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1

Lin, B.-R., Senior Member, IEEE, 2Chen, J.-J., and 1Hsieh, F.-Y.

1

Department of Electrical Engineering

2

Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology

National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan, ROC

ABSTRACT—A bidirectional dc converter with high conversion configuration, operational principle, steady state analysis and

ratio is presented in this paper to have the capability of design consideration of the proposed converter are presented in

bidirectional power flow. Two boost conversion stages are adopted detail. Finally, experimental results, taken from a laboratory

in the converter to achieve high voltage step-up conversion. The prototype are presented to demonstrate the circuit performance

other power flow direction can also be achieved in the proposed

converter with low voltage step-down conversion. Comparison

and to verify the feasibility of the proposed converter.

with the conventional boost converter with narrow turn-off period,

the proposed converter has wide conversion ratio so that the iL1 L1 D2 iS3 S3

higher or lower output voltage can be achieved. To reduce the

switching losses and limit the voltage stress on the power switch, iD2

S1

the boost type of active snubber is used in the converter. The iS1 L2

resonance based on the output capacitance of power switch and C1 D1 C3

iL2

resonant inductance at the transition interval will make the power iD1 vC2 C2

switches to turn on at zero voltage switching (ZVS). The circuit S2

configuration, principle operation, system analysis, and design iS2

consideration of the proposed converter are presented. Finally,

Fig. 1. Circuit configuration of the proposed bidirectional converter.

experiments conducted on a laboratory prototype are presented to

verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

II. PROPOSED BIDIRECTIONAL DC CONVERTER

Index Terms—active snubber, dc converters, soft switching. A. Circuit configuration

Fig. 1 gives the circuit configuration of the proposed

I. INTRODUCTION converter with high conversion ratio. The proposed converter

can be operated in the boost mode to deliver dc power from low

T he high performance bidirectional dc converters have been

widely studied for many industrial applications, such as car

auxiliary power supplies [1], hybrid electric vehicle [2-3],

voltage side to high voltage side by controlling the switch S2.

The circuit components vlow, L1, D2, S1, C2 and S2 are

battery-charged/discharged dc converter in UPS system [4] and operated as a boost converter with vC2/vlow=1/(1-D) where D is

fuel-cell based dc converter [5-7]. Conventional converter with the duty cycle of switch S2. The circuit components of the other

high voltage step-up can be easily implemented with the boost converter include C2, L2, S2, S3 and C3. The voltage

isolation transformer. However, a converter without conversion of this boost converter is vhigh/vC2=1/(1-D) where D

transformer is not easily realized by conventional boost is the duty cycle of switch S2. Therefore, the total voltage

converter due to the narrow allowed duty cycle. The switching conversion ratio between high voltage side and low voltage side

losses on the power devices are the other drawback. The high is vhigh/vlow=1/(1-D)2. On the other hand, the power flow from

step-down buck converters are presented in [8-9]. The cascade high voltage side to low voltage side can be achieved by

boost converters and coupled-inductor converters with high controlling the switches S1 and S3. In the buck mode, The

step-up have been proposed in [10-11] for non-isolated circuit components vhigh, S1, L2, S3 and C2 are operated as a

applications. However, the switching losses of switches are still buck converter with the conversion ratio vC2/vhigh=D where D is

high enough. The passive or active snubber [12-13] can be used the duty ratio of switch S3. The circuit components C2, S1, D1,

for reducing the voltage surge of switch to improve the L1 and vlow are operated as a buck conversion with vlow/vC2=D

converter efficiency. where D is the duty ratio of S1. Since the duty ratios of S1 and

A bidirectional dc converter with high conversion ratio is S3 equal D, the total conversion ratio of the proposed converter

presented in this paper to achieve bidirectional power flow in buck mode operation is vlow/vhigh=D2. The proposed

capability. In the proposed converter, two boost conversion bidirectional converter with high voltage gain can be used in

stages are used to achieve high conversion ratio. The power fuel cell based dc-dc converter or battery charged/discharged

flow is transferred from low voltage side to high voltage side if converter in UPS system.

the converter is operated in the boost mode. On the other hand,

the power flow is transferred from high voltage side to low B. Circuit operation

voltage side if the converter is operated in the buck mode. To To simplify the discussion of the circuit operation during one

further reduce the switching losses on the power switches, the switching cycle, some assumptions are made as follows.

