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Chlorine Problems and Bypass Systems

CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Alternative Fuels Alternative Raw Materials

Ashes
Waste
Animal
water
meal
sludge
RDF

Tyres Spent
Pot Liner
Rice Are there Quarry
husk waste
Negative
Impacts?
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Refractory lifetime
and steel shell
Cyclone corrosion
blockage and Modification of clinker
(reliability, composition
build-ups
maintenance and (cement chemistry, raw
(reliability, production costs)
productivity) material lifetime)

Cold air introduction


Higher gas flow
(heat consumption,
(productivity)
productivity)

Difficult burning Negative Gas emissions


(CO, ck quality) Impacts
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Refractory lifetime
and steel shell
Cyclone corrosion
blockage and
build-ups (reliability,
maintenance and
(reliability, production costs)
productivity)

Why do these phenomena happen?


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Non-volatile elements Volatile elements

 Ca  K
 Si  Na
 Al  S
 Fe  Cl
 Mg
 ...

 Volatilize in hot areas


 Condense in cold areas
 Hardly leave the system
 Concentrate
 Build-up and block
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Circulation of volatile elements

External Cycle
Internal Cycle
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

May I have too many volatiles in my quarry?


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

AMREYAH
LOULÉ
CAMPO SOUSELAS
IJACI FORMOSO SÃOCEZARINA
MIGUEL DOS CAMPOS
El Hammam
Cerro
ManoeldaHomem
Cabeça Alta Alhastro
Mina Sul Mina I e II

MATOLA L’AMALI
PARAGUAI
ALHANDRA BODOQUENA
Salamanga
Itapucumí
La Pampita
Bom Jesus
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

I have too many blockages in my plant


Is it chlorine?

Analyze systematically the hot meal

Compare with typical limits


Cl problem? SO3 problem? K2O/Na2O problem?

Perform a material balance


Inputs and outputs of the circulating elements

Compare with typical tolerable inputs


by raw materials and fuels

Calculate the molar alkali / sulfur ratio


compare it with references

Calculate volatilization degrees

Keep a record of the build-ups location


Analyze chemically (and XRD?) the build-ups
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Hot meal automatic sampler – L’Amali


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

BUILD-UP TENDENCY IN THE PREHEATER BOTTOM PART


CIMPOR - INTERCEMENT
Cl- vs SO3 IN THE HOT MEAL (W/O LOI)
3,5
ALH, 01 (F6) ALH, 05 (F6)
ALH, 12 (F6) ALH, 01 (F7)
ALH, 06 (F7) ALH, 07 (F7)
ALH, 09 (F7) SOU, 96 (F1)
3,0 SOU, 07 (F2) SOU, 02 (F3)
SOU, 07 (F3) SOU, 12 (F3)
LOU, 03 LOU, 06
LOU, 10 UO6, 08
CRITICAL ZONE UO3, 03 UO3, 09
FREQUENT BLOCKAGES UO8, 03 UO12, 00
2,5 UO13, 08 UO10, 11
UO9, 02 UO9, 05
UO9, 10 UO5, 02
UO5, 08 AMCC, 08 (F1)
AMCC, 12 (F1) AMCC, 01 (F2)
2,0 AMCC, 07 (F2) ACCC, 04 (F1)
ACCC, 07 (F1) MAT, 01
MAT, 09 MAT, 12
MAT, 13 SIM, 03 (F1)
% Cl-

SIM, 08 (F2) CAF, 03


CAF, 06 CAJ, 97
1,5 CEZ, 09 (F2) CEZ, 09 (F2 c/ resíduo)
HARD TO CONTROL
CEZ, 13 (F2 c/ resíduo) CEZ, 13 (F1 c/ resíduo)
CEZ, 13 (F1 performance) CAN, 97
CAN, 12 IJA, 13
UO1, 09 (F2) UO1, 09 (F1)
1,0
EASY TO CONTROL

0,5

0,0
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 6,5 7,0 7,5 8,0 8,5 9,0 9,5 10,0 10,5 11,0 11,5 12,0 12,5

% SO3
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

What are the limits?

