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EDITOR

Dr. Chhote Lal Khatri


Estd. 1997 ISSN 0972-0901 CONTENTS
University Professor,
CRITICISM POETRY
Department of English
T.P.S. College, Patna 1. Women Media Personalities: 1. Life
Imaging Women Dr Sushil Kumar Mishra/67
EXECUTIVE EDITOR Dr.Alka Saxena/1 2. The Gifts of Nature
Dr. Kumar Chandradeep Dr Sushil Kumar Mishra/68
University Professor,
P.G. Department of English, CYBER 2. Recreating Contemporary Real-
ity: A Reading of Pashupati Jha’s
3. Water Famine
Amarendra Kumar/70
College of Commerce, Arts & Taking on Tough Times
Science, Patna
E-mail : drkcdeep@gmail.com
LITERATURE Binod Mishra/9
4. S.Radhamani
/70
A BI-ANNUAL JOURNAL OF ENGLISH STUDIES
5. Waiting
3. C.L. Khatri: A Poet of Cultural
EDITORIAL ADVISORS Values Binod Mishra/71
(vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June, 2016)
Padma Shri Dr. Ravindra Rajhans 6. You
Nishi Chauhan,/16
Dr. Shaileshwar Sati Prasad Binod Mishra/72
Dr. J. P. Singh 4. A Glimpse of Radical Feminism 7. Hitler
Dr. R. N. Rai in R.K. Narayan’s ‘The Painter Geoff Sawers/73
Dr. Shiv Jatan Thakur of Signs’
Dr. Stephen Gill 8. From all directions
Kumari Rashmi Priydarshni/24 /75
Dr. Basavaraj Naikar
9. Stenograph
PEER REVIEWED 5. The Zeal of Amelioration in Mulk /76
OFFICIAL REVIEWERS REFEREED RESEARCH Raj Anand’s Novels 10. Unbroken Ice
Dr. Ram Bhagwan Singh /76
1A/4, New Patliputra Colony,
JOURNAL Ravi Prakash /33
11. The Voice Within
Patna- 800013, BIHAR 6. Post-colonial concept: And its /77
impact on English Literature 12. Transcreation of Bharathiar’s
Dr. Sudhir K. Arora Poem
Sabita Kumari/40 A. Vanitha/78
Dept. of English Maharaja
Harishchandra P. G. College
7. Female Protagonists in R. K. BOOK REVIEW
Moradabad, (U.P.) India. Narayan's Novels : A Critical
Study 1. Vijay Vishal/75
Dr. Binod Mishra CYBER PUBLICATION HOUSE 1. Christel R. Devadawson/80
Dr. Kumar Chandradeep /44
Dept. of Humanities CHHOTE LAL KHATRI 2. Dr. Shagufta Ghazal/83
I.I.T. Rookee "Anandmath" 3. Pashupati Jha/85
8. The Advent of Dalit Literature
mishra.binod@gmail.com Harnichak, Anisabad, Patna- 800002 4. Linda Ibbotson/88
Dr.S. Azam Hussain/55 5. Tulasi Kshetra/91
Bihar (India)
Dr. K. K. Pattanayak Mob. : 09934415964 6. Manas Bakshi/94
9. The Aroma of Comedy in
Bhagya Residency, Room No.-6, E-mail : drclkhatri@rediffmail.com English 7. Aravind Adiga's/96
Ambica Nagar, Bijipur, 8. Pranob Kumar Majumder/97
www.englishcyberliterature.net Sanjay Kumar/62
Berhampur- 3, Ganjam, Odisha 9. Sudhir K. Arora/98
www.clkhatri.com
10. C L Khatri’s/101
Women Media Personalities: Media has played an important role in
empowering women. Media industry has become a
Imaging Women career which more and more girls are joining. The
Dr. Alka Saxena way media has played its part in portraying about
the atrocities faced by the women and empowering
the women, no other sector has done. (Times of India
Women have played a significant role in the field Feb 21, 2009)
of Media and Mass Communication. The first Indian
Newspaper came out in 1780, but in the beginning as Through the present paper I wish to discuss some
elsewhere, it was a man’s domain. In the 19th to 20th important women media personalities who have
century, especially during the freedom struggle, authored books on women’s issues thereby imaging
activists like Kamala Devi Chattopadhaya, Sarojini the status of women in contemporary India. I would
Naidu and Aruna Asaf Ali started penning their views. like to begin with Amita Malik, who has been rightly
In the beginning women were offered editorial work called the first lady of Indian journalism. Incidentally
and there were only a few women reporters. These she died on 20th Feb 2009. Her passing away was
women reporters/ journalists were usually art, music described by Kuldeep Nayyar as a loss to the aesthetic
or film critics. But now with the overnight revolution world. Amita Malik began her career as a radio
in Information Technology and Communication there broadcaster in Lucknow, before Independence, and
has been a growing presence of women in media. later moved to Delhi. According to senior journalist
Women journalists are now reporting from the sports Savant Nina “she was a media critic who wrote about
grounds to battle grounds. Indian women media all three medias- films, television and radio.” She was
personalities like Barkha Dutt, Mandira Bedi, Nalini a freelancer for The Statesman and also reported for
Singh, Mrinal Pande, Madhu Kishwar have taken up the BBC, a coloumnist for Hindustan Times of India,
challenging assignments. Many women journalists are and was activity involved with NDTV.
working with women’s centers and women’s studies Her autobiography Amita, No Holds Barred, is an
organizations. They have also been associated with honest record of her personal and professional life.
allied agencies such as Newspaper Syndicate. She recounts an incident from her early childhood
Some women editors of women’s magazine like days when she threw a jar of cream at a servant who
Manushi, Womens Era, Femina have focused on the image tried to paw her. He threatened her by saying ‘I’ll tell
of women in contemporary Indian society. Thought your father’ but she retaliated with equal anger. “I’ll
provoking articles and stories have raised women’s tell my father too.” The vulnerability of a girl child is
issues and also shown ways for women’s emancipation revealed through this incident, but it is the indomitable
and empowerment. A seminar was recently organized spirit of Amita Malik that strikes the readers, and it
by the Institute of Journalism and Mass was this quality that she maintained throughout her
Communication, CSJM University, Kanpur, on "The life. This spirit of self defense that she displayed as a
Role and Responsibility of Media in Women’s child was often seen in her personal and professional
Emancipation." Speaking on the occasion …..Senior life as well. Amita Malik also recounts her stormy entry
journalist Kuldip Nayyar remarked: into Doordarshan and its strange ways. At her very

