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Lecture 6

Credits to: Lectures of Dr. Decibel F. Eslava ( Professor, SESAM-UPLB) on mineralogy

• Minerals have been an important part of our society
since the time of prehistoric man.
• Early humans carved tools out of minerals such as
cupper, iron, and tin.
• Sodium chloride also known as the mineral halite, has
been used in food preservation techniques for millions
of years.
• Mining of useful minerals out of ores became
widespread hundreds of years ago, a practice still in
use today.
• broadly defined as the study of minerals
• Mineralogy is a subject of geology
specializing in the scientific study of the
chemistry, crystal structure
(crystallography), and physical properties
of minerals.
Why is Mineralogy important?
• Mineralogy is an important discipline for
several reasons:

1. It gives scientists an idea of how Earth was

2. The discovery of new minerals could
provide useful materials for industry,
manufacturing as well as in medicine.
Minerals Vs. Rocks
Rocks vs Minerals?
- A rock is an aggregate of one or more
- a body of undifferentiated mineral matter

- There are over 1,000 different types of

rocks on earth
- There are over 4,000 minerals identified
so far Granite Rock
Minerals Vs. Rocks
Main types of Rocks:
1. Igneous Rocks – formed through the
cooling and solidification of magma or

2. Metamorphic Rocks - are created by

the physical or chemical alteration by
heat and pressure of an existing
igneous or sedimentary material into a
denser form.

Minerals Vs. Rocks

Main types of Rocks:
3. Sedimentary Rocks - are made when
sand, mud and pebbles get laid down in
layers. Over time, these layers are
squashed under more and more layers.
Eventually, the layers are lithified – turned
to rock.
Sedimentary rocks often have
distinctive layering or bedding
Sedimentary rocks can be formed
in deserts, lakes, river, and ocean
Minerals Vs. Rocks
• A mineral are substance that are present
in nature and can be made of one
element or more than one elements
(chemical compound)

Rosy Quarts
Mineral Classification
• There are different grouping systems use but the DANA SYSTEM is the
most commonly used.

• This system was devised by Professor James Dana of Yale University

• The Dana system divides minerals into eight basic classes.
• The classes are: native elements, silicates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates,
halides, carbonates, phosphates, and mineraloids.
Mineral Classifications
This is the category of the
pure or single elements.
1. Native Elements
Most minerals are made
Copper Gold
up of combinations of
chemical elements.

Mineral Classifications
This is the largest group
of minerals. Silicates are
2. Silicates made from metals
combined with silicon
and oxygen.

Mineral Classifications

Oxides form from the

3. Oxides combination of a metal
with oxygen.
Ruby (Al2 O3)

Hematite (Fe2O3 )
Mineral Classifications

4. Sulfides Sulfides are made of

compounds of sulfur
usually with a metallic Galena (PbS)


Pyrite (FeS₂)
Mineral Classifications

Sulfur + Oxygen +
5. Sulfates Metallic ions

It is a large group of Barite ((BaSO4)

minerals that tend to be
soft, and translucent

thenardite (Na2SO4),
Mineral Classifications

6. Carbonates Group of minerals made

of carbon, oxygen, and a
metallic element. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)

Azurite (CuCO3),
Mineral Classifications

Form from halogen

7. Halides elements like chlorine,
bromine, fluorine, and
iodine combined with Sodium chloride (NaCl)
metallic elements.

They are very soft and

easily dissolved in water.
Bischofite MgCl₂·6H₂O.
Mineral Classifications
Any of a group of
naturally occurring
8. Phosphates inorganic salts of
phosphoric acid,

Mineral Classifications
The term used for those
substances that do not fit
9. Mineraloid neatly into one of these
eight classes. Opal,
amber, and mother of
pearl. Opal

Tectonic location of some metals
Metals and their corresponding Ores
METAL ORE – rock containing
Aluminum Bauxite

Chromium Chromite
Metals and their corresponding Ores
METAL ORE – rock containing

Cupper Bornite

Gold Native Gold

Metals and their corresponding Ores
METAL ORE – rock containing

Iron Hematite

Zinc Sphalerite
Economically-important Mineral Resources
- a chemical element with
the symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic
number 79, making it one of the higher atomic
number elements that occur naturally.
- Bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense,
soft, malleable, and ductile metal.
- Status symbol for rich people.
in the
Why gold is important?
• Jewelry - Today, most of the gold that is newly
mined or recycled is used in the manufacture of
jewelries. About 78% of the gold consumed
each year is used in the manufacture of jewelry.