active snubber circuit is adopted in the converter to achieve Capacitances of C1, C2 and C3 are large enough such that the

zero voltage switching (ZVS) of power switches. The circuit capacitor voltages vlow, vC2 and vhigh are constant. All diodes

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and switches are ideal. There are two operation modes in the equivalent circuits and key waveforms for buck mode operation

proposed converter for boost and buck modes respectively. are given in Figs. 4 and 5. When switches S1 and S3 are turned

When the proposed converter is operated in the boost mode, the on (Fig. 4(a)), the dc power is delivered from high voltage side

switches S1 and S3 are off. The power is delivered from low vhgih to capacitor C2 through the path C3-S3-L2-C2. The

voltage side to high voltage side by controlling the duty cycle D inductor voltage vL2=vC2-vhigh<0. Therefore the inductor current

of switch S2. The corresponding equivalent circuits and key iL2 decreases. In the mean time, the energy stored in capacitor

waveforms for boost mode operation are given in Figs. 2 and 3. C2 is delivered to low voltage side vlow through the path

C2-S1-L1-C1. The inductor voltage vL1=vlow-vC2<0 so that the

iL1 L1 D2 iS3 S3 inductor current iL1 decreases. The diodes D1 and D2 are

blocking and switch S2 is off. When switches S1 and S3 are

iD2

S1 turned off (Fig. 4(b)), the inductor current iL2 flows through the

iS1 L2

C1 D1

iL2

C3 anti-parallel diode of S2, L2 and C2. The inductor voltage

iD1 vC2 C2 vL2=vC2 so that the inductor current iL2 increases. The inductor

S2

iS2

current iL1 flows through D1, L1 and C1. The inductor voltage

vL1=vlow so that the inductor current iL1 increases. Based on the

(a) (b) voltage-second balance on inductors L1 and L2 respectively,

Fig. 2 Equivalent circuit of the proposed converter in boost mode operation (a)

S2 on (b) S2 off. one can obtain the voltage ratios of the proposed converter in

the buck mode.

vC2=Dvhig, vlow=DvC2, vlow=D2vhigh (2)

vS2,gs

iL1

vhigh

iL2

vlow

-iS1

(a) (b)

iS2 Fig. 4 Equivalent circuit of the proposed converter in buck mode operation (a)

S1 and S3 on (b) S1 and S3 off.

iD2

-iS3

t

T

DT

Fig. 3 Key waveforms of the proposed converter in boost mode operation.

source vlow will charge inductor L1 through the path

C1-L1-D2-S2. The inductor current iL1 increases. In the mean

time, the capacitor C2 delivers the power to inductor L2

through the path C2-L2-S2. The inductor current iL2 increases.

The diode D1 is blocking and switches S1 and S3 are in the off

state. The inductor voltages vL1=vlow and vL2=vC2. When switch

S2 is turned off (Fig. 2(b)), the energy stored in inductor L1 is Fig. 5 Key waveforms of the proposed converter in buck mode operation.

delivered to capacitor C2 through the path C1, L1, anti-parallel

diode of S1 and C2. The inductor voltage vL1=vlow-vC2. The III. ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL DC CONVERTER

inductor current iL1 decreases. The energy stored in inductor L2 In order to reduce the switching losses on S2, an active

is delivered to high voltage side through the path C2, L2, snubber circuit including clamp capacitor Cc, auxiliary Sa and

anti-parallel diode of S3 and vhigh. The inductor voltage resonant inductor Lr can be added in the circuit to create a

vL2=vC2-vhigh. The inductor current iL2 decreases. The diodes D1 resonance. Fig. 6 shows the ZVS bidirectional dc converter

and D2 are blocking when S2 is turned off. Based on the with three kinds of active snubber. Switch S2 and Sa are

voltage-second balance on inductors L1 and L2 respectively, switched in a complementary way with a short delay time.

one can obtain the voltage ratios of the proposed converter in When dc power is transferred from high voltage side to low

the boost mode. voltage side (buck mode), the ZVS bidirectional converter is

vC2=vlow/(1-D), vhigh=vC2/(1-D), vhigh=vlow/(1-D)2 (1) the same operation behavior as shown in Fig. 4. When dc power