CHLORINE INPUTS HOT MEAL

Limestone
recent limestone
Other RM Fuel
formations with alternative RM alternative fuels Cl- vs SO3
high porosity near (sludge, ashes) (PVC)
the sea
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

What are the limits?

Limestone
recent limestone
Other RM Fuel
formations with alternative RM alternative fuels
high porosity near (sludge, ashes) (PVC)
the sea

> 0,45 g Cl/kg ck

Hot meal % SO3 + 2,3 % Cl- > 8 %


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

What are the limits?

450

Chlorine
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Calculation example

Limestone Other RM Fuel

RDF
Limestone Ashes
0,6 % Cl
0,012 % Cl 2,05 % Cl
15 % heat substitution
85 % Raw meal 0,8 % Raw meal
3 500 kcal/kg

1,55 × 85 × 0,012 1,55 × 0,8 × 2,05 810 × 15 × 0,6


10 10 3500 × 10
0,16 g/kg ck 0,25 g/kg ck 0,21 g/kg ck
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

I’ve got a chlorine problem! What can I do?

Measures against Reduction of the chlorine input


build-ups by chlorides Regular chlorine input
Smooth kiln operation
Good cleaning
Dust discarding (external cycle)
Hot meal discarding
Gas bypass
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Be sure that you know where is chlorine coming from


 Sometimes it is not the alternative fuel

 It can be an alternative raw material that you use in very small amounts

 Be sure that you are able to analyze chlorine correctly

Can you reduce the chlorine content?


 Maybe you are using several ARM and only one of them is problematic; is
it worth using it?

 Work with the AFR/ARM supplier trying to find solutions for chlorine
reduction. Usually both will benefit!
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Chloride removal

RDF preparation plant


PORTUGAL
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Chloride removal
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Is your chlorine input homogeneous?


 Where are you adding your ARM?

 Are you dosing it correctly? regularly?

 Are there frequent changes in AFR?

 Do you have a maximum target for chlorine? Are you controlling it?

 When the raw mill stops: does chlorine rich dust accumulate in the silo?
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Cleaning methods
 Is your cleaning with air blasters optimized?
 air pressure

 position

 nozzles

 blasting sequence

 What are your other cleaning methods?


 manual cleaning

 cleaning rods

 compressed air

 high pressure water

 cardox
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

 Manual cleaning points


 are they located where it is needed?

 do you have good accesses?

 are they easy to open?

 do they close tightly?

 are you cleaning safely?

 do you discuss it frequently with the cleaning team?


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Can you remove chlorine from the system?


 What is your chlorine concentration in the dusts?

 Conditioning tower dust

 ESP / bag filter dust

 Different concentrations in different compartments?

 How much dust can you remove (weekly basis)?

 Is it worth the effort?

 What will you do with it?

 Cement mill
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

If the previous options are not enough

 Consider the possibility to install a chlorine bypass

 High CAPEX solution

 Affects heat consumption

 Dust disposal
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

What is a bypass?
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

A short story about Matola  Start-up


 Plant 1923
 Kiln 4 1974

 Capacities
 643 860 t ck/year
 858 000 t cement/year
 1 410 000 t cement/year (grinding)

 Ck/cement
 73,5 %

 Limestone reserves
 Proven 16 years
 Probable 122 years
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Main equipments
Packers
5: 1200 b/h
6: 2400 b/h
Cement
mills 7: 2400 b/h
Kiln 6: 30 t/h
2 000 t/d
7: 60 t/h
8: 90 t/h
Raw mill
200 t/h

Limestone
crusher
250 t/h
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Matola kiln in 2009


 Cyclone blockages were occurring very frequently

 43 % of the incidental stoppage time = cyclone blockages

918 lost hours!

