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Cement Technology Course

Prepared and Presented By:

Dr. Abdel Monem Soltan
Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo-11566, Egypt
E-mail address:
Cement Technology Course Outline
Week Topic Subject
- History
- Importance
1 Building Material
- Types
- Open Discussion (related to subjects)
- Definition
- Raw Material
- Raw Material Exploration Methods
- Quarrying Processes
2 Introduction to Cement
- Grinding Processes
- Blending Processes
- Open Discussion (related to subjects)
- Open Discussion (related to subjects)
- Acid Etching
- Petrography (microstructure)
3 Limestone Characterization - Classification
- Mineralogy
- Chemistry
- Size Analysis
- Structure
4 Argillaceous Rocks Characterization
- Mineralogy
- Chemistry
- Impact of Raw Material physical properties on processing
- The material included in the cement industry
- Check-list for potential cement raw materials
5 - Check-list for potential cement raw material (chemical)
Raw Mix Design
- Deleterious constituents in cement raw materials
- Raw mix design
- Raw mix moduli “ratios”
- Principles of clinker manufacture
Week Topic Subject
- Firing Kilns
- Mineralogical Transformations along Dehydration Stage
- Mineralogical Transformations along Calcination Stage
Firing Reactions and - Mineralogical Transformations along Clinkering Stage
Mineralogical Transformations - Mineralogical Transformations along Cooling Stage
- Clinker Formation and Mineralogy
- Clinker Grinding and Gypsum Addition
- Open Discussion (related to subjects)
- Hydration of Belite
- Hydration of Alite
- Hydration of Tri-calcium Aluminate
7 Cement Hydration - Hydration of Ferrite
- Hydration of Portland Cement
- Role of Gypsum
- Open Discussion (related to subjects)
- Gypsum Plasters
- Limes
8 Cement Types - Portland Cement
- White Cement
- Open Discussion (related to subjects)
9 Visit to Cement Plant

10 Student Presentation - Open Discussion about the Factory Visit

- Definition
- Types
11 Lime - Raw Material Characterization
- Raw Material Chemical Composition
- Open Discussion (related to subjects)
Week Topic Subject
- Types of Limestones
- Petrography of Limestones
- Thermal Decomposition of Limestones
- Allochem Types and Role
12 Impact of Limestone Petrography - Orthochem Types and Role
- Grain Size and Role
- Roundness Classes and Role
- Porosity Types and Role
- Petrographic Modeling for Lime Production
13 Revision - Open Discussion to the whole course subjects
A mixture of compounds made from burning limestone and
clay together at very high temperatures ranging from 1400 to
1600 ºC

A composite material made up of a filler (aggregate) and a
binder (cement). The binder “glues” the filler together to
form a synthetic conglomerate

Solid bodies held together by the cement
Portland Cement Raw Materials

C=CaO S=SiO2 A=Al2O3 F=Fe2O3

Limestone Sandstone Claystone Iron ore

Cement Manufacture
Quarrying Process Crushing Process

Mixing Process
(Raw Mix Design)

Clinker Grinding and

addition Firing the Raw Mix
of Gypsum
Limestone Quarry:
Limestone intercalated
by marls and or shale

Explosives are used to

get limestone boulders
Yellowish orange

Friable Limestone

Grayish limestone

Fissile Grayish

Wadi Abu Khosheirat Section

Wadi Garawi Section

Snow white and


Beni Khaled Section Bahariya – Farafra road samples

Pale yellowish orange
marly limestone

White Limestone

Qattamia Section

Very weak pale

grayish orange

Northern Coast Sections

Crushing Process
The limestone
boulders are crushed
by different types of
Mixing Process
(Raw Mix Design)
Raw Material

Initial Homogenization

Storage of Raw Mix


C Qtz D
Chemical Constitution, Wt. (%)
Region Sample Total
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO K2O Na2O T.I.O*
H1 5.48 1.74 0.68 48.09 1.73 0.09 0.33 0.42 10.05
H2 19.90 5.03 2.23 38.05 1.09 0.27 0.33 0.60 28.85
H3 8.23 1.47 0.75 46.20 0.76 0.17 0.33 0.50 11.71
Nile B1 2.38 0.70 0.40 52.41 0.47 0.05 0.33 0.38 4.33
Valley KH1 4.33 1.08 0.48 51.39 0.43 0.08 0.33 0.41 6.73
T1 0.43 0.27 0.17 54.00 0.22 0.01 0.33 0.34 1.43
T2 0.01 0.26 0.16 53.62 0.22 0.01 0.33 0.34 0.99
AS1 0.65 0.09 0.09 54.20 0.29 0.00 0.33 0.33 1.45
NV Average 5.18 1.33 0.62 49.75 0.65 0.09 0.33 0.42 8.19

Grinding the Raw Mix
Firing the Raw Mix

Where to Fire ….
How to Fire ….
Where to Fire …
Cement Kiln: It is steel tube 100 to
500 feet long and 8 to 15 feet
diameter. It is inclined to the
horizontal by 2.5° from horizontal

• It is rotated clockwise with a rate of 1

turn per 2 minutes.
• As it rotates, the kiln feed moves
toward the lower end.
Fuels that have been used for primary firing include coal, natural gas and
Oxygen Distribution in
Heat Distribution in Kiln
Heat even distribution affects the quality of produced clinker
Cement kiln is lined
by different types
of Refractory Bricks
How to Fire ..

Raw Mix enters

the kiln through
the Preheater

Raw Mix is affected

by hot gases
recovered from the
• The cyclons clean-up the dust-laden (dust loaded

• Homogenization of Raw Mix

• Efficient cooling of Exhaust Gases (Environmental

impact) due to Heat Exchange with the Raw Mix
(Economical impact) so efficiently heated.
Initial Feed of the Raw

The Kiln feed is passing

different reactions

Clinker Formation
The Clinker is cooled in the
Cooler. Once cooled, it is
ready for grinding

The Clinker heat is

recirculated back to the Kiln
or the Preheater
The Clinker: C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF
The Clinker is
ground in a ball mill
filled with steel balls

Different additives
are added such as
gypsum to control
the set. Now we
have the Portland
Portland Cement
The clinker and/or the
cement can be stored in

Most cement is shipped by trucks, or may be

Cement Carrier
It can be shipped to ready-mixed concrete producers. Where, it can be combined with
water and suitable prop. of aggregates (sand and gravels).

The concrete is delivered to costumer in trucks with revolving drums