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ENGR 313 - Chapter 1

ENGR 313
Introduction to Materials Science
and Engineering

James G. Vaughan, Ph.D.
Lyceum B002
Open Door: 8:00am – 5:00pm

Teaching Materials Science Teaching Materials Design-Led

The traditional approach to Materials teaching The starting point for design-led teaching of
starts with fundamentals: the electron, the Materials is the understanding that materials
atom, atomic bonding and packing, must meet certain requirements if they are to
crystallography, and crystal defects. Onto this perform properly in a given design. To match
is built alloy theory, the kinetics of phase materials to design requires a perspective on
transformations, and the development of the range of properties they offer, how these
microstructures at the electron and optical properties combine to limit performance, the
microscope level. Then the understanding and influence of manufacturing processes on
control of properties at the centimeter and properties, and ways of accessing the data
larger stage are developed. needed to evaluate all of these.

Projected Use of Materials

Why study materials science?

ENGR 313 - Chapter 1

Projected Use of Materials

Historical Data for Annual


ENGR 313 - Chapter 1

World demand for rare earth metals

used in cell phones, hybrid cars,
wind turbines and many electronic
applications is currently over
110,000 tons/year, and expected to
grow some 71% to 188,000 tons by
2012. Global automobile production
uses over 130 tons of platinum
annually, while hybrid automobile
production is expected to be the
main driver of lithium demand for
lithium-ion batteries used in these
Some experts of metals consider the Toyota Prius as the largest consumer
of rare earth metals in the world. Each electric Prius motor requires 1
kilogram (2.2 lb) of neodymium, and each battery uses 10 to 15 kg (22-33
lb) of lanthanum. That number will nearly double under Toyota's plans to
boost the car's fuel economy. An estimated 15% or so of lithium output is
used in batteries today, but that figure is forecast to jump to about 40% by
2020 due to rising demand for lithium-ion car batteries.

ALL engineers need to have a

working knowledge of

• Available Materials
• Material Properties
• Effect of Processing and

ENGR 313 - Chapter 1

Timeline of Material Development

Figure 1.1

Colored zones indicate man-made materials

Structure Functional
of Materials

Properties Processing

Available Materials Available Materials

Engineering Materials

Metals Non Metals


ENGR 313 - Chapter 1

Material Properties Mechanical

General Mechanical Thermal Electrical Properties
• Cost • Strength • Conductivity • Dielectric
• Density • Stiffness • Diffusivity Constant
• Toughness • Heat Capacity • Conductivity
E - Elastic Modulus
• Expansion
σy - Yield Strength
Magnetic Optical Chemical
KIc - Fracture Toughness
• Remanence • Refraction • Corrosion
• Saturation • Absorption Resistance
Magnetization ρ - Density

Figure 1.2

Strength Effect of Processing and

Yield Strength of 4140 Steel

Thermal Effect of Environment

Service Temperature

Thermal Expansion

Thermal Conductivity

Thermal Diffusivity

ENGR 313 - Chapter 1

Electrical – Durability
Magnetic -
Properties Corrosion
Resistivity – Conductivity
Refraction – Absorption

Why did the What are the Most Important

O-rings fail? Material Properties?

Environmental The application determines

effects – cold which properties are most
weather affected important
the properties of the
O-ring material.

Design-limiting Properties
Properties that determine the suitability of
a material based on design requirements

For the plane,

strength, stiffness
and toughness are
design limiting – if
any of the three are
too low, the plane will
not fly

Figure 1.2

ENGR 313 - Chapter 1

Materials Selection for US Pennies So – What to Expect

1st third of course: introduction to
materials, material selection, stiffness,
weight, crystallography – Exam
2nd third of course: stiffness and
strength limited designs, fracture and
failure – Exam
Last third of course: temperature,
environment, processing, phase
diagrams – Final Exam