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 1 2 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
first recording she was ordered by a stern woman that the women spoke out against old traditions that
producer to change her sari and hairstyle as perhaps kept them silent for so long. But now there are voices
it was too ordinary and not eye catching. But she was infused with a new confidence and vitality. Culled from
not one who could be ordered in this manner. She hundreds of interviews and encounters Breaking the
showed her defiance by saying “if you don’t like my Silence, like her other books are, is an extraordinary
hairstyle and sari you can cancel my programme, testament to the new empowerment of women around
otherwise I will do.” Needless to say, the recording the world.
went on her terms. Her image on TV and media instilled
Anees Jung was also instrumental in giving a voice
a lot of inspiration and confidence in many young girls
to her mother. She remembers that her mother, like
who learnt from her that you can survive on your own
all self effacing mothers just stepped aside and
terms if you have confidence in yourself.
watched her family grow. Anees Jung writes, “My
Another celebrity journalist for over three decades mother remains absent in the only family portrait that
is Anees Jung. Born in Hyderabad in an orthodox rests on the last page of the family album. Her seven
Muslim family, she was brought up as a child in strict children are grouped solemnly around a father, proud
purdah, but later went on to study at Osmania in the colour black. The inscription below reads Hosh
University and the University of Michigan. Returning ki Duniya. Hosh being my father’s pen name. My
to India in the mid 70s, she began her career in mother, it appears, has no claim on this happy world
journalism with Youth Times, a magazine she edited. which she has helped create” (Jung 1987:14). Her
She is now a columnist for several journals in India mother was part of a landscape behind the chilman
and abroad. She has also written several books whom she never questioned or tried to explore. Her
including Unveiling India- A Woman’s Journey, Night of mother too was a writer who hid her writings from
the New Moon (her encounters with Muslim women in children. But when Anees came to know about it she
India) Breaking the Silence, (gives voice to the voiceless decided to publish her mother’s verses in the form of
from around the world) Seven Sisters (about the women a little book, on the occasion of Moharrum. That book
of South Asia). She is also the Director General of was priced at Rs.3/= and brought in nearly Rs.800/=,
UNESCO on Women, Development and Culture, Asia. her mother’s very first earnings.
Through her books she not only examines her own
This is the trademark of Anees Jung- ‘she sets
identity but also reveals the truth of existence for most
women free.’ Incidently this is a small note written by
Asian women. She is an inveterate traveler, who uses
Gloria Steinem in ‘Revolution from Within’ which she
places, towns and villages as the background for her
has presented to Anees. Anees handles her complex
meetings with the people of whom she writes. In
material with rare insight and skill. Her books are an
Breaking The Silence- Voices of Women from Around the
authentic statement on the condition of women in the
World she acknowledges that her book is “a collective
world today.
work of all the women around the world who let me
into their private space, shared with me their thoughts Next in line is my all time favourite, Mrinal Pande,
and lives, so often streaked with struggle, sorrow and daughter of well known Hindu writer Shivani. She had
remarkable strength”(Acknowledgements ix). She found taught at various Indian universities before turning

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 3 4 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
her attention to journalism. She is an Indian TV Another prolific columnist is Sudha Murthy who
personality, journalist and author. She is the chief was introduced to her readers through her articles
editor of Hindustan and hosts Baton Baton Mein, a weekly and columns in The Sunday Express, The Week, The
show on Lok Sabha TV. She has earlier worked for Hindu and The Hindustan Times. She has also
Doordarshan and Star News. She has also been the contributed to leading Kannada and Marathi dailies.
editor of Vama, a prominent hindi magazine. Her first She is an engineer, teacher, columnist, writer,
story was published in Dharmyug at the age of twenty philanthropist and corporate all rolled into one. Most
one, and since then she has been writing both in Hindi unassuming and down to earth, but certainly a woman
and English. She has also spent several years on the who knows how to fight injustice. As a fresh
National Commission for Self Employed Women, engineering graduate she wrote a letter to JRD Tata
inquiring into the conditions for rag pickers, vegetables pointing out that barring women applicants from jobs
sellers and domestic help. at Telco was injustice. JRD responded to her grievance
and called her for an interview. She was offered a job
One of her short stories 'Bitch', shows the
in Telco which she took up, even though at that time
reactions of Gauri, a matronly Bengali cleaning woman,
she was going abroad for further education. She felt
who does not raise her eyebrows like her Memsahib
that since she had protested against gender bias and
on hearing that a four years old girl was married to a
new the job was offered to her, so it was her moral
dog. She says, “ Oh Ma, at least he won’t come home
responsibility to honor the offer.
drunk and beat her on arm, twist her family for a
wrist watch or a bicycle or get her pregnant as soon Her articles written in simple style touch the
as he can and run off with another woman. A son of a hearts of the readers. Her columns were
bitch is any day better than a son of a man.” (TLM: Sex straightforward anecdotes of people and places she
and Violence ) encountered. They have been brought out under the
title Wise and Otherwise. She has nineteen books to
Most of Mrinal Pande’s books are concerned with
her credit. Her very emotional and touching novel is
women’s issues and have been written for a social
Mahaswetha, which she has dedicated to all those
cause. Stepping Out is about life and sexuality in rural
women in our country who suppress their feelings and
India. My Own Witness is a comic description of life
suffer silently because they have leucoderma, which
among power mongers and brings to light reality behind
is just a cosmetic disease. The purpose of the novel is
the glamorous façade of news reporting. In Devi: Tales
to give hope and courage to such women. The story is
of the Goddess in our Time, she sees in strong,
about Anupama, a beautiful and talented woman who
passionate women who defy the strictures of a male
falls in love with an equally talented doctor named
dominated world, shades of the Goddess. She
Anand. It is a fairy tale wedding but soon the story
particularly is impressed by the strength and fortitude
takes a turn when Anupama discovers white spots on
of her mother, the writer Shivani and her intellectual
her body and is met with scorn and disrespect of Anand
domineering aunt – Badi Amma. She also talks of some
and his family. She is thrown out of the house. Sudha
prostitutes, activists and reformers in whom she sees
Murthy is a writer with a mission. She depicts the
the Goddess incarnate. Devi is about such empowered
courage and self reliance of Anupama who fights
women.
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 5 6 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
against all odds to stand on her feet once again. passively) women, which compelled me to put their
stories down. And, in a way also being a woman made
Sudha Murthy has received letters from
sense to write about women, though of course gender
innumerable readers who have got inspiration from
has had no bias in my stories.” The underlying theme
this novel. Mahaswehta has made a difference in many
of her stories is the growth and spirit of mainly urban
lives. She has recounted one such instance from real
women.
life in a column "A Wedding to Remember", which is
reproduced at the end of the novel. This letter was Thus we see that women Media personalities
from the groom’s father. His son had backed out from discussed in this paper have taken advantage of their
the marriage because his fiancé had developed journalistic experiences and have written fiction and
leucoderma. Incidentally the boy happened to read non-fiction with a view to transform society. In the
Mahaswetha. He read it several times and it changed course of their journalistic careers they have traveled
his perception. His parents and friends could not far and wide and have met people from all sections of
explain and convince him but the novel changed his society. Therefore it is difficult to separate fiction from
perception and he agreed to marry Malati. Sudha reality and vice-a-versa in their works. Each of these
Murthy attended the marriage and “felt so nice and writers is conscious about the need to empower through
happy about the whole thing. Never in my wildest their works. The autobiographical element is
dreams had I thought that an ordinary person like me deliberate and serves to inspire; the fictional content
could change somebody’s life” (171). Such is the mettle is thought provoking and compels the readers to
of inspiring writers. understand human relations and give due space and
respect to women.
The youngest of the lot is perhaps Nandita Puri, a
Loreto graduate who strayed into journalism and Work Cited :
aspired to write a book some day. She wrote for Jung, Anees. Unveiling India, New Delhi: Penguin. 1987
Culcutta’s leading newspapers The Telegraph and The
Statesman before moving to Mumbai in 1993. Here she _____ Breaking the Silence, New Delhi: Penguin. 1997
is a columnist with city tabloid Mid Day. She has also Murthy, Sudha. Mahaswetha, Madras: East West Press. 2007
released her first book of short stories entitled Nine Puri Nandita. Nine On Nine, New Delhi : Rupa & Co. 2005
on Nine. She displays a rare perception of human
nature. At the core of each story is an urban woman, The Little Magazine: Sex and Violence, Vol II, Issue 1, Jan- Feb
2001.
asserting her independence and questioning long
established social equations. The stories are drawn
from real life encounters and experiences of friends
and family almost every story has the undercurrent of
being betrayed by man, as father, as husband, lover,
co-worker or son. In the Prologue she has stated, “In
the course of my career as a journalist and writer, I Assistant professor, PG & Research Department of English,
have encountered many strong (both actively and Vellalar College for Women, Erode, Tamilnadu, India,
Pincode - 638011

