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In this type of approach the counselor plays an important role .A major goal is to replace the
emotional behavior of the individual with deliberately rationale behavior .Although he avoids
dictatorial advice .This approach is also known as counselor-centered. Under this process the
counselor plans the counseling process, his work is to analyze the problem, identify the
triggers identify the exact nature of the problem and provide various options.
Williamson was a great profounder of this kind of approach as he stated that this approach is
good to address the problems relating to educational and vocational adjustment.This type of
counseling is a concept,where educational and vocational guidance relate to the personality
dynamics and interpersonal relationship.This type pf counseling is more useful where
the individual wants information and advice for choice of a career. This approach
does not focus its attention on personality development as such.
Steps of Directive counseling:-
Williamson has given six steps Directive counseling:
1)Analysis :It includes collection of information about the individual which can be collected
through structured interviews,psychological case history methods, Interaction with family
members, friends, etc.
2) Synthesis: After collection of lot data the information is organized in the logical manner to
analyse the individual in terms of his qualifications, assets, potentials, liability adjustment,
cultural background, habits etc.
3) Diagnosis :The diagnosis consists of the interpretation of the data in relation to the nature
and problem, the causes of problems.
4)Prognosis: Under this step a prediction is made about the future development of the
5)Counseling : The counseling here is to bring about adjustment and re-adjustment to the
individual in relation to his problem. Attitudes and interest of the individual are considered
during the counseling.It emphasis the individual to develop life cycle where an effort in the
positive direction could lead to success and success in turn could lead to further efforts and
6)Follow -up :The sixth step in directive counseling is follow up which is extremely important.
An individual may be able to solve immediate problems through counseling but new problems
may occur or the original problem may re-occur. Follow-up with the client is extremely
necessary. The role of counselor is important as he has to make the individual understand and
accept his strength and also his weakness and faults.
That technique is considered as a most economic approach and important for student
counseling because it is less time consuming and student who lack experience are easily
influenced by the counselor’s experience and specialize knowledge. The students feel that the
counselor has superior Knowledge and therefore a professional relation takes place. The relation
is the base of this kind of approach. A submissive and highly emotionalized counseling of
student can cultivate self-confidence in the individual. A relationship is based on dignity to help
the student to reach his goal.
Directive or Counselor-centered or prescriptive counseling: Counselor-centered counseling
revolves around the counselor. He tries to lit good relations to the friendship and assistance. In
this, the counselor is active and he expresses his ideas and attitudes independently. He evaluates
expressions of the client. According to this view point the counseling interview .In this, the
counselor asks a series of standardized questions. Each carries a short answer. The counselor
does not allow the development of expression and feelings. He leads as an expert, evaluates and
gives suggestion vice.
I Basic Assumptions of Directive Counseling :
According to Willy, the following can be the basic assumptions of directive counseling-
a) Competency in giving Advice-: The counselor posses the best training experience and
information. He is more competent to provide an advice to problem.
b) Counseling as an intellectual process -: An client’s intellectual is not destroyed as a result of
mal-adjustment. Hence counseling is primarily an intellectual process .It stresses upon the
intellectual aspects of a person instead of emotional aspects of the personality.
c) Counseling objectives as problem solving situation-: The objective counseling are achieved
through problem solving situation.
d) Client’s incapability of solving the process-: The counselor does not posses the capability for
solving the problem always.
Advantages of Directive counseling:
1) This method is useful from the time consuming view- point .It saves time.
2) In this type of counseling, there is more focus on the problem and the person.
3) The counselor can look the client directly.
4) Counseling focuses more on the intellectual aspects of the person than emotional aspect of
the personality.
5)In this process, the counselor becomes readily available to help which makes the client very
Limitations of Directive counseling-:
1) In this process the client is more dependent. He is also less able to solve new problems of
2) As the client is never independent of the counselor, it is not an efficient best guidance.
3) Unless and until a person does not develop some attitude through experiences, he cannot
make any decision himself.
4) The counselor fails in serving the client to commit the mistakes in future
As the client was in need of some information regarding his vocation, counselor provided that to
the best of his knowledge. He wanted to select a direction and the counselor helped him in
choosing that the counselor gave some alternatives in the same line so that the client may be
able to select avocation according to his choice and can choose a career if he is not able to go for
During counseling, the counselor tried to explore the reason for his choice of vocation, like why
is he motivated towards this job? Is his selection worthy and genuine?
Counseling is a generic service of student’s personal work having a wide range of activities and
includes faculty advising, counseling in psychological clinics, mental hygiene and other
specialized types of counseling. It is a body of techniques which helps young individuals to grow
up normally through guided learning. Counseling has proved to be very useful for the
development of an individual student. Colleges and Universities, industries and business
establishments are becoming increasingly interested in counseling and its potential for
improving interpersonal relationships. “Counseling is a dynamic and purposeful relationship
between the people in which procedures vary with the nature of the student’s needs, but in
which there is always mutual participation by the counselor and the student with the focus up on
self-classification and self-determination by the student. ”
Counseling is classified in to different types. This division is done based on the nature of the
counseling process and the part of the counselor. There are three main types of counseling. They
are directive, non-directive and eclectic counseling. In directive counseling counselor is active.
In non-directive, counselor is passive.

