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Namma Kalvi
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Chapter

m
INTEGRAL

co
CALCULUS- I
FORMULAE TO REMEMBER

s.
(i) Integration is the reverse process of differentiation
(ii) ∫ k f(x) dx = k ∫ f(x) dx where k is a constant.

ok
(iii) ∫ [ f(x) ± g (x)] dx = ∫ f(x)dx ± ∫ g(x) dx
(iv) The following are the four principal methods of integration
(i) Integration by decomposition
(ii) Integration by Parts
o
(iii) Integration by Substitution
(iv) Integration by successive reduction
ab

## First fundamental theorem of integral calculus :

x
If f(x) is a continuous function and F (x) = ò f (t )dt , then F'(x) = f (x).
a
Second fundamental theorem of integral calculus :
b
ur

ò f ( x) dx = F (b) –F(a)
a
b x
(i) ò f ( x) dx is a definite constant, whereas ò f (t ) dt is a function of the variable x
.s

a a
Indefinite integral :-
An integral function which is expressed without limits, and so containing an containing an arbitrary
constant.
w

## Proper definite integral :-

An integral function which has both the limits. a and b are finite.
Improper definite integral :-
w

## An integral function, in which the limits either a or b or both are infinite.

Gamma function :-

For n > 0, ∫ x n − 1e − x dx and is denoted by Γ(n)
w

38

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 41

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Properties of definite integral

b b
1)
ò f ( x) dx = ò f (t ) dt
a a

m
b a
2) ò f ( x) dx = − ∫ f ( x) dx
a b

co
b b b
3)
ò [ f ( x) ± g ( x)] dx = òa f ( x) dx ± ò g ( x)dx
a a

b c b
4)
ò f ( x) dx = ∫ f ( x)dx + ∫ f ( x)dx

s.
a a c

b a
5) ∫ f ( x)dx = ∫ f (a − x)dx

ok
o o

a a
6) ∫ f ( x)dx = 2 ∫ f ( x)dx if f (x) is an even function
−a o
o
a
7)
∫ f ( x)dx = 0 if f (x) is an odd function
−a
ab

b b
8)
ò f ( x) dx = ∫ f (a + b − x)dx
a a

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS 2
ur

2.  2 4
 9 x − 2 
x
EXERCISE 2.1 2
Sol. ∫  9 x 2 − 4  dx
Integrate the following with respect to x  x2 
.s

1. 3x + 5  2  4   4 2
( )
2
= ∫  9x − 2(9 x )  2  +  2   dx
2
Sol. ∫ 3 x + 5 dx
  x   x  
w

= ∫ (3 x + 5) 2 dx
1
 [ (a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2]
16
(3 x + 5 ) = ∫ (81x4–72 + 4 ) dx
1 +1
2
w

x
=  1  +c
x4 +1 − 4 +1
3  + 1
2  = 81 – 72x + 16 x +c
4 +1 −4 + 1
(ax + b)n +1 16
w

## [  ∫ (ax + b)n dx = + c] [  4 =16x – 4]

a (n + 1) x
x5 x −3
(3 x + 5 )
3
2 (3 x + 5 )
3
2 = 81 –72x + 16 +c
5 −3
= +c= +c
 3 9
3  81 5 16
 2 2 = x – 72x – 3 + c
2 5 3x
= (3 x + 5) 2 + c
3

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42 Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I

3. (3 +x) (2–5x)
( 4 x + 7) 2 ( 4 x + 7) 2
3 1

= 2 − +c
Sol. ∫ (3 + x ) (2–5 x) dx  3  1
4  4 
= ∫ (6 –15x + 2x – 5x2) dx  2 3  2 1
= ∫ (6 –13x – 5x2) dx ( 4 x + 7) 2 ( 4 x + 7) 2
= 2 − +c
2
= 6x – 13 x − 5 x + c
2 3 6

m
3
(4 x + 7) 2 (4 x + 7) 2 +c
1
2 3 3

= −
4. x (x3–2x +3) 3 2
Sol. ò x (x3– 2x + 3) dx 1

co
6. x + 1 + x −1
= x
ò 2 (x3– 2x + 3) dx
1

1
 3+ 1 1 Sol. ∫ dx
x +1 + x −1
1
1+
∫  x 2 − 2 x 2 + 3 x  dx
=
2

 

s.
= Multiplying and dividing the conjugate of
7
+1
3
+1
1
+1 the denominator we get
= x 2x 3x + c
2 2 2

− + x + 1 − x − 1 dx

ok

( )( )
7 3 1 =
+1 +1 +1 x +1 + x −1 x +1 − x −1
2 2 2
x2 x2 x2 x +1 − x −1
9 5 3

= − 2 +3 +c = ∫ dx
9 5 3 ( x + 1) − ( x − 1) 
o
2 2 2 [ (a+b) (a–b) =a2–b2]
2 92 2 52 2 32
= x − 2 × x + 3 × x +c x +1 − x −1
ab