• Industries - The most important industrial use

of gold is in the manufacture of electronics.
Gold is the highly efficient conductor that can
carry these tiny currents and remain free of
Why gold is important?

• Medicine - Gold is used as a drug to treat

a small number of medical conditions.
Particles of a radioactive gold isotope are
implanted in tissues to serve as a
radiation source in the treatment of
certain cancers.
Why gold is important?

• Economic value - China is estimated to

derive the largest economic contribution
directly from gold mining at US$12.6

• MGB shows that the Ph

produced 20.765 metric tonnes (MT) of
gold in 2018, valued at $866.72 million
(Php44.8 billion)
Economically-important Mineral Resources
Copper (Cu)
• Copper is a chemical element with
the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic
number 29.
• Soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very
high thermal and electrical conductivity.
• A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has
a pinkish-orange color.
Biggest Copper Mining in the World!
Location Copper Produced

1. Escondida, Chile 1, 100, 000 Metric Tonnes

2. Collahausi, Chile 282,096 Metric Tonnes

3. Andina, Chile 249,861 Metric Tonnes

4. Toquepala, Peru 152,000 Metric Tonnes
Cupper Production in the Ph
• Among the metallic minerals, the largest reserve is copper, which is
estimated at 4 billion MT, making the Philippines the fourth largest
country in the world in terms of copper reserves.
Mining in
the Ph
Why copper is important?

Construction: It is commonly used in

the construction industry to form
pipes and tubing for potable water
distribution and heating and cooling

Electrical/Electronic: used in
electric wires, cables, and household
Copper Economic Value in Ph
US$ 4.25 Billion worth of exports of metallic, non-
metallic minerals and mineral products in 2017.
Copper, gold and nickel are the country’s top
mineral exports.


PhP19.30 billion Estimated value of copper

produced in 2017.
Economically-important Mineral Resources
Nickel (Ni)
• Nickel is a chemical element with
the symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

• It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight

golden tinge.
• Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard
and ductile.
World Production of Nickel
Countries with Highest Reserved Nickel:
Country Nickel Reserved ( MT)

1. Australia 19 million MT
2. Brazil 12 million MT
3. Russia 7.6 million MT
4. Cuba 5.5 million MT
5. Philippines 4.8 million MT
Amanda Kay (2018)
Philippine Nickel Production
Philippine Nickel Production
Why nickel is important?
Stainless Steel: Nickel is used in the
production of stainless steel to
improved strength, ductility and
toughness, even at cryogenic
temperatures. It also makes the
material non-magnetic.

Non Ferrous Alloys: Nickel is used to

produced non-ferrous alloy like
cupronickel ( used for marine applications
due to their excellent resistance to
seawater corrosion)
Why nickel is important?
Plating: Nickel plating provides a
unique combination of corrosion and
wear resistance. It can add brightness,
lustre and appeal.
Nickel Usage by Country
Economic Value of Nickel
• Australia
• Exports of Nickel Ores & Concentrates in Australia gained an averaged
54.42 AUD Million ( Php 1,911,371,892) from 1988 until 2019.

• Philippines:
• Nickel & Nickel Products
PhP43.37 Billion Estimated value of nickel and nickel products produced in
Economically-important Mineral Resources
Iron (Fe)
Iron is a chemical
element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum)
and atomic number 26.

