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LITERATURE – came from the Latin word “LITERATURA” 2.

CHARACTERS
meaning writing and from “LITERATUS” which means
 Person or any entity presented in a
learning. It covers both oral and written forms of works
narrative/dramatic work.
which manifest expressive or imaginative quality,
nobility of thoughts, timelessness and universality. TYPES:
KEY FEATURES OF LITERATURE  PROTAGONIST – principal or lead character
 ANTAGONIST – opposing the protagonist. Also
 LITERATURE IS A FORM OF COMMUNICATION
called as villain.
Man’s inner thoughts, feelings, and conditions can be  STATIC/FLAT – does not change the
disclosed and revealed through the power of literature. role/attitude
 DYNAMIC – undergoes changes
 LITERATURE IS AN ART
 FOIL – use to stand in contrast
Its beauty is a deliberate manifestation to create and
3. PLOT
imagine.
 Flow and sequence of events
Highlight ideas of great importance and significance.
TYPES:
 TIMELESSNESS
 EXPOSITION – introductory material
The significant truth about life that a literary work
 FORESHADOWING – use of hints/clues what will
reveals should not waive and dissipate as time passes
happen next
by.
 INCITING FORCE – event/character that triggers
 UNIVERSALITY conflict
 CONFLICT – opposition of forces that may set
A work must have global applicability in which a work forth the problems, issues
transcends across space. *EXTERNAL – outside forces (man vs. nature,
 UTILITY man vs. society, man vs. supernatural)
*INTERNAL – one’s self (man vs. self)
We can obtain relevant information to better  RISING ACTION - Series of events that builds
understand people, society and culture. from the conflict.
PROSE – form of literature that focuses on free flowing.  CRISIS - Occurs before or at the same time as
climax.
NONFICTION PROSE – is literature that is written in  CLIMAX - Highest point of the story. Result of
ordinary, non – metrical language and communicates the crisis.
facts or opinions about reality  FALLING ACTION - Events after climax which
close the story.
FICTION PROSE – is also written in ordinary, non-
 DENOUMENT – Rounds out and concludes the
metrical language, out of it is the product of the writer’s
action.
imagination.
4. POINT OF VIEW
POETRY – on the other hand, uses metrical language
with lots of rhythm and rhyme to create word picture.  Relates as the way how the story is
told/narrated.
DRAMA – combines elements of prose and poetry into
plays that are usually intended to be performed on TYPES:
stage.
 PARTICIPANT NARRATOT/FIRST PERSON –
SHORT STORY usually marked by the use of “I”.
 SECOND PERSON/NON-PARTICIPANT –
 500 – 15,00 words length
emphasize “you”.
 Single event
 Beginning, middle and end  OBSERVANT – the narrator sees only
 Fictional (unreal) the physical appearance
 Contains values  OMNISCIENT – the narrator is an
outsider who knows/sees into the mind
ELEMENTS OF A SHORT STORY of one of the character.
1. SETTING 5. SYMBOLS
 Mood, social context, when and where  Object which is used to represent ideas aside
 Environment from its literal meaning.
 Can be past, present, future
 Social norms
6. THEME KASABIHAN

 Mainly the idea, realization. o Sayings


o Used in teasing or to comment on a person’s
ORAL TRADITIONS
actuations
- Also called as ORAL LORE.
AMBAHAN
CRUDE ON IDEOLOGY AND PHRASEOLOGY
o Traditional poetry of the Hannunoo Mangyans
- This lends credence to the belief. of Oriental Mindoro which is normally inscribed
- Self-culture before the influence of the on bamboo
colonies. o Seven syllable metric lines
o Usually chanted
*Philippine Literature is the most precious literature in o Can be composed of more than four lines
the world.
MYTHS
ANIMAZIM – structure of supernatural being
o Which is the traditional oral literature of the
FORMS OF LITERATURE Filipino people. This refers to a wide range of
RIDDLES material due to the ethnic mix at the Philippines