9 5 3 = ∫ dx
5 x +1− x +1
2 92 4 2 3

x − x + x
2
= 2 +c x +1 − x −1
9 5 = dx

8 x + 13 2
ur

5. 1
4x + 7 = ∫ ((x+1)½ –(x–1)½) dx
2
8 x + 13
Sol. ∫ dx  3 
4x + 7 1  ( x + 1) 2 ( x − 1) 2 
3
.s

 − +c
8 x + 14 − 1 = 2 3 3 

= dx 
4x + 7  2 2 
1 
( x + 1) 2 − ( x − 1) 2  + c
w

3
2(4 x + 7) − 1
3
=
= ∫ dx 3  
4x + 7 2×
2
( 4 x + 7) 1
w

1
= dx − ∫ dx ( x + 1) 2 − ( x − 1) 2  + c
3
2∫
3

4x + 7 4x + 7 = 3  

## 2 ∫ 4 x + 7 dx − ∫ 1 7. If f(x) = x + b, f (1) = 5 and f(2) = 13, then find

= dx
w

4x + 7 f (x)
Sol.
2 ∫ (4 x + 7) 2 dx − ∫ (4 x + 7) − 2 dx
1 1

## = Given f ´(x) = x + b, f (1) =5 and f (2) =13

− +1
f ´(x) = x + b
(4 x + 7) 2 +1 − (4 x + 7) 2 + c
1 1

= 2 ⇒ ∫ f ´(x) dx = ∫ (x+b) dx
1   −1 
4  + 1 4  + 1
2   2  [\ Integration is the reverse process of
differentiation]

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 43

x2 ⇒ 8 = 32 – 4 + c
⇒ f (0) = + bx + c  ---(1)
2 ⇒ 8 = 32 – 4 + c
Given f (1) = 5 ⇒ 8 – 28 = c
2
⇒ 5 =
1
+ b (1) + c ⇒ c = –20
2 Substituting c = –20 in (1) we get.

m
1 1
⇒ 5 = + b (1) + c ⇒ 5 – = b +c f (x) = 2x4 –x2 – 20
2 2
10 − 1 9 EXERCISE 2.2

co
⇒ =b+c ⇒b+c=
2 2 Integrate the following with respect to x.
⇒ 2b + 2c = 9 ---(2)
2
 1 
22 1.
 2 x − 
Also f (2) = 13 ⇒ 13 = + b (2) + c 2x 
2

s.
⇒ 13 = 2 + 2b + c  1 
2

Sol. ∫  2 x −  dx
⇒ 13 – 2 = 2b + c  2x 

ok
 2

( )
⇒ 2b + c = 11---(3)  
( )
= ∫  2 x − 2 2 x  1  +  1   dx
2
 
(2) – (3) → 2b + 2c = 9   2 x   2 x  
– 2b + –c = –11 [ (a–b)2 = a2–2ab + b2]

c = –2  1
= ∫  2 x − 2 +  dx
o
 2x 
Substituting c = –2 in (3) we get x2 1
= 2 − 2 x + log |x| + c
ab

2b – 2 = 11 ⇒ 2b = 11 + 2 ⇒ 2b = 13 2 2
1
13 = x2–2x + 2 log |x| + c
⇒ b =
2
13
Substituting b = , c = –2 in (1) we get, x4 − x2 + 2
ur

2 2. x3 + x2
x −1
x–1 x4 – x2 + 2
f (x) = x + 13 x – 2
2
x4 − x2 + 2 x – (+)x3
(–) 4
2 2 Sol. ∫ dx
8. If f(x) = 8 x3 − 2x and f (2)=8, then find f(x). x −1
.s

x3 – x2
Sol.  3 2  x – (+)x2
(–) 3
= ∫  x + x + x − 1 dx
2
Given f ´(x) = 8x3 –2x, f (2) = 8 2
f ´(x) = 8x3 –2x
w

⇒ ∫ f ´(x) dx = ∫ (8x3–2x) dx x 4 x3
= + + 2 log |x–1| + c
2 4 3
8 x4 2 x2
w

⇒ f (x) = − +c x3
4 2 3. ∫ dx
⇒ f (x) = 2x4 –x2 + c---(1) x+2
x3
Given f (2) = 8 dx
w

Sol. ∫
x+2
⇒ 8 = 2 (2 ) – 2 + c
4 2
 2 8 
= ∫  x − 2 x + 4 −  dx
x + 2
x3 2 x 2
= − + 4 x – 8 log |x + 2| + c
3 2
x3
= – x2 + 4x – 8 log |x + 2| + c
3

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 71

Miscellaneous problems 
1 dx
= − ∫
Evaluate the following integrals
2
2  3 25
 x +  −
4 16
1
1. ∫
x+2− x+3
dx 1
= ∫
dx

m
2
2 25  3
1 −x+ 
Sol. I = ∫ dx 16  4
x+2 − x+3 1 dx
= ∫

co
Multiply and divide with the conjugate of the 2  5 2
 3
2

  −  x + 
denominator, 4 4
We get  dx 1  a + x 
∵ ∫ a 2 − x 2 = 2a  a − x  
 log +c
x+2 + x+3

s.
I=
( x+2 − x+3 )( x+2 + x+3 ) 
1 1
5
+ x+
3 

4 4
x+2 + x+3 =  log +c
= ∫ dx 2 2 × 5 5
−x−
3 

ok
( x + 2) − ( x + 3)  4 4 4 
[ (a + b)(a – b) = a2 – b2]  
11 2+ x 
x+2 + x+3 =  log +c
= ∫ dx 25 1
−x
o
x +2− x −3  2 2 
= − ∫ ( x + 2 + x + 3 dx ) 2+ x
ab