When the proposed converter is operated in the buck mode, is transferred from low voltage vlow to high voltage vhigh (boost

the switch S2 is off. The dc power is delivered from high mode), the switches S2 and Sa are turned on at ZVS. In Fig. 6(a),

voltage side to low voltage side by controlling the duty cycle D the clamp capacitor voltage vCc is greater than the low side

of switches S1 and S3 simultaneously. The corresponding voltage vlow. However, the clamp capacitor voltage

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vCc=Dvlow/(1-D) in Figs. 6(b) and 6(c). The operation behaviors currents iL1 and iL2 are almost constant in this mode. This mode

of three kinds of ZVS bidirectional converter shown in Fig. 6 ends at time t2 when the capacitor voltage vCr=vC2. At time t2, the

are almost the same. Therefore, only the operation principle of anti-parallel diode of switch S1 and diode D2 are both on to

circuit configuration shown in Fig. 6(a) is discussed. When commutate the inductor current iL1. The time interval in this

switch S2 is turned off, the positive inductor current iLr will mode is given as:

flow through the anti-parallel diode of the auxiliary switch Sa Cv

and clamp capacitor Cc. Therefore the drain voltage of auxiliary Δt12 = t 2 − t1 ≈ r C2 (3)

i Lr (t1 )

switch vDa,ds is zero. At this instant, the auxiliary switch Sa can

be turned on at ZVS. If the auxiliary switch Sa is turned on, the Mode 3 [t2≤t<t3]: This mode starts at time t2 when the

inductor current iLr decreases from positive to negative value. anti-parallel diode of S1 and diode D2 are both on. The current

When the auxiliary switch Sa is turned off, the negative iS1 decreases from zero and the diode current iD2 decreases. This

inductor current iLr will flow through resonant capacitor Cr. The mode ends at time t3 when the capacitor voltage vCr equals vCc

capacitor Cr is discharged from positive voltage to zero voltage. and the anti-parallel diode of Sa is on.

When the capacitor voltage vCr=0, the anti-parallel diode of the Mode 4 [t3≤t<t4]: This mode starts at time t3 when vCr=vCc and

switch S2 is turned on. Then switch S2 can be turned on at this the anti-parallel diode of Sa is on. Since the anti-parallel diode

instant to achieve ZVS. During one switching period, there are of S1 and diode D2 are on, the inductor voltage vL2 equals zero

eight operation modes of the proposed ZVS converter in boost and the inductor voltage vLr=vC2-vCc<0. Thus the inductor

mode operation. The corresponding equivalent circuits for each current iLr decreases. This mode ends at time t4 when the diode

operation mode are given in Fig. 7. Fig. 8 shows the time current iD2=0 and the anti-parallel diode of S3 is on.

sequence of key waveforms in the boost mode operation. The Mode 5 [t4≤t<t5]: This mode starts at time t4 when the diode

following description explains the detailed operation principle current iD2=0 and the anti-parallel diode of S3 is on. The

of the proposed topology. inductor voltages vL1=vlow-vC2<0 and vL2=vC2-vhigh<0. Thus the

inductor currents iL1 and iL2 decrease. The resonant inductor

voltage vLr=vhigh-vCc<0 so that the inductor current iLr decreases

from positive value to negative value in this mode. Before the

inductor current iLr is negative value, the auxiliary switch Sa

should be turned on to achieve ZVS. This mode ends at time t5

when auxiliary switch Sa is turned off.

Mode 6 [t5≤t<t6]: This mode starts at time t5 when auxiliary

switch Sa is turned off and ends at time t6 when capacitor voltage

vCr=0. The anti-parallel diode of S3 is still on in this mode.

(a)

Since the inductor current iLr is negative, the capacitor Cr is

discharged by iLr. The capacitor voltage vCr decreases from vCc

to zero voltage. The inductor currents iL1 and iL2 decrease. The

capacitor voltage vCr should reach zero before the end of this

mode to ensure ZVS operation of switch S2. To achieve this

condition, the energy stored in the resonant inductor Lr must be

greater than the energy stored in the resonant capacitor Cr. This

mode ends at time t6 when capacitor voltage vCr=0. The

(b) anti-parallel diode of switch S2 is turned on.

