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Klassik  Hlektrodunamik -II (Didˆskwn K.

Tambˆkhc)

Exètash IanouarÐou 2014

LUSEIS

Jèma 1. Jewr ste to hlektrikì pedÐo

~
E(y) = ẑ C |y| cos(ωt)

ìpou C kai ω gnwstèc parˆmetroi.


a) BreÐte to antÐstoiqo magnhtikì pedÐo. Upojèste ìti ~ = 0 gia t = 0.
B
b) BreÐte thn puknìthta hlektrikoÔ reÔmatoc pou antistoiqeÐ sto anwtèrw sÔsthma pedÐwn.

LUSH
a) 'Eqoume

Z t Z t
~ = − ~ E~ = −C ∇|y|×
~ C d|y|
B dt ∇× ẑ dt cos(ωt) = − ŷ × ẑ sin(ωt) .
0 0 ω dy
Eisˆgontac thn sunˆrthsh pros mou (y) wc


 +1
 (y > 0)
d|y|
(y) ≡ =⇒ = (y)
 −1
 dy
(y < 0)

paÐrnoume


C
 −x̂ ω sin(ωt)
 (y > 0)
~ =
B ~ = −x̂ C (y) sin(ωt) .
⇔ B
 +x̂ C sin(ωt)
 ω
ω (y < 0)

b) H puknìthta reÔmatoc q¸rou eÐnai

J~ = µ−1 ~ ~ ~˙ ~˙
0 ∇ × B − 0 E = −0 E = ẑ 0 C ω |y| sin(ωt) .

Upˆrqei ìmwc kai epifaneiak  puknìthta, dedomènou ìti to magnhtikì pedÐo

eÐnai asuneqèc

~
ŷ × B(0+) ~
− ŷ × B(0−) ~
= µ0 K

1
 

~ = ẑ 2C sin(ωt) .
K
µ0 ω
Dedomènou ìti
~ · J~ = ∇
∇ ~ ·K
~ = 0 , den upˆrqoun puknìthtec fortÐwn ρ   σ .

Jèma 2. Jewr ste èna leptì sfairikì kèlufoc aktÐnac R to opoÐo diarrèetai apì epifaneiakì
~ = φ̂ sin θ K0 cos(ωt).
hlektrikì reÔma puknìthtac K
a) UpologÐste thn magnhtik  dipolik  rop  tou kelÔfouc m(t)
~ .
b) To dhmiourgoÔmeno dianusmatikì dunamikì se megˆlec apostˆseic (r >> R) eÐnai1

~ = µ0 ˙
A ~ × r̂ .
m
4πcr

Apì autì upologÐste to hlektrikì kai to magnhtikì pedÐo aktinobolÐac.


R
g) UpologÐste thn hlektromagnhtik  dÔnamh Fi = dSj σij pou exaskeÐtai se mia sfairik 
epifˆneia aktÐnac r >> R omìkentrh me to dÐpolo, ìpou σij o tanust c hlektromagnhtik c tˆshc.

LUSH
a) 'Eqoume

1 3 Z 2π Z 1
~ = R K0 cos(ωt)
Z
m
~ = dS ~r × K dφ d(cos θ) r̂ × φ̂ sin θ
2 2 0 −1

R3
Z 2π Z 1  
= K0 cos(ωt) dφ d(cos θ) sin θ ρ̂ × φ̂ + cos θ ẑ × φ̂ sin θ
2 0 −1

R3
Z 2π Z 1
= K0 cos(ωt) dφ d(cos θ) ( sin θ ẑ − cos θ ρ̂ ) sin θ
2 0 −1

R3 4πR3
Z 1
= K0 cos(ωt) 2π d(cos θ) sin2 θ ẑ = ẑ K0 cos(ωt)
2 −1 3
 
!
4πR3
m(t)
~ = ẑ m0 cos(ωt) m0 ≡ K0 .
3
b) 'Eqoume

~˙ = − µ0 m
~ = −A
E ~¨ × r̂, ~ = c−1 r̂ × E
B ~
4πcr
1
To antÐstoiqo bajmwtì dunamikì eÐnai amelhtaÐo (sunj kh Lorentz).

2
 

2 2
~ = µ0 ω m0 (ẑ × r̂) cos(ωtR ) = φ̂ µ0 ω m0 sin θ cos(ωtR )
E
4πcr 4πcr
kai

2 2
~ = − µ0 ω m0 r̂ × (ẑ × r̂) cos(ωtR ) = −θ̂ µ0 ω m0 sin θ cos(ωtR ) .
B
4πc2 r 4πc2 r
g) 'Eqoume

!2
0 2 1 2 µ0 ω 2 m0
U = E + B = 0 cos2 (ωtR )
2 2µ0 4πcr
kai q
~ = φ̂ −1 U , ~ = −θ̂
p
E 0 B µ0 U .
O tanust c tˆshc eÐnai

 
σij = U φ̂i φ̂j + θ̂i θ̂j − δij

kai èqoume

Z Z Z  
Fi = dSj σji = r2 dΩ r̂j σji = r2 U dΩ (r̂ · φ̂) φ̂i + (r̂ · θ̂) θ̂i − r̂i
Z
2
= −r U dΩ r̂i