1
 = log +c
1 +1 1 +1  5 1 − 2x
 ( x + 2) 2 ( x + 3) 2  dx
= 
1
+
1 +c 3. ∫ e x + 6 + 5e − x
 +1 +1 
 2 2 
Sol.
ur

dx

2 3 3
= − ( x + 2) 2 + ( x + 3) 2  + c
I =
5 ∫
3  ex + 6 +
dx ex
2. ∫ 2 − 3 x − 2 x2 e x dx
.s

= ∫ 2 x
Sol. e + 6e x + 5
dx
I = ∫ 2 − 3x − 2 x 2 Put ex = t ⇒ exdx = dt
w

dt
1 dx ⇒ I = ∫ 2
= − ∫
2 x2 + 3 x − 1
t + 6t + 5
dt
I = ∫
w

2
1 dx (t + 5) (t + 1)
− ∫
= A B
2 x2 + 3 x + 9 − 9 − 1 = ∫ t + 5 dt + ∫ t + 1 dt -----(1)
w

2 16 16
1 A B
= +
2
 1  3 
2
 3
(t + 5) (t + 1) t + 5 t +1
 2  2   =  4  ⇒ 1 = A(t+1) + B(t+5)
 
Adding & subtracting Put t = – 1
9
= Þ 1 = B(–1 + 5)
16

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72 Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I

Þ 1 = B (4)
5. ∫ 9 x 2 + 12 x + 3 dx
1 Sol.
⇒ B =
4 Let I = ∫ 9 x 2 + 12 x + 3 dx
Put t = – 5
 12 3
⇒ 1 = A(– 5 + 1) = ∫ 9  x 2 + x +  dx
 9

m
1 = A(– 4) 9
1 4 1
⇒ A = – = 3∫ x + x + dx
2
4 3 3

co
1 1
− dt dt 4 4 4 1
= 3∫ x + x+ − + dx
2
From (1), I = ∫ 4 + ∫ 4 9 9 3a
t+5 t +1 3
2 2
1 1
− log t + 5 + log t + 1 + c  1  4   2 4
=  2  3   =  3  = 9

s.
4 4  
4
1
= log t + 1 − log t + 5  + c Adding & subtracting
4  9

1
= log
4
1
4
t +1
t+5
+c

ex + 1
= log x
e +5
+c
o ok = 3∫

 2  1
= 3∫  x +  −   dx
 2
3 3
2
 1
 x +  −   dx
2
2

 3  3
[ t = ex]
ab

∵ ∫ x − a dx =
2 2
4. ∫ 2 x 2 − 3 dx 
x 2 a2 
Sol. x − a 2 − log x + x 2 − a 2 + c 
2 2 

I = ∫ 2 x 2 − 3 dx  2
ur

  x + 3  12 x 3
 3 =
1
= ∫ 2  x 2 −  dx
 2
3
 2
x2 +
9
+ −
9 9(2)

12 x 3 
2
.s

 3 2
= 2∫ x −  log x + + x 2 + + +c
 dx
2
 2 3 9 9 

∵ x 2 − a 2 dx =  3 x + 2 9 x 2 + 12 x + 3 1
 ∫

w

=
3  −
 6 3 18
x 2 a2 
x − a 2 − log x + x 2 − a 2 + c 
2 2 log 3 x + 2 + 9 x 2 + 12 x + 3  + c
 
w

 
x 2 3 3 3 3x + 2 1
= 2 x − −  log x + x 2 −  + c = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 3 −
2 2 ( 2) 6 6
w

2 2 
 x 2 x2 − 3 3  log 3 x + 2 + 9 x 2 + 12 x + 3 + c
= 2 −
∫ ( x + 1)
2
 2 2 4 6. log x dx
 log 2 x + 2 x 2 − 3  + c Sol.
 ∫ ( x + 1)
2
Let I = log x dx
x 3 2
= 2 x3 − 3 − log 2 x + 2 x 2 − 3 + c
2 4

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 73

## Let u = log x; dv = (x + 1)2 dx −1

du = dx
1 ( x + 1)
3
x2 − 1
du = dx ; v =
x 3
∴ Using integration by parts, ∴ Using integration by parts,

