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Meeting 2

Word Families: Boost Your Vocabulary

Recognizing word families can multiply your word power! So what are they? “Word
families” can mean several types of word groups. Here we're talking about words made from
the same root by adding different suffixes or negative prefixes.
Adding other prefixes to roots makes bigger changes in meaning. The words are still
related, but not quite as closely. For example, to counteract means to act against something,
and to react is to act in response to something.
The adjective inactive means not active, whereas hyperactive or overactive both mean
more active than normal. Interactive describes action between people or ways people can
interact with computers besides just reading the screen.
The lists below give examples of the word family 'act' (showing the part of speech of
each family member) and then of related families made by adding a prefix to 'act,' showing
only their most common words. (Parts of speech are the same as for words of the same suffix
in the first list.)

The Word Family 'Act'


Verbs- Nouns- Adjs (or Advs)

act- act, actor --

-- action - actionable

-- -- active, actively

activate- activation -activated

-- activity --

-- activism, activist --

-- inaction- inactive

-- inactivity --

Related families
(from the same root as 'Act')

 counteract, counteractive

 deactivate, deactivation

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 enact

 hyperactive, hyperactivity

 interact, interaction, interactive, interactively, interactivity

 overactive

 overreact, over-reaction

 proactive, proactively

 react, reaction, reactivate, reactivation, reactive, reactivity

 transact, transaction

Definitions and Examples


To act is to do something. We say, “Actions speak louder than words.”

To activate is to make something (like an account) active. For example, after applying for and
receiving a credit card, you must call a certain phone number to activate it before you can use
it. The call confirms that you received the card in the mail. Once it is activated you can use it
for transactions (in this case purchases).

An active person does things. Activity means “getting out and doing something” rather than
just passively letting things happen. (Hyperactivity or being overactive is moving around or
doing too much.)

It is wise to be proactive, and take action before problems get serious. The opposite approach
is waiting to react to problems. However, there can also be a problem if a person acts before
he thinks!

So what’s the best advice? Participate actively in finding solutions to problems, but be sure to
think first!

What an act! (How many forms of ‘act’ can you find?)

Parts of Speech in Sentences


The definitions above show how to use the different parts of speech in the 'act' family in
sentences. Here's a little more explanation.

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NOUNS

tell who or what the sentence is about (as the subject of the sentence.) See actions, activity, &
hyperactivity in the definitions above.

Nouns can also be the object of a verb or preposition-- the person or thing that receives the
action, as in transactions or action (in paragraph 3.) Sometimes there can be several nouns in
the same word family, especially if one is a concept (like activity) and one is a person
(like actor or actress.)

Notice that the infinitive (the ‘to’ form) of a verb can be the subject of a sentence, acting as a
noun as in to act and to activate (the first use.)

Sometimes the present participle of a verb can also act as a noun. (It’s called a gerund when it
is used as a noun.) 'Acting’ is a gerund in the sentence: “Acting is a profession that requires
constant practice.”

VERBS usually show the action of a sentence: what a noun does. To activate, to react, &
acts (in paragraph 3) are verbs.

ADJECTIVES describe (tell about) nouns. Acting, activated, active, overactive, &
proactive are adjectives. (Acting can also be a noun or the present participle of a
verb.) Activated, like many adjectives, is made using the past participle of a verb.

Adjectives can also be made (less commonly) from the present participles of verbs: “Mr.
Miller is the acting vice president of the company until Mr. Baker returns.”

Sometimes there are two or more adjectives made from the same
verb: boring and bored, frightening and frightened, surprising and surprised.

In these cases we use the present participle (-ing form) to express the cause of a feeling, and
the past participle (usually ending in -ed) to express the result or the feeling itself.

Examples: “Mr. Smith’s class last night was very boring!Advertisements

We were so bored we counted the minutes until ten o’clock!"

“Have you ever had a really frightening experience? Some people get so frightened at horror
movies that they scream.”

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ADVERBS modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.They describe how something is
done. Actively is an adverb. It tells you how to participate. (Another example: My brother
always works proactively, He thinks ahead and takes steps to avoid problems.)

Complete the tables using the appropriate form of the word family
Exercise 1

Verb Noun - thing / idea Noun - person Adjective

proceed

researcher

derivative

economist

concept

financier

interpret

consistency

theory

analysis

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Exercise 2

Verb Noun - thing / idea Noun - person Adjective

creative

vary

legislate

assessor

respondent

established

definitive

beneficiary

distributive

contract