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 7 8 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Recreating Contemporary Reality: A The universal situation of women becomes much
more clear in the second poem, “Inside, Outside, “
Reading of Pashupati Jha’s Taking
where it is poignantly pointed out that the passive
on Tough Times acts of eternal drudgery, sacrifice, and suffering of
*Binod Mishra women, do not create history—it is created by outside
acts of war and violence, which has become synony-
Pashupati Jha’s fifth poetry collection, Taking on mous with grand manly valour. Thus, the women--the
Tough Times, stands true to the Arnoldian definition of creators--are made entirely unimportant for history,
poetry as criticism of life. Jha has already published for they “are only insignificant passives, can’t be/ good
widely appreciated poetry collections like Cross and and grand enough for history/ they are history’s vic-
Creation (2003), Mother and Other Poems (2005), All in tims alone” (13). But the selfless sacrifice of women
One (2011), and Awaiting Eden Again (2015). Like previ- ignored by history, is affectionately cherished by the
ous collections, ‘variety’ is the key word of Taking on son in “Wait of the Mother and Son”. The son here
Tough Times too, for it depicts the multiple aspects of fondly recollects each affectionate act of his mother,
contemporary life with moving depth, though outwardly regretting that he could do nothing in return: “I fed
his lines look deceptively simple. Jha’s poetic canvas her only once--/ the burning flame in her mouth,”
covers such various elements of modern reality as the referring to the last rites performed on the pyre of his
plight of women, moral and cultural decline, political dead mother. Son’s affection for his mother is in full
degradation, environmental devastation, exploitation bloom again in “She,” where the son entreats his dead
of the weak, and pervasive pleasure principal result- mother to visit him at least once, even in his dream.
ing into social, regional, religious, and sexual violence He does not want the umbilical cord to snap off per-
of the worst type. The first three poems of this collec- manently, for: “People thrive on wealth and status/ I
tion take the seminal theme of women and their pre- survive on your unbound affection” (43). The poet’s at-
dicament. The first poem, appropriately titled ‘Woman,’ titude towards woman in the role of the wife is also
depicts touchingly the confession of fear and dejec- positive, despite some strains coming to conjugal life
tion in the form of dramatic monologue of a married after years of togetherness. This strain is visible in
woman. The speaker tries hard to make her brute of a the poem, “What Has Gone Wrong”?:
husband symbolically and significantly realize that” I Why can’t we keep our body warm
was his mother long before/ I became his woman”( and temper cool?
11). She laments her precarious plight, and that of Can’t we cover our heart and soul
the entire womankind, by concluding her anguish with with a thicker layer of love even now”? (58)
the unchanging facts of changing times:
But forgetting that burden of age affecting conju-
Civilization has brought only cosmetic change gal life, the poet is all agog for love in “Don’t Want to
inside it all is the same story— Know Further” where one smile transforms everything
a monolith of mountain to a stronger bond between the two; and “there comes
existing since ages a sudden sunshine/ into the dark cave of our dingy
with occasional wear and tear. (12)
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 9 10 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
room.”(50). This type of conjugal bliss is quite common tician, in the second part, picks up a young, ambitious
in the poetry of Jha. Hence, when a woman is de- woman from his constituency, and drunk with his cro-
ceived into mismatch of a marriage, he takes the side nies, she is gang raped willy-nilly in a government
of the wronged wife in “The Only Expertise,” where guesthouse, but she is supposed to keep her mouth
she laments at the all pervasive cheating present in shut for a dubious future prospect. Jha very sugges-
the entire air: tively depicts the whole situation, without turning the
event of the night sensational:
Should I blame
his family which shaped his mindset No gang rape was reported in the morning
or my family which zeroed on him for everything was done by apparent consent;
or me who dittoed their choice the dewdrops glistened on the grass
or this age, expert only in masking? (45) only a few could feel
someone weeping from above. (28)
Thus, on the whole, Jha’s poems highlight the
wrongs heaped on women; but he is also aware of the Political corruption is also the main plank in an-
new breed of selfish socialites, who, though very few other poem, “High Class Hedonist.” In a dramatic
in number, are utterly self-centred, and can stoop to monologue mode, the politician speaks, and exposes
conquer anytime. Contrasting such type with himself and his double standard-- the assumed mask
Cinderella, Jha writes in “Cinderella: New Version” : in public and the real self in the darkness of night.
Representing the elite political class, his assumed
Now the smell of wine and cigarette smoke
mask cracks open in the company of his cronies, when
floats in my life, fills my dreams
he enjoys wine and women, “all top class,” thus in-
and not the prince charming in shining armour
verting the Gandhian ideal of selfless service:
racing to me on the winged Pegasus;
one, after all, has to be a realist someday. (68) We are high-class hedonists
born to enjoy life to the hilt
The socio-political decline is also a major con-
absolutely unmindful of others;
cern in Jha’s collection. None can deny that the moral
let the Mahatma’s monkeys
standard has fallen to such a low pitch that one may
close shut their eyes and mouths
even wonder whether it is even worthwhile to talk of
for many more years to come. (78)
any standard at all. “A Sordid Day in the Jungle”
speaks of this abysmal situation with the help of an The deep-rooted corruption of the rich and the
orphan urchin in the first part of the poem, and with a powerful is a recurrent poetic resentment in Jha, as
young female political aspirant in the second part. found in “Steep Decline”, “Elite Leeches”, “Stark Re-
Driven to utter destitute, the urchin is beaten to pulp ality”, “The Magic and the Tragic”, and many other
for trying to pickpocket in a bus. Yet, he thanks the poems. A sensitive soul cannot remain immune to such
passenger for not reporting him to the police, thus mass scale degradation and dehumanization of man-
saving “him from the nightmare of sodomy/ by the kind. Superfluous shine of mere statistical growth can-
sadist brutes in the lock-up of law”(27). A corrupt poli- not hide the ugly fact of steep fall in human values:

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 11 12 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Only the drum beat of repeated lies till some pious soul rescues me from there. (32)
can’t silence this sad truth
“My Land” and “On the Verge of Breaking Point”
that we have added years
present environmental degradation more openly to
but not essence to our human existence. (49)
highlight how fruits and flowers are blighted by “can-
Jha does not only talk of dehumanization of hu- cerous caterpillars.” The constant exploitation of Na-
man nature; he also speaks of the utter devastations ture has played so much havoc that things have come
of outside Nature in the mindless race for urbaniza- to the breaking point. Remedial measures are to be
tion. “Hymns to Him” depicts the idyllic beauty and taken instantly and on an urgent and mass scale to
serenity as a symbolic hymn to God. The creation of stem the tide of Eden being turned into hell.
such a harmonious universe is a sure indicator that
The idyllic earth is washed in acidic rains; the
He conceived this earth as expression of His deep af-
entire world wrapped in toxic fog looks like a big gas
fection for everyone, big or small. But the same earth
chamber of death. Sky-touching apartments are ready
is polluted by the greedy people while creating city
to be smashed by impending earthquakes. You live
after city, a jungle of concretes bereft of feeling, as
and yet not live fully for death lurks behind in many
presented in “The Contrast.” This poem juxtaposes the
ways. (72)
innocent simplicity of village folks with the self-grati-
The poet, therefore, concludes the poem wonder-
fication of town people, who, in their material lust,
ing, “What type of legacy/are we leaving behind/for
disturb the balanced harmony of Nature. The poet,
our grandchildren yet to be born?” (Ibid.). Taking on
while crossing these dehumanized denizens of towns,
Tough Times, thus, poetically recreates the contem-
feels disgusted at their utter egotism:
porary reality of our time, which is hurtling fast to-
Whenever I pass by them wards doom and disaster. The objective of writing these
I am reminded of a garbage heap poems is not meant for scaring people; it is just in the
with the overgrowth of useless weeds shape of showing the mirror of impending danger so
always smug at their own foliage. (31) that people may be activated to action against this
sliding downwards towards crass materialism at the
This creative aversion to city is again artistically
cost of human values. In his ‘Preface’ to this collec-
expressed in “Muse Protests.” It reads like a mild sat-
tion, Jha has explained his poetic motive: “One of my
ire on most of the Indian English poets living in the
major objectives in writing poetry is to generate ‘the
artificial atmosphere of big metros. Jha imagines Muse
milk and tears of human kindness.’ I am sure, poetry,
imprisoned in an AC room of a city, feeling troubled
music, fine arts and similar other subjects may con-
and suffocated there in the absence of open air and
vert the present emotional wasteland into fertile
natural surroundings. It is quite constricting space
greenery, with all its vibrant humanity and pristine
for the captive Muse:
purity, when both feelings and facts would be blended
Used to living at a wind-tossed hilltop perfectly for the holistic and harmonious co-existence”
I am now housed in a designer home (8).
beautiful from outside but breathless within;
This optimistic hope in the final outcome, is part
I have to spend uneasy sleepless nights in it