I LAT E I = ∫u dv = uv – ∫v du

m

logarithmic function = ∫ log x − x − 1 dx
2
( )
( )  −1
= x log x − x − 1 − ∫ x ⋅  2

dx

co
2
I = ∫udv = uv – ∫vdu
 x −1 
∫ ( x + 1)
2
log x dx
= x log ( x − x − 1) + ∫
I = x
2
dx
( x + 1) ( x + 1) x −1
3 3 2
1
I = x log ( x − x − 1) + I -----(1)
= log x − ∫
⋅ dx

s.
3 3 x 2
1
( x + 1) log x − 1 x + 3x 2 + 3x + 1 dx
3 3

3∫
= Consider
3 x x

ok
I1 = dx
( x + 1) log x − 1  x 2 + 3x + 3 + 1  dx
3
x2 − 1
3∫
=  
3 x Put t = x2 – 1
dt
=
( x + 1)3 log x − 1  x3 + 3x 2 + 3x + log x  + c dt = 2x dx ⇒
2
= x dx
 
o
3 3 3 2  1 dt 1 −1
1 
I1 = ∫
2 t
= ∫ t 2 dt
ab

x3 3x 2 2
( x + 1) log x −
3
= − − 3 x − log x  + c
3 3 2   − 1 +1  1
1 t 2  1 t2
∫ log ( x − ) =  = ⋅
7. x 2 − 1 dx 2 − 1 + 1 2 1
Sol.  
( )
ur

2 2
Let I = ∫ log x − x − 1 dx
2

( )
= t =
x2 − 1 
Let u = log x − x − 1 ;
2
[ t = x2 – 1]
.s

## dv = dx Substituting I1 in (1) we get,

and v = x

du =
1 d 
 dx x − x − 1  dx
2
( ) ( 2
)
I = x log x − x − 1 + x − 1 + c
2
w

x − x −1
2 1
8. ∫ x ( x − 1) dx
 
( )
1 −1
1 1 2 Sol. 0
1 − 2 x − 1
2 ( 2 x)
=  dx
1

∫ x ( x − 1) dx
w

x − x −1
2 Let I =
0
 1 x  1
= 1 −  dx = ∫ x 2 − x dx
w

x − x2 − 1  x2 − 1 
0
1
 x2 − 1 − x  1 1
=
1
  dx
= ∫ x2 − x + − dx
4 4
x − x 2 − 1  x 2 − 1  0

 
1 x − x2 − 1
=   dx
x− x 2 − 1  x 2 − 1 

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74 Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I
1
 1
2
 1
2
1 2 5  1  e4 − 5 
= ∫  x −  −   dx
2 2
=
4
 e − 
e2 
=
4  e 2 
0 3
xdx
∵ x 2 − a 2 dx
 ∫
10. ∫ x + 1 + 5x + 1
0
x 2 a2  Sol. 3
x dx
x − a − log x + x 2 − a 2  ∫
2
= 2 Let I =
0 x + 1 + 5x + 1
2 

m
1
 1  Multiply and divide with the conjugate of the
x− 2 2 1 1 
=  x − x − log x − + x 2 − x  denominator
 2 8 2 

co
 0 We get
 1
1 − 2
 3 x ( x + 1 − 5 x + 1 dx )
 1 I= ∫
( )( x + 1 − )
1 1 1
=  0 − log 1 − + 0  –[0 – log −  0 x + 1 + 5x + 1 5x + 1
 2 8 2  8 2
x( 5 x + 1) dx
 

s.
3 x +1 −
1
= − log + log
1 1 1 = ∫ ( x + 1) − (5 x + 1)
8 2 8 2 0

ok
= 0. [ (a + b) (a - b) = a2 – b2]
1 3 x ( x + 1 − 5 x + 1 dx )
9. ∫ x 2 e −2 x dx = ∫ x + 1 − 5x − 1
Sol. −1
1 0

∫x e ( )
2 −2 x
Let I = dx
o
3 x x + 1 − 5 x + 1 dx
−1 = ∫ −4 x
u = x2
dv = e–2x
ab

( )
3
e −2 x − e −2 x 1
= − ∫ x + 1 − 5 x + 1 dx
u1 = 2x v= = 40
−2 2
−2 x
e  
3
u4 = 2 v1 = +
ur

3 3
4 1  ( x + 1) 2 (5 x + 1) 2 
e −2 x = −  3 − 
v2 = − 4  3 
 2 5  
8  2  0
.s

## Using Bernoulli's formula,

3
1 2 3 2 3
I = uv – u1v1 + u4v2 = −  ( x + 1) 2 − (5 x + 1) 2 
1
4 3 15 0
  − e −2 x   e −2 x   − e −2 x  
w

=  x2  − x +  8 
3
= −  ( x + 1) 2 − (5 x + 1) 2 
 2  4  2 1 1 3 1 3
  2       −1
2 3 15 0
1
 −2 x  − x 2 x 1 
w

= e  − −  1  1 3 1 3  1 3 1 3
= −   ( 4) 2 − (16) 2  −  (1) 2 − (1) 2 
  2 2 4 
−1 2  3 15  3 15 
 −2  1 1 1    2  1 1 1   1  1 1  1 1 
= e  − − −   − e  − + −   = −  ( 4) 4 − 16 16  −  −  
w

 2 2 4    2 2 4   
2 3 15   3 15  
 5  1 1  8 64  1 1 
= e −2  −  − e 2  − 
 4  4 = −  − − +
2  3 15  3 15 
= −5 e −2 + 1 e 2 1  8 64 1 1 
4 4 = −  − − +
2  3 15 3 15 