Z 1 Z 2π
F~ = −r2 U d cos θ dφ ( x̂ cos φ sin θ + ŷ sin φ sin θ + ẑ cos θ) = 0 .
−1 0

Jèma 3 . Jewr ste èna statikì omogenèc hlektrikì pedÐo ~ kai èna statikì kai omogenèc
E
magnhtikì pedÐo ~ se èna adraneiakì sÔsthma anaforˆc Σ wc proc to opoÐo èqoume
B

~ = E0 x̂,
E ~ = B0 ( cos θ x̂ + sin θ ŷ ) .
B

Jewr ste kai èna sÔsthma anaforˆc Σ0 , to opoÐo kineÐtai me taqÔthta V ~ = V ẑ .


~ 0 kai B
1) BreÐte poia ja prèpei na eÐnai h gwnÐa θ ¸ste ta pedÐa E ~ 0 sto kinoÔmeno sÔsthma
na eÐnai parˆllhla.

2) Sthn perÐptwsh pou isqÔei to (1), poioc ja prèpei na eÐnai o lìgoc E0 /cB0 ¸ste h gwnÐa
na eÐnai π/2?

3
LUSH
1) 'Eqoume E||0 = E|| = 0 kai B||0 = B|| = 0 . Sunep¸c

 
~
E 0 ~ +V
= γ E ~ ×B
~ = γ ( x̂ (E0 − V B0 sin θ) + ŷV B0 cos θ)
  
~
B 0 = γ x̂B0 cos θ + ŷ B0 sin θ − V
E
c2 0

Eˆn ta
~ 0, B
E ~ 0 eÐnai parˆllhla, ja èqoume

~ 0×B
E ~ 0
= 0

V
  
( x̂ (E0 − V B0 sin θ) + ŷV B0 cos θ)× x̂B0 cos θ + ŷ B0 sin θ − E0 = 0
c2
 

V
 
(E0 − V B0 sin θ) B0 sin θ − 2 E0 − V B02 cos2 θ = 0
c
 
  2 
V cB0
c 1+ E0
sin θ =  
cB0 V2
E0 1+ c2

2) Gia θ = π/2 èqoume, jètontac

B0 c V
x = , β =
E0 c
 
x2 − x β + β −1 + 1 = 0
me lÔseic

cB0  β

x = β, β −1 =⇒ =
E0
β −1

Jèma 4 . Jewr ste èna ˆpeiro kulindrikì agwgì kuklik c diatom c aktÐnac R. Sthn exw-
terik  perioq  (ρ > R), ìpou den upˆrqoun fortÐa, upˆrqei hlektrikì kai magnhtikì pedÐo, en¸ ta
pedÐa mhdenÐzontai sto eswterikì tou agwgoÔ. DeÐxte ìti ta pedÐa eÐnai thc morf c (se kulindrikèc
suntetagmènec)
~ = ρ̂ E0 (ρ) ei(kz−ωt) , B
E ~ = φ̂ B0 (ρ) ei(kz−ωt)

4
kai prosdiorÐste tic sunart seic E0 (ρ), B0 (ρ). Epiplèon, prosdiorÐste tic epifaneiakèc puknìthtec
reÔmatoc kai fortÐou pou upˆrqoun sthn epifˆneia ρ = R kai epalhjeÔste ìti ikanopoioÔn thn
exÐswsh sunèqeiac.

x
R

LUSH
2
Efarmìzontac tic exis¸seic Maxwell èqoume

~ ×E
∇ ~˙ =⇒ B0 =
~ = −B E0
c

~ ·E
∇ ~ = 0 =⇒ E0 (ρ) = C
ρ

~ ·B
∇ ~ = 0 =⇒ 0 = 0

~ ×B
∇ ~˙ =⇒ 0 = 0
~ = c−2 E

Efarmìzontac tic sunoriakèc sunj kec paÐrnoume

~
ρ̂ · E(R) −0 = σ
=⇒ σ(z) = 0 C
cos(kz − ωt)
0 R

~
ρ̂ · B(R) − 0 = 0 =⇒ 0 = 0

~
ρ̂ × E(R) − 0 = 0 =⇒ 0 = 0

~
ρ̂ × B(R) ~ =⇒ K(z)
− 0 = µ0 K ~ = ẑ µ0CcR cos(kz − ωt)
2
Qrhsimopoi same ìti
~ × ρ̂ = 0, ∇
∇ ~ · ρ̂ = 1
ρ
~ · φ̂ = 0, ∇
∇ ~ × φ̂ = ẑ .
ρ

5
EpÐshc èqoume

~ ·K = C ∂ Ck
∇ cos(kz − ωt) = − sin(kz − ωt)
µ0 cR ∂z cµ0 R
kai

0 ωC kC
σ̇ = sin(kz − ωt) = sin(kz − ωt)
R cµ0 R
pou sunepˆgetai

~ + ∂σ = 0 .
~ ·K

∂t