o Statement, question or phrase having a double SPANISH PERIOD


or veiled meaning SPANISH COLONIZATION
o Put forth as a puzzle to be solved.
o A puzzling question; problem or matter. - Christianity was introduced
- Spanish language was taught as well as the
*ROBERT PETSCH in 1899, first major modern attempt Roman alphabet for writing
to define the riddle. - Serves as medium of communication
*ROBERT A. GEORGES and ALAN DUNDES (1963) – - Christian doctrine was introduced to early
suggested that “a riddle is a traditional verbal Filipinos: prayers, novenas, stories about the
expression which contains one or more descriptive lives of saints
elements; the referent of the elements is to be - It was didactic in nature
guessed”. TWO DISTINCT CLASSIFICATIONS OF LITERATURE
- There are many possible sub – sets of the riddle 1. RELIGIOUS LITERATURE
including charades, doodles and some jokes.
- Requires in genuity and actual twirling for their  Doctrina Christian (1593) written by Fray Juan
solution. de Plasencia
- A puzzle or joke in which you ask a question - It contains prayers such as Pater Noster (Our
that seems to be nonsense but which has a Father), Ave Maria (Hail Mary), Ten
clever or amusing answer. Commandments, etc.
 PASYON – high;oights the life, death, and
PROVERBS
resurrection of Christ
o Salawikain  Lines are recited accompanied by music during
o A short expressions of popular words of wisdom Lenten Season.
or a piece of advice.  The most popular was “ANG MAHAL NA
o A simple and concrete saying, popularly known PASSION NI JESU CHRISTONG PANGINOON
and repeated that expresses a truth based on NATIN” by Gaspar Aquino de Belen.
common sense or experience.  SENAKULO – dramatization of the pasyon, it
shows the passion and death of Christ.
TANAGA
2. SECULAR LITERATURE (non-religious literature)
o 7777 syllable
o Rhymes:  AWIT – colorful tales of chivalry made for
DUAL RYHME: AABB, ABAB, ABBA singing and chanting
FREESTYLE: AAAB, BAAA, ABCD  KORIDO – metrical tale written in octosyllabic
o An indigenous type of Filipino poem quatrains
o Written in Tagalog language  PROSE NARRATIVES – written to prescribe
o A quatrain with seven syllables each with the proper decorum
same rhyme at the end of each line
o No title OTHER FORM OF SECULAR LITERATURE

1. Comedia de Capa y Espada or Moro Moro


2. Karagatan  The Japanese censored Filipino writers works
strictly
3. Duplo
 Theaters were used to show English play
4. Sarswela translated into Filipino
 The weekly LIWAYWAY was placed under strict
NATIONALISTC/PROPAGANDA AND surveillance until it was managed by Japanese
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD (1864-1896) named ISHIWARA
CHARACTERISTICS:  Filipino literature was given break during this period

 Planted seeds of nationalism in Filipinos FILIPINO POETRY


 Language shifted from Spanish to Tagalog The common theme of most poems during
 Addressed the masses instead of Japanese occupation was nationalism, country, love and
“intelligentsia” life in the barrios, faith, religion and the arts. Three
LITERARY FORMS: types of poems emerged during this period. THEY
WERE:
1. PROPAGANDA LITERATURE
 Reformatory in objective 1. HAIKU – a poem of three verse that the Japanese like.
It was made up of 17 syllables divided into three lines.
A. POLITICAL ESSAYS The first line had 5 syllables, the second, 7 syllables, and
the third, 5. The Haiku is allegorical in meaning, is short
 Satires, editorials and news articles
and covers a wide scope in meaning.
were written to attack and expose the
evils of Spanish rules 2. KARANIWANG ANYO (usual form) – the usual
 DIARIONG TAGALOG – founded by common form of poetry
Marcelo H. Del Pilar
3. TANAGA – like the Haiku, it’s short but has a measure
 LA SOLIDARIDA – editor in chief is
and a rhyme. Each consists of 17 syllables and it is also
Graciano Lopez Jaena
has allegorical meaning
B. POLITICAL NOVELS
FILIPINO DRAMA