It is the fourth most common element in the

Earth's .
World Distribution of Iron
World Iron Production (Thousand of Tonnes)
Iron Mining in the
What is mining?
• Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological
materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body and seam

Ore body Seam

Life Cycle of a Metal Resource
Environmental Effects of Using Mineral
What determines the type of mining?
• Richness of the Ore
• Accessibility of the area
• Depth of below surface
• Size of the ore body
• Type of ore
What determines the type of mining?
• Richness of the ore deposits

The abundance or otherwise the absence of minerals determines

in a large measure their commercial exploitation.
What determines the type of mining?
• Accessibility

The accessibility of a region where the particular mineral deposit

occurs is of great significance. The terrain and climate determine
accessibility which helps or hinders the mining operations.
Depth of below surface
• The depth of the ore or mineral deposits determines what type of
mining technique should be employed.
• Low depth – Surface mining

• High depth – underground mining

Shape of Ore Body
Type of Ore
• Is the ore mineral soluble in water?
What are the types of mining?
• Surface Mining
a. Strip Mining
b. Open Pit Mining

• Underground Mining

• Solution Mining
When do you use Surface Mining?
• Large tonnage
• Low depth mineral resources
• Overburden is thin
Contour Strip Mining

Contour Strip mining is usually

associated with coal, where a seam
or multiple seams are located at a
certain elevation or elevations
through a mountain or hill.
Open Pit Mining
Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, is a surface mining technique
that extracts minerals from an open pit in the ground.

This surface mining technique is used when mineral or ore deposits are found
relatively close to the surface of the earth.

Most commonly used for mining gravel and sand

Some photos and machinery used
in open-pit mining
Example of Open Pit Mining
Dinky Toy
Used in the transport of ore
materials from the mining
site to the ore crusher
Ore Crushing Plant
Used in the crushing mineral
ore to smaller sizes.
Drilling in pit
Underground Mining

• The ore deposit is deep

• Ore body is steep
• Grade is high enough to cover
Some types of underground mining

1. Room and Pillar Mining - is

a mining system in which
the mined material is
extracted across a horizontal
plane, creating horizontal
arrays of rooms and pillars.
Some types of underground mining
2. Cut and Fill Mining - Cut
and fill mining is a highly
selective open-stope mining
method considered ideal for
steeply dipping high grade
deposits found in weak host
Some types of underground mining
3. Long Wall Mining – Long
wall mining is a form of
underground coal mining
where a long wall of coal is
mined in a single slice. The
long wall panel is typically
3–4 km long and 250–400
m wide.
Solution Mining
- The in-place dissolution of water-
soluble mineral components of an
ore deposit by permitting a
leaching solution, usually aqueous,
to trickle downward through the
fractured ore to collection galleries
at depth. It is a type of chemical
Ocean Mining
• Minerals from seawater

• Minerals from ocean


• Hydrothermal deposits

• Manganese-rich nodules
Harmful Environmental Effects of Mining

Disruption of land surface

Land Subsidence
Harmful Environmental Effects of Mining

Acid Mine Drainage

Toxic-laced mining wastes
Harmful Environmental Effects of Mining

Air Pollution Noise Pollution

Small Scale Mining Vs. Large Scale Mining
• An artisanal miner or small- Large scale mining usually
scale miner is a subsistence involves a company with many
miner who is not officially employees. The company mines at
employed by a mining one or two large sites and usually
company, but works
independently, mining various stays until the mineral or metal is
minerals or panning for gold completely excavated. Used of
using their own resources. advance technologies in mining
A Mine, use, throw away;
no new discoveries;
rising prices

Recycle; increase reserves

by improved mining
technology, higher prices,
B and new discoveries

Recycle, reuse, reduce Depletion curves for

consumption; increase a nonrenewable
reserves by improved resource (such as

mining technology,
higher prices, and
aluminum or copper)
new discoveries using three sets of
C assumptions. Dashed
vertical lines
represent times when
80% depletion

Present Depletion Depletion Depletion

time A time B time C
How Can We Use Mineral Resources More Sustainably?

• We can try to find substitutes for scarce resources, recycle and reuse
minerals, reduce resource waste, and convert the wastes from some
businesses into raw materials for other businesses.
The Future of Mining (October 15, 2019)
Reporting: Group 1
- Aladin, Brian Joseph M.
- Barrera, Felix Nathaniel D.
- Daez, Reden A. What to Report? Technologies,
- Dugay, Trisha R. Practices, and
- Marcos, Elizabeth D. Innovations used
in Green Mining
- Rodillas, Danilo R.