 56 % of the process stoppages = cyclone blockages

139 stoppages!
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

# Stoppages Lost Hours

C1 C1
other other
9 56
17 128 C2
C2
86
18

C4
C4
125
28
C3 C3
28 255

[average 2009 – 2011]


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

A process kiln audit in September 2009 identified


the high chlorine inputs as the main cause for the
high process failure rate
 Kiln feed:
0,30 % Cl
4,8 g Cl/kg ck

 Hot meal:
7,9 % Cl
0,39 % SO3
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Decision to install a bypass


 Offers from Polysius and FLSmidth

 Polysius contract signed 10th September 2010

 Start-up 19th April 2012

 Performance test 17th May 2012


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

The Matola bypass in detail...


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Extraction point over the smoke chamber


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Dispersion plates
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Quenching chamber
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Ø 1 150 mm
15 000 Nm3/h
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

400 ºC
Quenching air

1100 ºC
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

67 000 m3/h
7 mbar

Quenching air
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

200 ºC

Dilution air

400 ºC
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

89 000 m3/h
7 mbar
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

4 432 m2
Ø 160 mm x 6 000 mm
fiber glass+PTFE
4 chambers
20 modules
Bag filter
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

290 000 m3/h


30 mbar

max 13 % bypass
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Bypass dust transport circuit

10 t/h dust
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

150 t
Bypass dust silo
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Long
Doors and stoppages Filling
cleaning sensor
points (loading
head)
Insulation
Dust chloride
removal concentration
Boot level
(elevator)

False air
Dust handling Dust disposal
Dead zones
(silo)

Problems
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

No more cyclone
blockages
stability
+
production
+
heat consumption
Less intensive
cleaning Improved draft
less build-ups
specialized manpower
(HP water pump) +
+ extra exhaust fan
heat consumption

Benefits
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Target
Operation ΔP = 8 mbar

Target
T = 200 ºC

Target
T = 400 ºC

Target
Cl = 2,0 – 2,5 %
Target
Cl = 15 – 18 %
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Operation
• By-pass ~ 4,5 – 5 %
• Exhaust fan 7M31 = 500 rpm / damper = 50 %
• BF Pressure drop = 8 mbar
• T BFilter inlet (PID) = 200 ºC
• T Quenching chamber outlet (PID) = 400 ºC
• Quenching fan ~ 440 rpm; Dilution fan ~ 300 rpm
• Dust prodution ~ 0,5 t/h
• Recommended sampling frequency:
• Hot meal: 4h/4h
• Bypass dust: 4h/4h

• Target for bypass dust chlorides = 15 – 18 %


(frequently review it, based in the transport difficulties)

• Target for hot meal chlorides = 2,0 – 2,5 %


(frequently review it, based in the coating tendency)
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

1600
Last cyclone
1400 blockage:
7th May 2012
1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0
2009 S1 2009 S2 2010 S1 2010 S2 2011 S1 2011 S2 2012 S1 2012 S2
Equipments Process not cyclone Cyclone blockage

Incidental Stoppages - Lost Hours (h)


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
2009 S1 2009 S2 2010 S1 2010 S2 2011 S1 2011 S2 2012 S1 2012 S2
Equipments Process not cyclone Cyclone blockage

Incidental Stoppages #
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

1.000

900
2013:
800 11 h cyclone blockage
2014 (Oct):
700 0 h cyclone blockage

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012 2012 2013 2013 2014 2014
S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2

Incidental Process Stoppages – Lost Hours (h)


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Performance (t/d)
2.000

1.500

1.000

500

-
2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012 2012 2013 2013 2014 2014
S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2
CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Bypass system
 Eliminates problems with blockages that originate in chlorine

 It is a high CAPEX solution

 It increases kiln heat consumption

 You must have a solution for bypass dust

 Be sure that you’ve implemented other primary measures before


CHLORINE PROBLEMS AND BYPASS SYSTEMS

Miguel Oliveira| T&P | Engenharia de Processo e Produtos| moliveira@cimpor.com