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 13 14 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
of the poet’s belief in the essential goodness of man- C.L. Khatri: A Poet of Cultural Values
kind, which, like the mythical Phoenix, is capable of
rising to life again out of its old, burnt-out body. Such Nishi Chauhan
poems of hope in this collection are “Bury the Hatchet”,
“Birth of a Baby”, “Future Ahead”, “The Last Hope”, I couldn’t hold ripples
“The Divine Gift”, “Alternatives”, and many others. It They filled in my pages
is part of Jha’s poetics to point to the glimmer of light Critics called them verse (Ripples in the Lake 8)
at the end of the dark tunnel: These are the lines from the pen of C.L. Khatri
Time is definitely out of joints who feels ripples in his heart and when he fails to
and I am asked to retune the chaotic times hold them, they come out and fill the page with words
with words of rhythm and rhymes which the critics call ‘verse.’ C.L. Khatri, a professor
and to retrieve things to proper points. (67) poet writes poetry with a mission as he states in the
Preface of Kargil: “Poetry is my means of fighting.” He
This die-hard optimism amid dismal darkness is believes in art for life’s sake and this he has shown in
a recurrent feature of Jha’s poems, for he firmly be- three poetry collections namely, Kargil (2000), Ripples
lieves that literature should be suggestively life af- in the Lake (2006), and Two-Minute Silence (2014). With
firming and not life negating; it should be the last his genuine poetic talent, he has waged a war—the
sustenance for tormenting souls amid the modern, war against corruption, poverty, pollution, deterioration
tough times. of values, and the enemies of cultural values. He wishes
Work Cited : to restore the cultural values which are lost in the
materialistic world.
Jha, Pashupati. Taking on Tough Times. New Delhi: Authors
Press, 2016. He is a poet of love and peace. He wishes to spread
the fragrance of love everywhere so that there may be
peace and harmony. It is his wish that
Let an endless stream of love
Run through the universe
Wash away the shadow lines
That separate cause from effect. (Kargil 9)
Like Tagore, he embraces the whole world. The
whole world is his home. The feeling of cosmopolitanism
is flowing in his blood. Though he lives in India, he
considers the whole world—from Greenland to New
Zealand his abode. He is in search of a bank that may
*Binod Mishra, is an Associate Professor in the Department of provide him housing loan. What he wishes is that
Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Roorkee, people should have the feeling of vasudhevkutambukam.
Uttarakhand,India. Here are the lines which prove Khatri’s love for

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 15 16 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
cosmopolitanism: The poet is a teacher by profession. He is not happy
with the relationship of the teacher with the student.
Greenland to New Zealand
Due to the influence of the materialism, the student
the whole world is my abode
does not respect the teacher as he used to do and the
seeking housing loan. (Two Minute Silence 74)
same is true in case of the teacher. Now the teacher
The poet is not happy when he sees the present has become so greedy that he has no aim except
scenario. He finds corruption everywhere. Corruption making money. There is lack of understanding and
is present in the temple. Politicians have forgotten love between the teacher and the student. The result
their duties. Jawans fight on the boundaries against is that the student does not hesitate in murdering or
the enemies so that the civilian may sleep in peace. insulting the teacher. The present education system
They do not hesitate in sacrificing their lives for the has made the teacher so helpless that he is afraid of
sake of their country. The poet fears that the danger his students lest they should beat him. The poet Khatri
is not so much from outside but from inside. He feels finds that the honour of a teacher is in peril. Here is
that Kargil is within. The need is to fight against the an excerpt which reveals this danger.
enemies who are in the country. He wages a war
Invigilating
against the evils which are prevalent in the country.
I feel policing pupils
He asks the people to wage a war and exhorts them
teacher in peril. (Two Minute Silence 76)
thus:
As a true teacher, Khatri wishes to turn his
Let’s be Jawans of Kargil!
students into the fruitful citizens so that they may
Arise, Awake, Ascend
contribute and help the society with their talents. He
And fight to the end (Kargil 22)
becomes emotional and longs for the days when the
The people raise fingers but never see within. If mutual relationship was based on love and
they see, they will find that they are culprits. Who is understanding. A teacher is a gardener. He has to
responsible of polluting the environment? Who is take care of his students in the manner of a gardener.
responsible for creating the environment of venom and He strongly wishes to graduate his students in the
violence? If people peep into themselves, they will find grammar of God. He wishes to teach them love,
themselves responsible. Hence, the poet thinks that sympathy and caring through his own example. Here
they are their own culprit. What the poet recommends are the lines which present his strong determination:
is that they should be true to their own selves. He
addresses the people in a satirical tone thus:
I’ll graduate them in grammar of God
You are the culprit with love and care of a gardener
of the air watch them grow into garden of gods
the flower before I am buried into its breast (Kargil 13 )
the water
These lines remind us the lines of Henry Louis
the urchins
Vivian Derozio who feels happy when he sees his
and of yourself (Ripples in the Lake 35)
students progressing day by day. He wishes to make
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 17 18 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
the life of his students purposeful. Khatri’s wish to people are going to lose next.
watch the students into garden of gods is best
‘O lord, what’s going to happen?’
contrasted with the happiness of Derozio when he
I cried, ‘what next to lose?
feels:
We have lost our chopal, kirtan mandali
What gladness rain upon me, when I see age-old family bond, birds like freedom (Kargil 4)
Fame, in the mirror of Futurity,
The poet does not like the hangover of the Western
Weaving the chaplets you are doomed to gain—
culture. It is really irony that the people of the West
And then I feel I have not lived in vain. (Derozio
are following spiritualism while the people of India
291)
are running after materialism. Materialism never offers
The poet respects woman. He is grieved when he peace of mind. It seems that people have become the
sees her pitiable condition. She is beaten, harassed manasputra in following the Western culture. They
and exploited. In Indian culture, woman is worshipped. have forgotten the Indian cultural values and
It is said that “Where women are worshipped, gods traditions. They have shown their alienation with the
reside there.” It is true but now people have forgotten rich cultural past. It seems that they have become
their cultural values. Women are “twice colonized.” mimic men while imitating the Western culture. The
The poet’s heart weeps when he sees them miserable. West once again conspires to make the East slave and
They have lost the glory and honour which they used to some extent it succeeds in its mission of cultural
to have in the olden days. They are given test at each colonization. The poet is grieved over such condition
step. The poet recalls Draupadi and asks her to come and so he shows the real face thus:
and restore the honour of her sisters. The Pandavas
Those who ruled our body now rule our mind
are still inactive. It is the right time to awake them
We behave like their manasputra
and motivate them to raise hands against the people
Languishing in cultural amnesia
who insult and exploit women. Here is an excerpt which
Imbibing like a parrot alien definition
clearly shows the poet’s concern for the women.
Of time. space, culture, civilization, religion
Come down from heaven Draupadi And become alien to what is ours. (Ripples in the
Regain your dignity, awake the Pandavas Lake 63)
Reenact your historical swear
But the poet is an Indian thoroughly. No doubt he
Redeem the dignity of your sisters (24 Kargil)
writes in English, the language of the Britishers. But
The poet feels sad when he sees people have he gives its own idiom and makes it Indian in fragrance.
forgotten the old traditions and rituals because of the He succeeds in doing the nativisation of language. In
impact of globalization. There was a time when people doing so, he shows his identity. He uses Indian phrases
used to sit on chopal, discuss their problems and sing and words. He uses the Indian names of festivals,
songs. Where have those days gone? It is really painful villages, places, rivers and the traditional things. Here
that the people have lost such meeting places and is an example which clearly reveals his use of
things. The chains of slavery are liked if they bring Indianization of English language in his poetry.
money. The poet is grieved and anxious over what the