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 75
1  8 1 64 1 
= −  − − +  [Ans: (d) none of these]
2  3 3 15 15 
1 105 − 189  cos x
1  7 63 
= −  −  = −  4. ∫ dx = ______ + c
2  3 15  2  45  x
1  −84  cos x
42 14 (a) 2cos x (b)
= −   = = x
2  45 

m
45 15
14 (c) sin x (d) 2sin x
∴ I=  [Ans: (d) 2sin x]
15
Hint:

co
put t = x 2
dt 1 1 −1 1
I. Choose the correct answer : = x 2 =
dx 2 2 x
1. ∫(x-1)e–x dx = _______+ c

s.
1
(a) – xex (b) xex (c) –xe–x (d) xe–x 2 dt = dx
x

[Ans: (c) –xe–x]
Hint: I = 2∫cos t dt = 2 sin t = 2 sin x
Let u = x – 1 dv = e–x dx
u1 = 1 v = –e–x
u11 = 0 v1 = e–x
2t −2 x
1
o ok
5. ∫
(a)
(e x

e +ex
2
+ e− x
−e − x
)
−x
2
dx = _______ + c

(b) −
1
e + e− x x

I = –∫2 dt = t
+c = +c −1 1
(c) (d) x
log e log e
( )
2
e − e− x
2
ab

2
1 ex + 1
2x 1 −e − x
 [Ans: (a) x ]
2. If ∫ x 2 dx = k 2x + c, then k is
e + e− x
1 Hint:
(a) − (b) – loge2 2
I = ∫ dx
ur

log e 2 2
1 x 1
(c) –1 (d)  e + x 
2 e
1 2e 2x
 [Ans: (a) − ]
log e 2 = ∫ dx
(e )
.s

2x 2
Hint: +1
1
put t = = x–1
x put t = e2x + 1
dt −1
w

= (–1)x–2 = 2 dt
dx x = 2e2x Þ dt = 2e2x dx
−1 1 dx
dt = 2 dx Þ – dt = 2 dx dt
x x I = ∫ 2 = ∫ t −2 dt
2t t
w

I = – ∫2 dt =
t
+c
log e 2 t −2+1 1
= = −
1
−2 x −2 + 1 t
= +c
w

log e 2 −1 −1
= 2 x = x x
3. ∫ |x|3 dx = ______+ c
−x 4 x
4
e + 1 e e + e− x ( )
−x
(a) (b) −e
4 4 =
e + e− x
x
4
x
(c) (d) none of these
4

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 81

4. 8.
(i) ∫ udv = uv – ∫ vdu (ii) ∫ udv = uv – u1v1 b

## (iii) ∫ udv = uv – u1v1 + u11 v2– ... (i) ∫ f ( x) dx = F(x) + c

(iv) ∫ udv = uv – u1v1 + u11 v2 – u111 v3 +...... a

## Where u and v are functions of x b

(ii) ∫ f ( x) dx = F (b) – F (a)
 [Ans: (ii) ∫ udv = uv – u1v1]

m
a
5. b
(iii) ∫ f ( x) dx = [ F( x)]a
b
a a
(i) ∫ f ( x) dx = 2∫ f ( x) dx a

co
−a 0 b
(iv) ∫ f ( x) dx = [ F( x)]b
a
a
(ii) ∫ f ( x) dx = 0 if f (x) is an odd function a b

## [Ans: (iv) ∫ f ( x ) dx = [F( x )]b ]

−a a
a a 
a
(iii) ∫ f ( x) dx = 2∫ f ( x) dx if f (x) is an even

s.
9.
−a 0 (i) ∫ ex [f(x) + f´(x)] dx = ex f (x) + c
 function
b
b (ii) ∫ eax [a f (x) + f ´(x)] dx = eax f (x) + c

ok
(iv) ∫ f ( x) dx = f (t ) dt
a a
a a (iii) ∫ eax [a f (x) + f ´(x)] dx = aeax f (x) + c
 [Ans: (i) ∫ f ( x ) dx= 2∫ f ( x ) dx]
0 f ´( x)
(iv) ∫
−a
dx = log |f (x)| + c
6. If f (x) is an anti-derivative of f (x), then f ( x)
o
b  [Ans: (iii) ∫ eax [a f (x) + f´(x)] dx = aeax f (x) + c]
(i) ∫ f ( x) dx = F(b) – F(a)
10.
ab

a
(i) ∫ sec2 x dx = tan x + c
b
(ii) ∫ f ( x) dx = ( F(a ) − F(b) ) (ii) ∫ cosec2 x dx = cot x + c
a (iii) ∫ cosec2 x dx = – cot x + c
b
1
ur

## (iii) ∫ f ( x) dx = – F(a) – F(b) (iv) ∫ cosec2 (ax + b) dx = − cot (ax + b) + c

a
a
 [Ans: (ii) ∫ cosec2 x dx = cot x + c]
b
(iv) ∫ f ( x) dx = [ b
F( x) a ] Additional Question
.s

a b

##  [Ans: (iii) ∫ f ( x ) dx = – F(a) – F(b)] 2 Mark Questions

a
7.
w

3 log a x
a a 1. Evaluate òa dx
Sol.
(i) ∫ fx dx = ∫ f (a − x) dx
0 0 We know that alogax = x
w

b c b
(ii) ∫ f ( x) dx = ∫ f ( x) dx + ∫ f ( x) dx if a < c < b 3log x
∴ ò a a dx =
log ax3 3
a a c
òa dx = òx dx
b b x4
w