Mode 7 [t6≤t<t7]: This mode starts at time t6 when capacitor

voltage vCr=0 and the anti-parallel diode of switch S2 is turned

on. In this mode the anti-parallel diodes of S1 and S3 are still

on. The inductor currents iL1 and iL2 decrease. The inductor

current iLr increases from negative value to positive value.

Before the switch current iS2 is positive, switch S2 should be

turned on to achieve ZVS. This mode ends at time t7 when the

(c) switch current iS3 is zero and diode D2 is on.

Fig. 6 ZVS bidirectional converter (a) with boost type of active snubber (b) and

(c) with buck-boost type of active snubber.

Mode 8 [t7≤t<T+t0]: This mode starts at time t7 when the switch

current iS3 is zero and diode D2 and the anti-parallel diode of S1

Mode 1 [t0≤t<t1]: In this mode, switch S2 is on, auxiliary switch are in the commutation interval. The inductor voltage vL2

Sa is off, and diode D2 is on. The inductor voltages vL1+vLr=vin equals zero. The inductor voltage vLr=vC2 so that the inductor

and vL2+vLr=vC2. Since, Lr<<L1 and L2, the inductor currents current iLr increases. The current iS1 increases to zero and the

iL1 and iL2 increase. The switch currents iS2=iL1+iL2 and iSa=0. diode current iD2 increases. This mode ends at time t0 when the

This mode ends at time t1 when switch S2 is turned off. current iS1 equals zero. Then the operation behavior in one

Mode 2 [t1≤t<t2]: Main switch S2 is turned off at time t1. The switching period is completed.

positive inductor current iLr will charge capacitor Cr from zero

voltage to vC2+vLr≈vC2. The capacitance of Cr is small enough

such that the capacitor Cr is linearly charged. The inductor

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Based on the key waveforms of the proposed converter

shown in Fig. 8, the delay time at modes 2, 3, 6 and 7 during the

transition interval between switches S2 and Sa is neglected in

vhigh

vlow

steady state analysis. In modes 4 and 8, the anti-parallel diode

of S1 and diode D2 are in the commutation interval. The

inductor voltage vL1≈vlow in mode 1 and vL1=vlow-vC2 in modes

(a) (b) 4, 5 and 8. Based on the voltage-second balance on inductor L1,

one can obtain the equation.

vlow(D-DM8)+(vlow-vC2)(1-D+DM8)=0 (4)

where D is the duty cycle of switch S2 and DM8=(T+t0-t7)/T is

the duty cycle loss of the converter in mode 8. Based on (4), the

capacitor voltage vC2 can be expressed as:

vC2=vlow/(1-D+DM8) (5)

(c) (d) The inductor voltage vL2≈vC2 in mode 1 and vL2=vC2-vhigh in

mode 5. Applying the voltage-second balance to inductor L2,

one can obtain the equation.

vC2(D-DM8)+(vC2-vhigh)(1-D-DM4)=0 (6)

vhigh

vlow

mode 4. Based on (6), one can derive the high side voltage vhigh

as:

(e) (f) vhigh=vC2(1-DM4-DM8)/(1-D-DM4)

=vlow(1-DM4-DM8)/[(1-D+DM8)(1-D-DM4)] (7)

If DM4=DM8<<D, we can obtain vhigh≈vlow/(1-D)2 and

vC2≈vlow/(1-D). This equation meets voltage equation in the

proposed hard switching bidirectional converter in (1). The

voltage on the inductors L2 and Lr is vL2+vLr=vC2 in modes 1

and 8 and vL2+vLr=vC2-vCc in modes 4 and 5. Based on the

(g) (h) voltage-second balance on the inductors L2 and Lr, one can

Fig. 7 Operation modes of proposed ZVS converter in boost mode operation (a)

mode 1 (b) mode 2 (c) mode 3 (d) mode 4 (e) mode 5 (f) mode 6 (g) mode 7 (h)

obtain the following equation.

mode 8. DvC2+(vC2-vCc)(1-D)=0 (8)

T The clamp capacitor voltage can be expressed as:

