. Sex: (a) Male [ ] (b) Female [ ]

3. Nationality: …………………………………………………………………...………

If Ghanaian, tribe ……………………………………………………………………….

72
4. Marital status: (a) Single [ ] (b) Married [ ]

(c) Divorced [ ] (d) Widowed [ ]

5. Educational background

a. Informal education [ ]

b. Basic education [ ]

c. Sec. /Tech education [ ]

d. Post-sec education [ ]

e. Tertiary education [ ]

6. Occupation

a. Farming / Fishing [ ]

b. Student [ ]

c. Self employed [ ]

d. Public / civil Servant [ ]

e. Unemployed [ ]

f. Other (specify) ………………………………………………………………………...

MODULE B

LOCAL RESENTMENT

7. Do you feel happy when you meet the local people?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

73
8. How are you treated as a foreigner in the midst of the local people?

………………………………………………………………………………………………

9. What you think about Ghanaian Hospitality?

a. Good [ ] b. Bad [ ]

c. Very Good [ ] d. Very Bad [ ]

e. Normal

10. Do you think the local people feel happy when they have you in their midst?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

11. Do you admire the culture of the local people?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

12. Give reason(s) for you answer

i. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

ii. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

13. Is this your first time of coming for the celebration of “Homowo” festival?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

74
14. Would you like to take part again in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival

again?

Yes [ ] No [ ]

15. If yes, give reasons why

i. ……………………………………………………………………………………………

ii. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

16. If no, give reasons why

i. …………………………………………………………………………………………

ii. .………………………………………………………………………………………..

17. How did you get to know about the “Homowo” festival?

a. word-of-month

b. Indent

c. Television

d. radio

e. Newspaper

f. Other (specify)…………………………………………………………………….

75