(iii) ∫ f ( x) dx = − ∫ f ( x) dx = +c
4
a a
2 cos 2 x − cos 2 x
b a 2. Evaluate ∫
(iv) ∫ f ( x) dx = − ∫ f ( x) dx Sol. sin 2 x
a b b b
2 cos 2 x − cos 2 x
 [Ans: (iii) ∫ f ( x ) dx =− ∫ f ( x ) dx] ∴ ∫ sin 2 x
a a

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82 Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I

## ∴ ∫ f ´(x) dx = ∫ (8x3 – 2x2) dx

=
(
2 cos 2 x − 2 cos 2 x −1 ) dx
∫ sin 2 x ⇒ f (x) =
8 x 4 2 x3
− +c
4 3
2 cos 2 x − 2 cos 2 x + 1
= ∫ dx 2 x3
sin 2 x ⇒ f (x) = 2x4 – +c ----- (1)
1 3
= ò sin 2 x dx

m
Also, f (2) = 1
2(23 )
⇒ 1 = 2(24) – +c
ò cos ec x dx
2
= 3

co
= – cot x + c ⇒ 1 = 32 –
16
+c
3
3. Evaluate ∫ tan2x dx 16 16
Sol. ⇒ 1 – 32 + = c ⇒ – 31 + =c
3 3
∫ tan2x dx = ∫ (sec2x–1) dx −93 + 16

s.
⇒ = c
[ 1 + tan2x = sec2x] 3
= ∫ sec2x dx – ∫ 1. dx −77
⇒ c =

ok
3
= tan x – x + c.
2 x3 77
∴(1) → f (x) = 2 x − −
4
2 + 3 cos x
4. Evaluate ∫ 2
dx 3 3
Sol. sin x 7. Evaluate ∫ x x + 2 dx
2 + 3 cos x 2 3 cos x Sol.
o

sin 2 x
dx = ∫ sin x
2
dx + ∫
sin 2 x
dx
∫ x x + 2 dx = ∫ ( x + 2 − 2) x + 2 dx
cos x 1  [Adding & subtracting 2]
ab

1
= 2∫ 2 dx + 3∫ ⋅ dx
sin x sin x sin x = ∫ ( x + 2) x + 2 dx − ∫ 2 x + 2 dx
= 2∫ cos ec x dx + 3∫ cot x cos ecx dx
2 3 1
= ∫ ( x + 2) 2 dx − 2∫ ( x + 2) 2 dx
= – 2 cot x – 3 cosec x + c
ur

3 1

2 +3 x x
=
( x + 2) 2 +1 − 2 ( x + 2) 2 +1 + c
5. Evaluate ∫ dx 3 1
5x +1 +1
Sol. 2 2
2 x + 3x 2x 3x
.s

5x
dx = ∫ 5x ∫ 5x dx
dx +
( x + 2) 2
5 3
( x + 2) 2
x x = −2 +c
 2  3 5 3
= ∫   dx + ∫   dx
 5  5
w

2 2
x x 2 5 4 3
 2  3 = ( x + 2) 2 − ( x + 2) 2 + c
    5 3
5 5 1
= + +c
( )
w

 2  3
log e   log e   8. If ∫ 3 x 2 + 2 x + k dx = 0, find k.
 5  5 Sol. 0
 a x dx ax  Given
  ∫ = + c
w

( )
1
log e a  ⇒ ∫ 3 x 2 + 2 x + k dx = 0
6. If f´(x) = 8x3 – 2x2, f (2) = 1, find f(x) 0
Sol. 1
 3x3 2 x 2 
Given f ´(x) = 8x3 – 2x2
⇒  + + kx  = 0
 3 2 0
1
⇒ \  x3 + x 2 + kx  = 0
 0

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 83

## ⇒ [1 + 1 + k (1)] – (0) = 0 3 Mark Questions

⇒ 2 + k = 0
x4 + x2 + 1
⇒ k = – 2 1. Evaluate ∫ x2 − x + 1
dx
π
( x + 1)
2
9. Evaluate ∫ sin 3 x dx 2
− x2

m
Sol. π 0 π
3 sin x − sin 3 x
Sol. ∫x2 − x + 1
dx
( x + 1)
2 2
− x2
∫ sin 3 x dx = ∫ dx = ∫ dx
0 0
4 x2 − x + 1
[ sin3x = 3sin x – 4 sin3x]

co
1
π (x 2
+1+ x ) (x 2
+1− x )
=
4 ∫ (3 sin x − sin 3x ) dx = ∫ x2 − x + 1
dx
0
π
1 1  [ a2 – b2 = (a + b) (a – b)]
= −3 cos x + cos 3 x 

s.