DT

vS2,gs vCc=vC2/(1-D)=vlow/[(1-D)(1-D+DM8)]≈vlow/(1-D)2 (9)

vSa,gs Therefore, the active snubber circuit shown in Fig. 6(a) is a

vCr=vS2,ds vCc boost type topology.

vSa,ds vCc

B. Design consideration

vCc The average current on input inductor L1 is given as:

iL1 Phigh

i L1, av = (10)

iL2 ηv low

iLr where η is the circuit efficiency and Phigh is the output power at

the high voltage side. Since DM4, DM8<<D, we neglect the duty

iS2 cycle losses in modes 4 and 8 to simplify the circuit design. The

duty cycle of the switch S2 is

iSa v low

D ≈ 1− (11)

v high

-iS1 One can obtain the peak current on input inductor L1.

iD2 Phigh v

i L1,peak = i L1 (t 2 ) ≈ + low DT (12)

-iS3 ηv low 2L1

t

If the ripple currents ΔiL1 and ΔiL2 on inductors L1 and L2 are

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode 5 Mode 6 Mode 7 Mode 8

t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 T+t0 given, the inductances of L1 and L2 can be expressed as:

Fig. 8 Key waveforms of proposed ZVS converter in boost mode operation. DTv low DTv low

L1 ≥ , L2 ≥ (13)

Δi L1 Δi L 2 (1 - D)

IV. STEADY STATE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATION

The voltage stresses of power switches S2 and Sa are expressed

OF ZVS BIDIRECTIONAL CONVERTER

as:

A. Steady state analysis v Low

v S2 ,stress = vSa ,stress ≈ (14)

(1 − D) 2

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If we assume! η = 1 ,!the peak current stresses of switches S2 voltage and current waveforms in boost mode operation at rated

and Sa are approximately equal to power. From the measured results, we can see that iL1=iD2-iS1

Phigh and iD2+iL2+iS3=iLr. When switch S2 is turned on, iD2=iL1,

v

i S2, peak ≈ i L1, peak + i L2, peak ≈ [ + low DT] iLr=iS2=iL1+iL2, iS1=0, iS3=0 and iSa=0. The inductor currents iL1

v high (1 − D) 2

2L1 and iL2 increase. When switch S2 is off and auxiliary switch Sa

,

Phigh vlow is on, then -iS1=iL1, iD2=0, iS2=0 and iLr=-iSa=iL2+iS3. The

+[ + DT] inductor currents iL1 and iL2 decrease. The drain voltage

v high (1 − D) 2(1 − D)L 2 vS2,ds=vCc. Fig. 11 gives the measured key current and voltage

Phigh v low waveforms in the buck mode operation at rated power. It can be

i Sa , peak ≈ i L 2, peak ≈ + DT (15) found in Fig. 11 that iL2=-iS3 and i1=-iS1 if switches S1 and S3

v high (1 − D) 2(1 − D)L2

are turned on. When S1 and S3 are turned off, i1=-iD1 and

The average diode and switch currents are expressed as: iL2=iS2.

Phigh DPhigh

i S1, av ≈ , i D 2, av ≈ ,

v high (1 − D) v high (1 − D) 2

vS2,gs

Phigh

i S3,av = (16)

v high

The voltage stresses of diode D2 and switches S1 and S3 are

approximately given as: vS2,ds ZVS

v Dv low

vS1,stress ≈ v C2 ≈ low , v D 2,stress = v high − v C 2 ≈ ,

1- D (1 - D) 2

v low iS2

vS3, stress ≈ v high ≈ (17)

(1 - D) 2

In mode 6, the energy stored in the resonant inductor Lr must be

greater than the energy stored in the resonant capacitor Cr to 1 s

create the ZVS condition for main switch S2, i.e.

(a)

L r ≥ C r v 2Cc /[i Lr ( t 5 )]2 . The delay time td at t1-t3, and t5-t7

respectively is approximately equal to π L r C r / 2 . If the

capacitance of Cr is given, the inductance of Lr is about

4t 2d /(C r π 2 ) . In the design of clamp capacitance, half of the

resonant period in mode 5 is larger than the off time of main

switch S2. Therefore the clamp capacitance Cc can be given as

C c >> (1 − D) 2 T 2 /( π 2 L r ) .