Eclectic counseling is defined as the synthesis and combination of directive and non-directive
counseling. It represents a middle status between the two extremes represented by the ‘non-
directive’ technique on one hand and the ‘directive’ technique on the other. In eclectic
counseling, the counselor is neither too active as in the directive counseling nor too passive as in
the non-directive counseling. He just follows the middle path between these two.
The chief advocate of this type of counseling is Thorne. In eclectic counseling, the needs of a
person and his personality are studied by the counselor. After this the counselor selects those
techniques, which will be useful for the person. The main techniques used are reassurance
giving information, case history, testing etc.
In eclectic counseling the counselor first takes into consideration the personality and need of the
counselee. He selects the directive or non-directive technique that seems to serve the purpose
best. The counselor may start with the directive technique. When the situation demands, he may
switch over to the non-directive counseling and vice-versa. An attempt is made to adjust the
technique to the requirements of the situation and the individual.

Steps in Eclectic counseling

The leading exponent of the Eclectic counseling Thorne, suggested the following in the process;
1) Diagnosis of the cause.
2) Analysis of the problem.
3) Preparation of a tentative plan for modifying factors.
4) Securing effective conditions for counseling.
5) Interviewing and stimulating the client to develop his own resources and to assume its
responsibility for trying new modes of adjustment.
6) Proper handling of any related problems which may contribute to adjustment.

Assumptions of Eclectic Counseling

1) In general, passive methods should be used whenever possible.
2) Active methods may be used with specific indications.
3) In the early stages when the client is telling his story, passive techniques are usually the
methods of choice. This permits emotional release.
4) Until simple methods have failed, complicated methods should not be attempted.
5) All counseling should be client centered.
6) Every client should be given an opportunity to resolve his problems indirectly. Inability of the
client to progress through therapy as using passive methods alone is an indication for utilizing
more directive methods.
7) Directive methods are usually indicated in situational mal adjustment where a solution
cannot be achieved with out co-operation from other persons.

Characteristic of Eclectic Counseling

1) In this, objective and coordinating methods are used.
2) In the beginning of counseling, client-active methods are used and the counselor remains
3) In this, more importance is assigned to the job efficiency and treatment.
4) In this, the principle of low expenditure is emphasized.
5) In such counseling, for the use of all the methods and techniques, the professional efficiency
and skill of the counselor are must.
6) Keeping in mind the need of the client, it is decided whether directive method or non-
directive methods should be used.
7) Making an opportunity available to the client is insisted so that he may find himself the
solution of the problem.

Disadvantages of Eclectic Counseling

1) Some people are of the view that eclectic counseling is vague, opportunistic and superficial.
2) Both directive and non-directive counseling cannot be mixed together.
3) In this, the question arises how much freedom should be given to the client? For this there is
non-definite rule.
4) The problem with an eclectic orientation is that counselors often do more harm than good if
they have little or no understanding about what is helping the client.

Hierarchy of Eclectic Practices

McBride and Martin advocate a hierarchy of eclectic practices and discuss the importance of
having a sound theoretical base as a guide. The lowest or first level of eclecticism is really
syncretism – a sloppy unsystematic process of putting unrelated clinical concepts together. It is
encouraged when graduate students are urged to formulate their own theories of counseling
without first having experienced how tested models work. The second level of eclecticism is
traditional. It incorporates “an orderly combination of compatible features from diverse sources
harmonious whole“. Theories are examined in greater depth. On a third level, eclecticism is
described as professional or theoretical or as theoretical integration.
This type requires that counselor master at least two theories before trying to make any
combinations. A final level of eclecticism is called technical eclecticism. In this approach,
procedures from different theories are selected and used in treatment.