4 0
∫ (x )
3
=
2
+ 1 + x dx
1  1 
=  −3 cos π + 3 cos 3π − x3 x2

ok
4  = + x+ +c
 1  3 2
  −3 cos 0 + cos 3(0)  cos 2 x − cos 2α
3  2. Evaluate ∫ dx
cos x − cos α
1  1  1  cos 2 x − cos 2α
=  3 −  −  −3 +   Sol. ∫ dx
o
4 3 3  cos x − cos α
[ cos π = – 1, cos 3π = – 1 and cos 0 = 1]
1  8  −8  
(2 cos 2
) (
x − 1 − 2 cos 2 α − 1 ) dx

ab

=  −    =
4 3  3   4 cos x − cos α
1  8 8 1  16  2 cos x − 1 − 2 cos 2 α + 1
2

=  +  = 4  3  =
4 = ∫ dx
4 3 3 3 cos x − cos α
a
cos 2 x − cos 2 α
ur

## 10. If ∫ 3 x dx = 8, find the value of a.

2
= 2∫ dx
Sol. 0 a cos x − cos α

Given ò 3 x 2 dx = 8
(cos x + cos α ) (cos x − cos α )
= 2∫ dx
cos x − cos α
.s

0
a
 x3  = 2∫ (cos x + cos α) dx
⇒  3 ⋅  = 8
 3 0
w

## = 2 [sin x + cos α . x]+c

a
⇒  x3  = 8
 0 = 2 sin x + 2x cos α + c
⇒ a3 – 0 = 8
(a )
2
w

x
⇒ a3 = 8 + bx
⇒ a3 = 23
3. Evaluate ∫ a xbx
dx

⇒ a = 2
w

(a )
x 2
+ bx
∴ a = 2 Sol.
∫a xb x
dx
a 2 x + b 2 x + 2a x b x
= ∫ dx
a xb x
[ (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2]
 a2x b2 x 2a x b x 
= ∫  x x + x x + x x  dx
a b a b a b 

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84 Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I

 ax bx  22 x + 3 22 −3 x
∫  b x + a x + 2 dx
= = +
2 log 2 −3 log 2
+c

 a x  b x  22 x + 3−1 22 −3 x
∫   b  +  a  + 2 dx
= = − +c
log 2 3 log 2

m
 a  b
x 2 22 x + 2 22 −3 x
= − +c
    log 2 3 log 2
b a
= + + 2x + c sec 2 x
a
   b 6. Evaluate ∫ 3 + tan x dx

co
log e   log e  
 b  a Sol.
sec 2 x
2 Let I = ∫ dx
4. If f´(x) = 3x2 – 3 and f(1) = 0, find f(x) 3 + tan x
Sol. Given x Put 3 + tan x = t

s.
f ´(x) = 3 x − 3
2 2 ⇒ 0 + sec2x dx = dt
x
⇒ sec2x dx = dt
We know f (x) = ò f ´( x ) dx
dt

ok ò
 2 2 ∴ I =
= ∫  3 x − 3  dx t
 x  = log |t| + c
x 3  x −2  = log |3 + tan x| + c
f(x) = 3   − 2   +c
 3  −2 
o
[ t = 3 + tan x]
1 7. Evaluate ∫ sin3x cos x dx
f(x) = x + 2 + c ......(1)
3
Sol.
ab

x
Also f (1) = 0 Let I = ∫ sin3x cos x dx
1
0 = 1 +
3
+c Put t = sin x
12
⇒ dt = cos x dx
ur

0 = 1 + 1 + c
t4 sin 4 x
c = – 2 \ I = ∫ t3. dt = +c= +c
1 4 4
\ f(x) = x3 + −2
x2 1

.s

1+ x 1− x 8. Evaluate dx
8 +4
5. Evaluate ∫ dx 16 x 2 + 25
2x 1
1+ x
8 +41− x Sol. ∫ dx

w

Sol. dx 16 x 2 + 25 1
2x = ∫  25 
dx

(2 )3 1+ x
+ 2 ( )
2 1− x 16  x 2 + 
 16 
= ∫ dx
w

x
2
1 dx
4∫
23+ 3 x + 22 − 2 x =
= ∫ dx  5
2
2x x2 +  
w

 4
23+ 3 x 22 − 2 x
= ∫ 2x dx + ∫ 2 x dx 1  5
2
= log x + x 2 +   +c
4  4
= ∫ 2 dx + ∫ 22 − 2 x − x dx
3+ 3 x − x

1 4 x + 16 x 2 + 25
= log +c
= ∫ 22 x + 3 dx + ∫ 22 −3 x dx 4 4

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Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics 85

1 1  1 1 
2
= log 4 x + 16 x 2 + 25 − log 4 + c
4 4  − log x + ∫ 2 dx 
=
 x x 1
2
 1 1
=
1
log 4 x + 16 x 2 + 25 + c1 =  − x log x − x 
4  1
2
1 1

m
where
1
c1 = − log 4 + c = −  log x + 
4 x x 1
 1 1  1
x  1 + sin x cos x   = −  log 2 +  − 1log1 + 1  
9. Evaluate ∫ e   dx  2 2  1 

co
 cos 2
x
Sol.
x  1 + sin x cos x  1 
I = ∫ e 
1

  dx = −  log 2 + − 0 − 1
cos 2 x   2 2 
x 1 sin x cos x  [ log 1 = 0]
= ∫ e 

s.
+ dx
 cos x cos x cos x 
2
1 1
= −  log 2 − 
( ) 2 2
I = ∫ e sec x + tan x dx 
x