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 19 20 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Ari dhunia, are you listening Let’s observe two-minute silence
to what the city babu is saying On the uprooted microphone
sarkar is celebrating Children’s Day On the broken chair in the parliament
with billions served in the saucer today (Kargil On the torn pages of the constitution.
37)
Mothers and Fathers of India
Khatri’s ‘Two-Minute Silence’ is the most popular Let’s observe two-minute silence
poem which is from the poetry collection of the same On your death, on the death
name. It is the most discussed poem as Khatri himself Of your fear and deference
admits in Sudhir K. Arora’s C.L. Khatri’s ‘Two-Minute To your vows and values..
Silence: Discourse Continues’: “So the poem is a
Ladies and gentlemen of India
shocking, jolting thunderbolt that reminds us of our
Let’s observe two-minute silence
pristine glory, our cultural root, if it is gone we are
On the death of dhoti and pugadi
undone, and the need to retrieve it and harmonize it
Oxen and coolies replaced by wheels
with the demands of the new age” (qtd. MIT Journal
Chopped up hands and lame legs.
29). He addresses the people of India as sisters and
brothers and asks them to observe two-minute silence Friends, stand with me
over the loss of the centre which used to hold the To observe two-minute silence
things, which are not in disorder. It seems that On this great grand culture
everyone considers himself or herself important and On this glorious century
thinks that he or she is the centre. It is sad that On its great promises.
leaders in the Parliament throw desks and chairs and Let’s observe two-minute silence
uproot microphones. People have no respect for vows On the shrinking space, shrinking sun
and values. Dhoti and pugdi are lost somewhere in Stinking water of the sacred rivers
light of globalization. People do not labour and so Sleeping birds, falling leaves
become the victim of various kinds of diseases. This Watermelon being sliced for quarreling cousins.
new culture seems to be grand but it is not grand
from within. Space has shrunk. Environment is Someone whispered in my ear
polluted. Self-interest is the root cause of the problem. Can’t we do with one minute…? (Two Minute Silence
Relationship and humanity have no more value. The 67-68)
poet fears at such reversal syndrome. No one is ready In his review of Two-Minute Silence published in
to wait. Even two-minute silence seems to be difficult. World Literature Today, Sudhir K. Arora praises it highly
Irony lies when someone asks in the ear of the poet if saying “Two-Minute Silence connects all people into
they cannot observe one-minute silence in place of one thread—the thread that binds them to their
two-minute silence. The poet addresses the people of cultural roots. It establishes C.L. Khatri as a promising
India thus and asks them to observe two-minute poet who values human relationsip and considers the
silence. whole world his home. (70).
Sisters and brothers of India
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 21 22 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
In brief, the poet Khatri is a genuine poet with a A Glimpse of Radical Feminism in R.K.
mission. He succeeds in his mission of restoring the
Narayan’s ‘The Painter of Signs’
lost cultural values. He continues to write such social
poetry. But his poetry never bores. It always arises Kumari Rashmi Priydarshni
curiosity and the reader feels spell bound to make a
tour of his poems, which offer him sense of love, peace, R. K. Narayan is one of the leading Indo-Anglian
and relief by making him believe in his Indian cultural fictionists, whose creative conviction centres round
roots. Khatri is a poet of future. Indian sensibility is middle class society. Narayan is one of the three
his soul. He believes that his dream of India where brightest stars in the wide firmament of Indian English
people will follow the cultural values and spread the Literature, the other two being Mulk Raj Anand and
fragrance of love will be true. Truly, he is a poet of Raja Rao, due to whose contributions, Indian English
cultural values. novel has secured a place of prestige. If Anand’s calibre
Works Cited lies in delineating the pathos of the lives of his
characters, Narayan is remembered for his genial
Arora, Sudhir K. “Review of C.L. Khatri’s Two-Minute Silence.” ironic comedy. Narayan has written nearly a dozen
World Literature Today March-April 2015. Print. novels and many short-stories, and in all his impact
---. “C.L. Khatri’s Two-Minute Silence: Discourse Continues...” as a writer has been everlasting. He is a dedicated
MIT International Journal of English Language & Literature artist who kept himself aloof from the propagandas
2.2 (August 2015). Print. and various ‘isms’. K.R.S. Iyengar has observed in this
Derozio, Poet of India The Definitive Edition. Ed. Rosinka regard:
Chaudhuri. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008. “Like Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayan too has
Print. somehow managed to remain a writer. Anand at
Khatri, C.L. Kargil. Patna: Cyber Publication House, 2000. Print. least has, it would appear, some political axes to
grind, though these do not offensively intrude into
---. Ripples in the Lake. Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 2006. his creative writing. But Narayan has no axes of
Print. any kind: he is that rare thing in India today, a man
---. Two-Minute Silence. New Delhi: Authorspress, 2014. Print. of letters pure and simple.”(Iyengar, 358)
Swami and Friends (1935), Bachelor of Arts (1937)
and The English Teacher (1945) are the school and
college novels of his earlier periods; The Dark Room
(1939) is a domestic novel that laments the disharmony
of domestic life; The Financial Expert,(1952) Mr. Sampath
(1949) The Guide (1958), and The Man Eater of Malgudi
(1962) are the novels based on the themes related
with money; Waiting for Mahatma (1952) is his political
Assistant Professor, Moradabad Institute of Technology, novel based on Mahatma Gandhi’s struggle for
Moradabad independence and ending with his murder in the Birla

