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MS494: Total Quality Management

Course Instructor: Dr Noor Muhammad

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Learning Objectives

 Different Definitions of Total Quality Management (TQM)

 What is Quality and its Dimensions

 Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

 To Understand Different Functional Perspectives on Quality

 The Three Spheres of Quality

 Other Perspectives on Quality

 Arriving at a Common Perspective

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What is TQM

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a structured system for


meeting and exceeding customer needs and expectations by
creating organization-wide participation in the planning and
implementation of breakthrough and continuous improvement
processes. It integrates with the business plan of the organization
and can positively influence customer satisfaction and market
share growth.

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What is TQM

Total Quality Management (TQ, QM, or TQM) and Six sigma are
sweeping “Culture change” efforts to position a company for
greater customer satisfaction, profitability and competitiveness.

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What is TQM
 TQM is the enhancement to the traditional way of doing business
 It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in the world-class competition
 Analyzing three words (TQM), these are:

Total- Made up the entire/whole

Quality- Degree of excellence a product or service provides

Management- Act, art or manner of handling, controlling directing, etc

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What is TQM? (Continued)

 TQM is defined as both philosophy and a set of guiding


principles that represents the foundation of a continuously
improving organization.

 It is the application of quantitative methods and human


resources to improve all the processes within an organization
and exceed customer needs now and in future.

 TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing


improvement efforts, and technical tools under disciplined
approach.
What is Quality?

Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

 Performance  Durability
 Features  Serviceability
 Reliability  Aesthetics
 Conformance  Perceived Quality

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What is Quality?
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

Performance Efficiency with


Feature which a product
Reliability
achieves its
intended purpose
Conformance

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What is Quality
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

Performance  Attributes that


Features supplement the
Reliability
product’s basic
performance
Conformance

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What is Quality
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

Performance Product’s
Features propensity to
Reliability
perform consistently
over the product’s
Conformance
useful life.

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What is Quality
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

Performance Adherence to
Features quantifiable
Reliability
specifications
Conformance

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What is Quality
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

 Ability
to tolerate Durability
stress without failing  Serviceability
 Aesthetics
 Perceived Quality

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What is Quality
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

 The ease and low Durability


cost of repair for a  Serviceability
product  Aesthetics
 Perceived Quality

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What is Quality
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

 Degree to which Durability


product attributes  Serviceability
are matched to  Aesthetics
consumer
 Perceived Quality
preferences

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What is Quality
Garvin’s Product Quality Dimensions

 Quality as the Durability


customer perceives  Serviceability
it…image,  Aesthetics
recognition, word of
 Perceived Quality
mouth.

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What is Quality
PZ&B’s (Parasuraman Zeithamel, and Berry) Service
Quality Dimensions

 Tangibles
 Service Reliability
 Responsiveness
 Assurance
 Empathy

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What is Quality
PZ&B’s Service Quality Dimensions

 Tangibles Physical
 Service Reliability appearance of the
 Responsiveness
facility, equipment,
personnel and
 Assurance
communications
 Empathy materials

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What is Quality
PZ&B’s Service Quality Dimensions

Tangibles The ability of the


 Service Reliability service provider to
 Responsiveness
perform the
promised service
 Assurance
dependably and
 Empathy accurately

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What is Quality
PZ&B’s Service Quality Dimensions

 Tangibles The willingness of


 Service Reliability the provider to be
 Responsiveness
helpful and prompt
in providing service
 Assurance
 Empathy

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What is Quality
PZ&B’s Service Quality Dimensions

Tangibles The knowledge


 Service Reliability and courtesy of the
 Responsiveness
employees and their
ability to inspire
 Assurance
trust and confidence
 Empathy

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What is Quality
PZ&B’s Service Quality Dimensions

Tangibles Caring
 Service Reliability individualized
 Responsiveness
attention from the
service firm
 Assurance
 Empathy

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What is Quality?

Why does it matter that different definitions of quality exist?

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality

Functional Perspectives on quality include:


 Supply Chain Management
 Engineering
 Operations Management
 Strategic Management
 Marketing
 Financial/Accounting
 Human resources

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality

Supply Chain Management

Upstream activities
Core processes
Downstream activities

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality

Engineering Design Life cycle

Applying mathematical problem-


solving skills and modeling
techniques

 Product Design
 Process Design

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality

Operations Management

Statistical Process
Control (SPC)

 Shewhart’s Control Process

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality

Operations
Management

 Uses the
systems view that
underlies modern
quality management
thinking
Conversion System Model of Operations Management

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality

Strategic Management

 Firms establish a planned course of action to


achieve quality objectives

 Course of action must be consistent and


logical in terms of goals, policies, plans, and
sequencing to achieve quality improvement

 Aids an organization to achieve a sustainable


competitive advantage

Generic strategic Planning Process


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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality
Marketing
 Focuses on perceived
quality of goods and
services
 The primary marketing tools
for influencing customers
perception of quality are
price and advertising
 The customer is the focus of
marketing-related quality
improvement
Marketing System

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality
Financial
Deming Value Chain
 Relies more on quantified,
measurable, results-
oriented thinking
 Identify and measure costs
of quality by conducting
trade-off and break-even
analysis
 The pursuit of quality does
not safeguard a company
against bad management

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality
Financial

Law of diminishing returns

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What is Quality?
Differing Functional Perspectives on Quality

Human Resources

Employee empowerment
Organizational design
Job analysis

Quality management flourishes where the workers’ and company’s needs are
closely aligned

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What is Quality?

What is Quality?
The Three Spheres of Quality

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Quality Control

• Monitoring process capability and stability


• Measuring process performance
• Reducing process variability
• Performing acceptance sampling
• Developing and maintaining control charts

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Quality Assurance

• Failure mode and effects analysis


• Concurrent engineering
• Experimental design
• Process improvement
• Design team formation and management

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Quality Management

• Planning for quality improvement


• Creating a quality organizational culture
• Providing leadership and support
• Providing training and retraining
• Facilitating organizational communication

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Reference Book
Chapter One: Different Perspective on Quality

Book Name
Foster, S.T. (2013). Managing Quality: Integrating the Supply Chain, 5th
Edition. Publisher: Pearson

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