NOLI ME TANGERE and EL
The drama experienced a lull during the
FILIBUSTERISMO – Jose Rizal’s
Japanese period because movie houses showing
masterpieces that paved the way to
American films were closed. The big movie houses were
revolution.
just made to show stage shows. A few of play writers
2. REVOLUTIONARY LITERATURE
were:
 More propagandastic than literary as it
is more violent in nature and demanded 1. Jose Ma. Hernandez – wrote PANDAY PIRA
complete independence for the country
2. Francisco Soc Rodrigo – wrote SA PULA, SA PUTI
(diretsang hinihingi ang kalayaan)
3. Clodualdo del Mundo – wrote BULAGA (an expression
A. POLITICAL ESSAYS
in the game Hide and Seek)
 KALAYAAN – newspaper to the society,
4. Julian Cruz Balmaceda – wrote SINO BA KAYO?, DAHIL
edited by Emilio Jacinto
SA ANAK, and HIGANTE NG PATAY
 TRUE DECALOGUE – Apolinario Mabini
 KATAPUSANG HIBIK NG PILIPINAS – FILIPINO SHORT STORIES
Andres Bonificio
The field of the short story widened during the
 LIWANAG AT DILIM – Emilio Jacinto
Japanese occupation. Many wrote short stories.
AMERICAN COLONIZATION (1900-1942)
The best writings in 1945 were selected by a
 Introduction of free public instruction for all group of judges composed of Francisco Icasiano, Jose
children of school age Esperanza Cruz, Antonio Rosales, Clodualdo del Mundo
 Use of English as medium of instruction in all and Teodoro Santos. As a result of this selection, the
levels of education in public schools following got the first three prizes:

JAPANESE OCCUPATION (1941-1945) FIRST PRIZE: Narciso Reyes with his LUPANG TINUBUAN

 The Japanese banned English newspapers. SECOND PRIZE: Liwayway Arceo’s UHAW ANG TIGANG
(Except for the TRIBUNE and the PHILIPPINE NA LUPA
REVIEW)
THIRD PRIZE: NVM Gonzales’ LUNSOD NAYON AT
 There was minimal freedom of speech and all of
DAGAT – DAGATAN
the press
PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH (1941-1945) MAGAZINES RE-OPENED

Because of the strict prohibitions imposed by *Bulaklak


the Japanese in the writing and publishing of works in
*Ilang-Ilang
English, Philippine Literature in English experienced a
dark period. The few who dared to write did so for their *Sinagtala
bread and butter or for propaganda.
PALANCA AWARDS
CARLOS P. ROMULO won the PULITZER PRIZE
for his best sellers: I SAW THE FALL OF THE PHILIPPINES, *Award giving body in literature – Don Carlos Palanca
I SEE THE PHILIPPINES RISE and his MOTHER AMERICA Memorial Awards for Literature
AND MY BROTHER AMERICANS. PERIOD OF ACTIVISM
The Commonwealth Literary Awards gave prizes  Martial Law (the seed of activism)
to meritorious writers. Those who won were:  The Bloody Placards (Makibaka)
1. LIKE THE MOLAVE – by Rafael Zulueta da Costa  Literary Revolution
(poetry)  Bomba Films
 The First Quarter Storm
2. HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGHT HOME A WIFE –
by Manuel E. Arguilla (short story) THE NEW SOCIETY

3. LITERATURE AND SOCIETY – by Salvador P. Lopez THEME: DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY


(essay)
 Green Revolution’
4. HIS NATIVE SOIL – by Juan Laya (novel)  Family Planning
 Proper Nutrition
POSTWAR AND CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE
 Environment
Include all literary works written and published  Drug Addiction
in the Philippines from 1946.  Pollution

After the World War II, the Philippines had to POETRY


deal with the economy and the need for rehabilitation
 Themes: patience, culture, nature and
and reconstruction of infrastructure.
surroundings
Writers wrote fiction that focused on
PLAY
courageous deeds as well as the sacrifices and suffering
in the lives of Filipinos. It was also common for writers  Metropolitan Theater, Teatro Filipino, CCP,
to write about the experiences of the Filipino people UP Repertory
under the Spanish and American rule and the Japanese
occupation. Other subjects and themes include:

*religious faith

*superstitious

*fantasy

*social problems

*poverty

*politics

*nationalism

NEWSPAPERS FLOURISHED

*Free Press

*Morning Sun

*Daily Mirror

*Evening News

*Bulletin