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 23 24 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
House Garden at the prayer meeting. After Waiting for He is bewitched by her beauty, and more so by her
Mahatma Narayan wrote The Vendor of Sweets (1967) precision, authority and devotion to career and duty.
and then in 1976 The Painter of Signs which is his His life takes an altogether new turn. He gets
eleventh novel. infatuated with Daisyism that becomes a permanent
feature of his life. He begins to have erotic dreams
The Painter of Signs is a saga of man’s search for
associated with Daisy, who however, refused to be
self-identity, most particularly of woman’s. It is chiefly
treated like a commodity-article. For her the cause
an embodiment of, “The spirit of change and
for which she is working is more important. She
urbanization that blows over Malgudi." (Kumar, 129)
identifies her mission with the cause of the poor.Raman
It captures the heart-touching story of two young is highly shocked when Daisy rejects the institution
lovers, who could not unite despite the non-wavering of marriage saying:
flame of love in their hearts for each other. It depicts
“Married life is not for me. I have thought it
the sweet-bitter experiences of love of Raman, a young
over. It frightens me. I am not cut out for the life
painter of signboards who lives in Ellaman Street in you imagine. I can’t live, except alone. It won’t
Malgudi with his aged aunt. As per the demand of his work.”(Narayan, 177-79)
job, he one day meets Daisy, an ardent family planning
worker in Malgudi. At the very first sight he falls Obviously enough, Daisy stands for selfhood and
passionately in love with her. He gets lost in carnal is a true radical construction of womanhood. When
thoughts and considers himself enjoying her company her mother tells her to be ready to present herself
in different aspects. He leaves no stone unturned in before the prospective bridegroom, she utterly refuses
wooing her and tries to win her favour anyhow; but, to be inspected. Rather, she herself expresses her
all his attempts are turned into ash by “a calculated desire to inspect the bridegroom. Her family is
coldness in Daisy’s look”. Raman does the job of a surprised to know all these eccentricities on her part,
painter and sketches the family planning message at and warns her for ruining her own life by spoiling the
different places,which provides him golden opportunity chances of being settled down in life. But Daisy doesn’t
to be in the touch of Daisy. They happen to spend one pay heed to these warnings as she herself likes to
starlit night together while returning from the village work rather than to be married. Though she gets ready
tour, during which, Raman tried to seduce Daisy, but to be evaluated by the bridegroom’s side, but the
his attempt remained failure due to the latter’s marriage could not take place due to her strange
objections. This denial of love-making on the part of behaviour. She has to tolerate much taunting from
Daisy reminds the readers of D. H. Lawrence’ ‘Sons her family members, who even stop talking to her
and Lovers’, where the advances of Paul Morel had thinking that she has brought disgrace to the family.
been awkwardly rejected by Miriam, though, the reason However, Daisy is resolute for not yielding before all
of disapproval was different there. Raman proposes these familial and societal pressures.
for marriage but Daisy, like “Bim” of Anita Desai’s novel Daisy is extremely frank to Raman and often visits
Clear Light of Day strongly detests marriage and does his house. She enjoys talking to him and gives him
not reciprocate his advances.Raman’s contact with right advice. She starts spending the nights together
Daisy transforms him into a different sort of person.
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 25 26 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
with Raman and nourishes desire to get married in “In our custom-ridden orthodox society, women
the “Gandharva” style, the simplest form of marital of independent spirit are always misunderstood.
union for lovers. She seems to be unaffected by the Rosie is in fact a typical example of emancipated
relationship, provided it doesn’t cause any hindrance women of modern India. These women are compelled
to face a lot of problems while pursuing their path of
in the path of her career. She is ready to be the wife
redemption.”(Bhatnagar, 117)
of Raman provided the latter does not force her to
change her name.This shows that she possesses a Just like Rosie, Daisy is also an enlightened
great sense of self-respect and feels proud to be a woman of modern India who favours the concept of a
woman. She, like Millamant of William Congreve’s small family in order to get rid of the country’s problem
famous comedy The Way of the World, lays certain terms of population. For Rosie her art of dance was a passion,
and conditions before Raman for marriage. Firstly, and for Daisy her work. Her dedication to her work is
after marriage they should not bear children, and her solemn and profound commitment to life. She
secondly, if they happen to beget a child, she will not moves away to carry on her social service, and leaves
leave pursuing her social services for the sake of looking Raman to suffer the sweet-bitter pangs of separation
after the child. Despite the fact that Raman assures and unfulfilled love.This doesn’t mean she was a
her that her needs and wishes will always be more heartless lady rather she appears before the reader
important to him than his, Daisy feels that directly or as a woman who is not ready to yield her independence
indirectly her sense of purpose and her independent of pursuing her job at the altar of marriage, what
existence may be affected by married life; generally happens with all married ladies, most
therefore,finally, she decides not to marry. She decides particularly, in India.
to leave Malgudi for a three year family planning Desai’s Bim is also a new, educated and intelligent
initiative in villages all over India. Confused and woman like Daisy who has the courage to withstand
puzzled, Raman tries her best to convince her, telling the compulsion to conform to a society that has only
her that his house on Ellaman Street will be open for one channel for women, marriage. Bim rejects this
her whenever she decides to return, but all efforts go obligatory custom of marriage loaded upon the
into vain. At the end of the novel, the readers find womankind. She gives a snort of disgust over the
Raman left alone in Malgudi with his long-lasting wait institution of marriage which is considered as the only
for his paramour Daisy. She remains satisfied with a resort for women. She cherishes the desire for a career
career-oriented life. She turns out to be a typical oriented life in her heart ever since she was a young
representative of women’s rights, and asserts woman’s girl:
independent status. She reminds the reader of “Rosie”
of Narayan’s most celebrated novel The Guide. Rosie “I shall never leave Baba and Raja and Mira
Masi....I shall work- I shall do things....I shall earn
also tries to live her life as per her own will and
my own living- and look after Mira Masi and Baba
aspirations, and leaves Raju, the moment she feels and – be independent.”(Desai, 221)
that he is trying to possess her by hook or crook, which
may once again pose a threat to her dancing career. For a woman work is a powerful substitute for
Professor Chakravorty says in this regard: marriage, for it provides identity, fulfilment,

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 27 28 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
involvement and purpose. Now-a-days, feminism has is a primary tool in the hands of patriarchy to subjugate
emerged as the most revolutionary concept, which is womankind, hence, they believe in the rejection of
a critique of male dominance and the male point of this institution both theoretically and practically.
view which has forced itself upon the world making
They are also against love that fosters
the existence of womankind endangered and hellish.
vulnerability, dependence, possessiveness, suscepti-
Feminists lay emphasis on providing equal rights and
bility to pain, and hinders the wholesome development
opportunities to male and female individuals both in
of woman’s human potential. Radical feminism,
order to live a respectable life in the society, without
according to Daly, is a process or voyage of ‘women
making any discrimination. Since a long time women
becoming’. The origin of women’s subjugation lies in
have been leading life of subordinates to males, but
the weakness caused by childbearing due to which
now feminism aims at eliminating sexist oppression
women become dependent on men for physical survival.
by the patriarchal society. Feminism has not remained
Obviously enough, the radical feminists discard
simply an ideology, but has turned into a social
married status of a woman. A married woman has to
activism, the purpose of which is to change the world
surrender her individuality and self-aspirations at the
to the advantage of women. Feminism can also be
altar of marital obligations, and in this way patriarchy
interpreted as women acting, speaking and writing on
propagates. Simone de Beauvoir observes:
women’s issues and rights. Neeru Tandon, a renowned
feminist critic, very nicely observes about feminism: “It has been said that marriage diminishes
man, which is often true; but almost always it
“Feminism is an ideological position which annihilates woman.”(Beauvoir, 496)
emphasizes the equality of gender and advocates
maximization of potential of women, so that Daisy appears to be quite a true representative of
institutionally and culturally created constraints do radical feminism. Her mission is to serve the poor and
not hinder the process and pattern of development enlighten the ignorant villagers. She doesn’t care a
of women.”(Tandon, 28) fig for name, fame, wealth or luxurious life. She
According to Dr. Tandon, aspires to serve society and thus she wants to “Live
with the poorest in their huts, eat their food and sleep
“A feminist is one who is awakened and on the mud floor”(Narayan, 153)
conscious about women’s life and problem”(Tandon,
28) She cannot be called as an enchantress because
she believes in simple living. In order to be unnoticeable
Feminism is, in fact, liberty of mind, spirit and
she uses to wear simple saris, never tries any make-
body of womankind that will ultimately end patriarchal
up on her face and doesn’t keep on combing her ruffled
domination and bring peaceful harmony in a family as
hair as women are generally in habit of doing; rather,
well as in society. There are different schools of
she smoothens them with her palm. She is very
feminism out of which Radical feminism prescribes a
intelligent, painstaking, persuasive, and totally
plan to create an exclusively female sexuality through
dedicated towards her duty. She doesn’t hesitate while
celibacy, auto-eroticism, lesbianism and artificial
preaching before her audience, even, the facts related
reproduction. According to Radical Feminists, marriage
to population control. She inspires them for small family