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The performance and effectiveness of the proposed ZVS

bidirectional converter shown in Fig. 6(a) are verified by the

experimental results based on a laboratory prototype. The

system parameters of the design circuit are: (1) low side voltage

vlow=36V, (2) high side voltage vhigh=200V, (3) rated power (b)

Fig. 9 Measured results of the gate voltage, drain voltage and switch current at

P=240W, and (4) switching frequency:110kHz. The input and rated output power (a) switch S2 (b) auxiliary switch Sa.

output inductances L1=150μH and L2=210μH. The selected

clamp capacitance Cc is 0.47μF with voltage stress of 400V. VI. CONCLUSION

The capacitances of C1, C2 and C3 are 680μF, 220μF and

The ZVS bidirectional dc converter is presented to have the

470μF, respectively. The IGBT IRG4PC40W with anti-parallel

following features: wide voltage conversion ratio and low

diode MUR860 are used for switching devices S1-S3 and Sa in

switching losses on switches. When power is transferred from

the proposed converter. The adopted diodes are MUR860. The

the high voltage side to the low voltage side, the converter is

adopted resonant capacitor Cr is about 470pF. The selected

operated in buck mode to charge the low voltage side. On the

resonant inductor Lr is 22μH. other hand, the converter is operated in boost mode when power

In the boost mode operation, Fig. 9 shows the measured is delivered from low voltage side to high voltage side. The

waveforms of gate voltage, drain voltage and switch current of boost type and buck-boost type of active snubber are presented

power switches S2 and Sa at rated output power. Before the in the circuit to achieve ZVS turn-on in boost mode operation.

switches are turned on, the switch currents are negative and the The circuit configuration, operation principle and design

drain voltages have been decreased to zero. Therefore, both consideration are demonstrated in detail. Finally the

switches are turned on at ZVS. Fig. 10 gives the measured key

Authorized licensed use limited to: Anand Institute of Higher Technology. Downloaded on May 15, 2009 at 06:17 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

performance and effectiveness of the proposed converter are for a hybrid electric vehicle, using ultracapacitors and neural networks,”

verified from the experiments based on a laboratory prototype. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 614-623, April 2006.

[6]M. E. Ortuzar, J. Moreno, and J. W. Dixon, “Ultracapacitor-Based Auxiliary

Energy System for an Electric Vehicle: Implementation and Evaluation,”

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 2147-2156, Aug. 2007.

[7]Z. Jiang, and R. A. A. Dougal, “Compact Digitally Controlled Fuel

Cell/Battery Hybrid Power Source,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53,

no. 4, pp. 1094-1104, June 2006.

[8]Y. Kaiwei, Q. Yang, M. Xu, and F. C. Lee, “A novel winding-coupled buck

converter for high-frequency, high-step-down DC-DC conversion”, IEEE

Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1017-1024, Sept. 2005.

[9]J.-H. Park, and B.-H. Cho, “Non-Isolation Soft-Switching Buck Converter

with Tapped-Inductor for Wide-Input Extreme Step-Down Applications”,

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundamental Theory and Applic., vol.

54, 2007.

[10]C. M. Wildrick, F. C. Lee, B. H. Cho, and B. Choi, “A method of defining

the load impedance specification for a stable distributed power system,”

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 280-285, June 1995.

[11]X. G. Feng, J. J. Liu, and F. C. Lee, “Impedance specifications for stable dc

distributed power systems”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 2,

pp. 157-162, April 2002.

[12]S. S. Lee, S. W. Choi, and G. W. Moon, “High-efficiency active-clamp

forward converter with transient current build-up (TCB) ZVS technique,”

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 310-318, Feb. 2007.

[13]M. M. Jovanovic, and Y. Jang, “State-of-the-art, single-phase, active

power-factor-correction techniques for high-power applications - an

overview,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 701-708, June

2005.

Fig. 10 Measured key waveforms of the proposed ZVS converter in boost mode

operation.

VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to acknowledge the partial financial

support of the National Science Council in Taiwan, Republic of

China, through its grant NSC96-2622-E-224-030-CC3.

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Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 1 pp. 301-308, Jan. 2007. Fig. 11 Measured key waveforms of the proposed ZVS converter in buck mode

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Authorized licensed use limited to: Anand Institute of Higher Technology. Downloaded on May 15, 2009 at 06:17 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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