2

ok
1 1 1
= - log 2 = (1 − log 2)
-----(1) 2 2 2
Let f(x) = tan x 5 Mark Questions
f ´(x) = sec2x dx
o
1. If f´(x) = a sin x + b cos x and f´(0) = 4, f(0) = 3,
We know ∫ e ( f ( x) + f ´( x) ) dx = ex . f(x) + c
x
 π
f   = 5, find f (x).
I = ∫ e x ( f ( x) + f ´( x) ) dx
ab

\  2
Sol.
= ex . f(x) + c
Given f ´(x) = a sin x + b cos x  -----(1)
= ex tan x + c
2
log x ∫ f ´(x) dx = a ∫ sin x dx + b ∫ cos x dx
10. Evaluate ò dx
ur

## x2 [ ∫ f ´(x) dx = f (x)]

Sol. 1
2
log x ⇒ f(x) = – a cos x + b sin x + c -----(2)
Let I = ò x2
dx
1 Given f ´(0) = 4
.s

## ILATE ∴ (1) 4 = a sin 0 + b cos 0

 Logarithmic function
⇒ 4 = a (0) + b (1)
w

## Put u = log x [ sin 0 = 0 and cos 0 = 1]

1 ⇒ 4 = b
u = log x and dv = dx = x–2 dx
x2 Also, f (0) = 3
w

1 x −2+1 x −1 −1
du = ; v = = = ∴ (2) 3 = – a cos 0 + b sin 0 + c
x −2 + 1 −1 x
⇒ 3 = – a (1) + b (0) + c
Using integration by parts we get,
w

⇒ 3 = – a + c ----- (3)
∫ u dv = uv – ∫ v du  π
And f   = 5
 2
2
log x π π
\ I = ò x2
dx ∴ (2) 5 = – a cos + b sin +c
1 2 2
 1 1 1 
2
⇒ 5 = – a (0) + b (1) + c
=  − log x − ∫ − ⋅ dx  π π
 x x x 1 [ sin = 1 and cos = 0]
2 2
⇒ 5 = b + c

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86 Sura’s ➠ XII Std - Business Mathematics and Statistics Unit 2 ➠ Integral Calculus- I

⇒ 5 = 4 + c [ b = 4] 1
= − cost + c
⇒ 5 – 4 = c 4
c = 1
Substituting c = 1 in (3) we get,
1
= − cos x + c  [ t = x4]
4
4
( )
1
3 = – a + 1 4. Evaluate ∫ 2 dx

m
3 x + 13 x − 10
⇒ a = 1 – 3 Sol.
1
⇒ a = – 2 Let I = ∫ 2 dx
3 x + 13 x − 10
\ From (2), f(x) = – (– 2) cos x + 4 sin x + 1

co
1 dx
⇒ f(x) = 2 cos x + 4 sin x + 1 = ∫
3 x 2 + 13 x − 10
x7 3 3
2. Evaluatex6∫– x5 + xdx
x + 1 4 – x3 + x2 – x + 1 dx
Sol. 1

s.
x7 x7 =
+1
x(–)7 + x(–)6 ∫ x + 1
xLet I = dx 3 x 2 + 13 x + 169 − 169 − 10
3 36 36 3
Using long division
– x6 method, 1 dx
= ∫
– x – x

ok
(+)6 (+) 5 2
3  13  289
 x +  −
x5 6 36
x(–)5 + x(–)4 2
1 
–x 4
 2 (co-efft of x )
o
– x – x
(+)4 (+) 3
ab

2 2
x3  1  13    13  169
=     =   =
x(–)3 + x(–)2 2  3  6 36
– x2 169
36
– x – x
(+)2 (+)
ur

## x -169 10 -169 -120 -289

- = =
(–) x + (–)1 36 3 36 36

–1 1 dx

.s

x7 =
I = ∫ dx
2 2
∴ 3  13   17 
x +1  x +  −  
6 16
= ∫  x 6 − x5 + x 4 − x3 + x 2 − x + 1 −
1 
 dx
w

  dx 1 x−a 
x + 1   ∫ 2 = log + c
 2
x −a 2a x+a 
x 7 x 6 x5 x 4 x3 x 2
I= − + − + − + x − log x + 1 + c
7 6 5 4 3 2
w

13 17
− x+
3. Evaluate ∫ x sin (x ) dx
3 4
=
1
×
1
log 6 6 +c
Sol. 3 2 × 17 13 17
x+ +
w

6 6 6
Let I = ∫ x3 . sin (x4) dx
2
Put t = x4 x−
1 3 +c
⇒ dt = 4x3 dx = log
17 x+5
dt
⇒ = x3 dx 3x − 2
4 dt 1 =
1
log +c
∴ I = ∫ sin t ⋅ = ò sin t dt 17 3 ( x + 5)
4 4

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