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 29 30 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
for a better life. She is ready to do anything, to sacrifice does her best to establish woman’s equality with
anything, and to go anywhere for fulfilling her dream man.”(Kumar,129)
of making the people aware of the family planning.She Clearly enough, Narayan’s The Painter of Signs can
is extremely helping and considerate lady, but she is be studied as a novel that favours the independent
not ready to compromise with her work. Work is worship existence and self-identity of womankind by the
for her. She always gives first priority to work, and in wonderful characterisation of an emancipated lady i.e.
her eyes a home is, “Only a retreat from sun and rain “Daisy”. A woman, indeed, has full right to lead her
and for sleeping, washing and depositing one’s life as per her own will and to materialise her long-
trunk.”(Narayan,166-67) cherished dream.
In this respect she seems to be quite antagonistic Works Cited:
to Lord Tennyson’s Victorian concept of womankind
Bhatnagar, Manmohan K., Indian Writings in English,Vol.-1,
i.e.
Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd.,New
“Man for the field and woman for the hearth, Delhi,2001.
Man for the sword and for the needle she, De Beauvoir, Simone, The Second Sex (1952), Trans. & ed., H.M.
Man to command and woman to obey, Parshley, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1983.
All else confusion”.
Desai, Anita, Clear Light of Day, Random House India, New
(Tennyson, ‘The Princess’)
Delhi, 2008.
Though,it is a well-known fact that Narayan has Iyengar, K.R.S., Indian Writing in English, Sterling Publishers
always tried to keep himself free from ‘isms’, Private Limited, New Delhi, 2006.
movements or protests; yet one can clearly discern
the presence of the theme of feministic rebellion in Kumar, Dr. Satish, A Survey of Indian English Novel, Prakash
Book Depot, Bareilly, 2006.
his novel ‘The Painter of Signs’. At the same time,
Daisy appears to be a lady influenced with radical Narayan, R. K., The Painter of Signs, Indian Thought
feminism. She is a woman not made for home, but for Publications, Mysore, 1986.
making her independent identity in the outer world. Tandon, Neeru, Feminism: A Paradigm Shift, Atlantic Publishers
She is a well-educated and self-aware lady for whom &Distributors (Pvt.) Ltd., New Delhi, 008,
it has rightly been opined: Tennyson, Lord Alfred, 'The Princess’, (lines from text)
“Daisy, who dominates over her male
counterpart Raman, manifests the spirit of
liberation. She is the only female character in all
the Malgudi novels of Narayan, whose dynamism
controls all the events in the novel. She is strikingly
modern in her spirit of independence. Women like
Savitri and Rosie are of the traditional type, who
depend on the menfolk and cannot conceive of an
Assistant Professor, Department of English, M. U. Bodh-Gaya,
independent existence. Daisy is the new woman who
Email: - pkumarirashmi@yahoo.com

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 31 32 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
The Zeal of Amelioration in Mulk Raj coolies like Munoo, labourers like Gangu and his wife
Sajini and daughter Leila, road workers like Bhikhu,
Anand’s Novels
farmers like Nihal Singh and Sukhua, soldiers like
Ravi Prakash Lalu, coppersmiths like Ananta, patriots like Maqbool,
unemployed educated youths like Nur and machine-
Mulk Raj Anand has won the laurels of fame as workers like Ralia whose individual destiny is to suffer
the novelist, short story writer, essayist, art-critic and throughout his or her life appear in Anand’s novels.
an ameliorator of Indian society. He had witnessed They are his most powerful characters whose
numerous facets of the rural life of the Punjab and sufferings represent those of the multitudinous mass
The North West Frontier Provinces of his time. He had of the insulted and the injured, of the depressed and
an intimate knowledge of both sections of society, i.e. the divested.Bakha is the epitome of all the sufferings
life of officers and rich class as well as grim and experienced everywhere through centuries by the
sorrowful life of poor villagers. He had been a witness underdogs of Indian society.When one goes through
to the sufferings and miseries of the exploited people the novels of Anand, one finds him as a true portrayer
of his locale. His heart wept with the pathetic lots of of the societal problems. Through all his novels, the
downtrodden and oppressed sections,and that is why, basic purpose of Anand is to bring amelioration in the
in almost all his novels, he has delineated this harsh pathetic lots of those who have never been provided
reality of Indian Society.Dr. Satish Kumar writes about with the amenities needed to live a respectable and
Anand’s humanitarian outlook: happy life.
“Anand has always written to glorify the Mulk Raj Anand’s first novel Untouchable (1935)
essential dignity of man and to inspire compassion gives account of single day event in the life of Bakha,
in the hearts of men for the oppressed and the a young sweeper-boy of eighteen who lived in a dark,
downtrodden.”(Kumar, 72) dingy one-roomed mud cottage in the outcaste colony
Undoubtedly,Anand’scharacters are always with his father Lakha, brother Rakha and sister Sohini.
extremely backward, deprived and suppressed since a This colony was situated in an extremely uncongenial
long time only on account of their lowly birth. They place to live in where the inhabitants were mostly
have been exploited socially, physically, economically, poor who lived in misery and in dirty unhygienic
mentally, and, above all, emotionally by the upper- conditions.He feels segregated and alone, by the alien
caste and upper-class people. Anand is basically known chants of the temple, the alien gods, and alien people
for leading literary crusades against these who shun and berate him and loathe his touch. There
dehumanising and barbaric distinctions. His are moments of disjuncture and separateness when
characters, both the exploited and the exploiters, are Hindu shopkeepers receive his payment for
drawn from men and women he saw around. The cigarettes,carefully, avoiding his touch:
glaring disparities between the rich and the poor, the “The shopkeeper pointed to a spot on the board
haves and the havenots, compelled him to think about near him. Bakha put his anna there. The betel-leaf-
the amelioration of the downtrodden. Sweepers like leaf seller dashed some water over it from the jug
Bakha, cobblers like Chhote, barbers like Ram Charan, with which he sprinkled the leaves now and again.

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 33 34 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Having thus purified it he picked up the nickel piece does not write about the glories of past or the spiritual
and threw it into the counter. Then he flung a packet heritage of India. His themes are the socio-economic
of ‘Red-Lamp’ cigarettes at Bakha, as a Butcher problems of contemporary India. The subjects he
might throw a bone to an insistent dog sniffing round chooses for his novels are untouchability, exploitation,
the corner of his shop”(Untouchable, 33-34)
poverty and wretchedness, labour problem, hunger,
Bakha is unjustly abused, slapped, beaten, and religious and narrow fanaticism, condition of women,
humiliated, and the sweets in his hands are thrown economic insecurity and his mission is to improve the
down, merely because he has accidently touched a society. His novels broke new ground and represented
Hindu in his ecstasy. He has to go through the market a departure from the tradition of previous Indian fiction.
crying, “Posh, Posh” so that the accident may not He made the common, the people of lower class his
happen again. Bakha has a number of other dramatic heroes and began to write about them.
experiences. An upper caste Hindu Housewife curses
Anand’s Coolie deals with the painful experiences
Bakha for having polluted her doorsteps by sleeping
in the life of Munoo, an orphan village boy from the
near them, and throws a piece of bread at him as if he
Kangra hills in a picaresque manner. His journey takes
were a dog. When out of sympathy Bakha takes an
him far from home to towns and cities, to Bombay and
injured little boy to his home the mother of that boy
Simla, sweating as servant, factory-worker and
instead of thanking him, abuses him for defiling her
rickshaw driver. Munoo gets a job on a poor payment
child and home. Bakha turns back insulted and crest
in Sir George While Cotton Mills in Bombay, where he
fallen like a kicked dog.The pathetic state of
had to fight a lot for survival. Everywhere he is
untouchables one can also observe in Arundhati Roy’s
exploited,sometimes mentally, sometimes physically,
magnum opus novel The God of Small Things (1997)
and sometimes,even sexually.He dies at the age of
where Vellya Paapen and his two sons Kuttapen and
sixteen merely, due to consumption, quite lonely and
Velutha, who belong to Paravan caste,one of the
deserted. Munoo is another discarded victim of the
downtrodden castes in Kerala, are also doomed to bear
social system whose agony has been well portrayed by
this stigma throughout their lives. Roy writes about
Anand who always favoured the concept of
the situation of “Paravan” in Indian Society:
revolutionary social change in order to make the poor
“Paravans, like other Untouchables, were not men lead a dignified existence. At one place, Anand
allowed to walk on public roads, not allowed to cover makes Munoo wonder at the reason for his being a
their upper bodies, not allowed to carry umbrellas. servant, and his master a master:
They had to put their hands over their mouths when
they spoke, to divert their polluted breath away from “It did not occur to him to ask himself what he
those whom they addressed.”(Roy, 73-74) was apart from being a servant, and why he was a
servant and Babu Nathoo Ram his master. His
Anand’s novels chiefly deal with the themes of identity he took for granted and the relationship
the caste system, the economic exploitation by the between Babu Nathoo Ram, who wore black boots,
‘Banya’ community, the conflict between tradition and and himself, Munoo, who went about barefoot, was
modernity, the position of women in Hindu society and to him like sunshine and sunset, inevitable,
their pathetic attempt to retain their gone glory. Anand unquestionable …”(Coolie, 34)