F.C. Thorne, who is the exponent of this view, finds that it is possible for a counselor to alternate
between directive and non-directive methods even in the same interview without disrupting the
non-directive permissive relationship with the client. He selects the techniques according to the
requirements of the situation and the individual. The counselor must be competent and
proficient in the use of all available methods. The validity of the results is determined by the skill
with which any method is used. The critical factor is not what method is used but rather the skill
with which it is used.
(Notes in OHP Sheets)
Eclectic Counseling
- Synthetic and combination of directive and non-directive counseling
- Counselor is neither too active nor too passive
- Chief advocate: Thorne
- Counselor studies the personality and needs of client based on the need of client, eclectic
counseling is used
-techniques used are:
· Reassurance
· Giving information
· Case history
· Testing
Counselor starts with directive technique, then switches on to the non-directive technique.
Steps in Eclectic Counseling
1) Diagnosis of the cause
2) Analysis of the problem
3) Preparing tentative plans for modifying factors.
4) Securing effective conditions for counseling
5) Stimulating the client to develop his own resources and trying new models of adjustment.
6) Proper handling of related problems which help in adjustment.

Assumptions of Eclectic counseling

1) Passive methods must be used whenever possible.
2) Active methods are used only with specific indications.
3) In the early stages when the client is telling his stories passive methods are used. It permits
emotional release.
4) Complex methods are used only when simple methods fail.
5) Client-centered
6) Client is given opportunity to resolve his problems indirectly.
7) Directive methods are used where co-operations of other persons are needed for the solution.
Characteristics of Eclectic Counseling
1) Objective and coordinating methods are used.
2) In the beginning client active methods are used
3) Counselor remains passive.
4) Importance is given to job efficiency and treatment.
5) Principle of low expenditure.
6) Professional efficiency and skill of counselors are must.
7) Based on the need of client, directive and non-directive methods are used.
8) Provide opportunity to client to find solutions to his problems himself.
Disadvantages of Eclectic Counseling
1) It is vague, opportunistic and superficial.
2) Directive and non-directive cannot be mixed.
3) How much freedom should be given to the client?
4) Lack of skill of counselor can do more harm than good.
This is also known as phenomenological approach to counseling or therapy. Kant described to
different aspects of the world. The phenomena would plan thing which are independent of our
senses and hence unknown and phenomena which means knowledge of things gained by our
senses. Carl Rogers’s phenomenal field of this individual meant the totality of his own
experiences. His theory is also called self theory since he places greater emphasis on getting to
know oneself as much as possible the self being conscious part of the phenomenal field and the
self concept being a series of hypothesis one has about oneself, right or wrong. The nucleus of
his theory is his concept of self. He also assumed that h\the human being is an organism, the
total individual.
A few salient features of his personality theory are:
1) The individual is an organized whole and self actualization is his basic aim of life which is
achieved only through his interaction with the environment as experienced and perceived by
2) The totality of experiences at a given time of which he is aware constitutes his phenomenal
field that part of this field which the individual experienced as part of him self is his phenomenal
3) The most important and consistent self perceptions organize themselves in to a pattern that is
self concise.
4) Most of the behaviors of the individual conform to the concept of self personality
development Rogers’s means congruence between the phenomenal field and the concept of self
resulting in to a balanced personality free from stress and anxiety.
5) The incongruence may lead to anxiety depression and threat.
Rogers’s approach to counseling first known as non-directive counseling and later called client
centered therapy is found on certain assumption about the nature of human being.

Techniques and Characteristics of Counseling

The counseling technique of the client centered therapy aims at releasing individual’s potential
and capacities of self actualization and self-development through the counseling interviews. It
aims at helping the counselee grow, learn to solve his problems at his own and be a self-reliant
being capable of facing life problems. It aims at bringing about an internal evaluation with in the
An important factor in non-directive counseling is the behavior of the counselor. The role of the
counselor is that of a sympathetic and interested listener who passes no value judgments. He
simply reflects back and relates in his own words the statements of the client, clarifies them only
with out approving or disapproving them. Counselee relationship is of paramount importance.
The counselor is required in this relationship to show warmth of feeling and understanding
coupled with a non-evaluating attitude the counselor remains highly permissive, accepting the
counselee neither probing nor interpreting nor showing any personal relation to what the
counselee says. Internal change in the counselee is regarded a function of this permissive
He does not distort what happens between himself and his client. He always considers the client
of great value irrespective of his faults and short comings. He is empathetic towards his client
capable of accurately perceiving what the client things or feels.
Verbal behavior here is taken as data and one looks for what the person is “saying” beyond or
behind the words he uses. Such sessions are carried on over periods of many hours and through
overall workshops lasting for several days or a week or more. The groups eventually over come
to discuss very basic feelings of one participant towards another and become more sensitive to
the possible meanings statements that seem unit devoid of emotional content to the untrained.