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 35 36 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
K. R. S. Iyengar observes about Coolie : “In class exploitation and class struggle, social and
Untouchable the evil is isolated as caste: in Coolie the economic injustice and the inhuman atrocities in his
evil is more widespread, and appears as greed, novels, so that people may become zealous for
selfishness and inhumanity in their hundred different ameliorating this flabbergasting distinction deep-rooted
forms.”(Iyengar, 341) in India. He adopted the technique of realistic portrayal
from eminent masters of Indian fiction like Tagore,
Anand’s Two Leaves and a Bud (1937) is
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Premchand, and Sharat
thematically a sequel to Coolie, wherein the
Chand Chatopadhaya and European novelists like
exploitation of the under-privileged is unfolded against
Chekhov, Flaubert and Tolstoy. He is a minute observer
the background of the tea-plantation. It deals with the
of life, society, and human character and does not
pathetic plight of the labourers, their inhuman
leave even the ugliest and most impalpable situations
subjugation in Assam tea-plantations.In Assam, Gangu
aside. Everything-- latrines, dirt, squalor, beggars,
is intimated by his neighbour Narain, another tea-
poverty, disease and prostitution---is beautifully
plantation worker that the actual condition of the
described in his works. He sees both the seamy and
labourers is extremely pathetic, though all are brought
ugly sides of life minutely, and portrays them
to the plantation with so many nice promises for a
realistically.In his writings there is an autobiographical
good life. Narain says:
touch. He depicts his real life-experiences and thus
“‘You will soon know brother,’…First water his novels are sufficient enough to touch the inner
afterwards mire! This prison has no bars, but it is cords of readers' hearts. He is superb in psychological
nevertheless and unbreakable jail. The Chowkidars
delineations of his characters and applies suitable
keep guard over the plantation and they bring you
narrative techniques for the same.
back if you should go.’”(Two Leaves and a Bud, 38)
The Village discusses the problem of poverty and Clearly enough, Anand deserves to be called as a
indebtedness. The Big Heart is concerned with the harbinger of social change and improvement in the
problem of introduction of machines and consequent humanity. He purports at arousing sympathy for the
unemployment. Anand’s humanism and sympathy for exploited and oppressed sections of Indian society and
the poor, needy and the exploited gives a socialistic as thereby wants ameliorative steps to be taken instantly
well Gandhian touch to his philosophy. According to by all against all sorts of anomalies which are disturbing
him, the conquest of pain should be the supreme goal the peaceful existence of living beings, most
of all individuals and all nations. His philosophy involves particularly, human beings.In Anand’s view,“Novel is
opposition of fascism, feudalism, imperialism, and all an appropriate medium to express a writer’s concern
other similar tendencies which come in the way of for humanism. It effectively deals with the human
man’s efforts to achieve freedom. That is why he situation and presents the problems of life of man in a
opposes caste, creed, untouchability and comprehensive and convincing manner”. (Kumar, 73).
communalism. He believes in democracy and Reading Anand’s novels in light of Anand’s own opinion
socialism, and the peaceful co-existence of all nations regarding the worth of a novel as literary
and people. He exposes social hypocrisy and taboos, composition,the readers can find his novels as effective
remedies for social evils,as powerful torchlight which

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 37 38 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
can enlighten the spirit of all sections of society. His Post-colonial concept: And its impact on
novels may develop rebellion in the hearts of exploited
English Literature
against exploitation,and sympathy and kindness in the
hearts of exploiters for the exploited; and thus, they Sabita Kumari
may serve as apt tools for bringing revolutionary
amelioration in the stream of society. The concept of Post-colonialism deals with the
Works Cited: effects of colonization on cultures and societies. The
term as originally used by historians after the second
Anand, Mulk Raj, Untouchable, Pearson Education, New Delhi, World War such as ‘post-colonial state’, where ‘post-
2007. colonial’ had a clearly chronological meaning,
-------, Coolie,Penguin Books, New Delhi,1993. designating the post-independence period. However,
-------, Two Leaves and a Bud, Arnold Publishers(India) Pvt. Ltd., from the late 1970s the term has been used by literary
New Delhi, 1988. critics to discuss the various cultural effects of
colonization. Although the study of the controlling
Iyengar, K. R. S., Indian Writing in English, Sterling Publishers,
power of representation in the colonized societies had
Private Limited, New Delhi, 2006.
begun in the late 1970s with the text such as Said’s
Kumar, Dr. Satish, A Survey of Indian English Novel, Prakash Orientalism, and led to the development of what came
Book Depot, Bareilly, 2006. to be called ‘Colonialist Discourse Theory’ in the work
Roy, Arundhati, The God of Small Things, Penguin Publication, of critics such as Spivak and Bhabha, the actual term
India, 2002. ‘post-colonial’ was not employed in these early studies
of the power of colonialist discourse to shape the form
and opinion and policies in the colony and metropolis.
“Postcolonialism”, in the words of Charles E.
Bressler , “is an approach to literary analysis that
concerns itself particularly with literature written in
English in formerly colonized countries”. It usually
excludes literature that represents either British or
American viewpoints, and concentrates on Writings
from colonized cultures in Australia, New Zealand,
Africa, South America, and other places and societies
that were once dominated by European cultural,
political and philosophical tradition.
Although there is little consensus regarding the
proper content, scope and relevance of postcolonial
studies, as a critical ideology it has acquired various
Ph.D. Research Scholar, P. G. Department of English, M. U. interpretations. Like deconstruction and other various
Bodh-Gaya, Email: - prakashravi@y7mail.com postmodern approaches to textual analysis,

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 39 40 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
postcolonialism is a heterogeneous field of study where to changes in the language, curricular matters in
even its spelling provides several alternatives. The education, race differences, and a host of other
critics are not in agreement whether the term should discourses, including the act of writing become the
be used with or without hyphen : i. e. ‘Post-colonial’ context and the theories of postcolonialism. The project
and ‘postcolonial’ have different meanings. The of postcolonialism is not only applicable to the students
hyphenated term ‘Post-colonialism’ marks a historical of literature alone, indeed, it seeks to emancipate the
period as is suggested by phrases like ‘after oppressed, the deprived and the down-trodden all over
colonialism’, ‘after independence’, ‘after the end of the world.
empire’ whereas the term ‘postcolonialism’ referring ‘Postcolonialism’, in the words of G. Rai , is an
to all the characteristics of a society or culture from enterprise which seeks emancipation from all types of
the time of the colonization to the present. subjugation defined in terms of gender, race and class.
As a historical period, post-colonialism stands for Postcolonialism thus does not introduce a new world
the post - second World War decolonizing phase. which is free from ills of colonialism; it rather suggest
Although the colonial country achieved political both continuity and change. 4
freedom, the colonial values do not disappear with the Thus, the term ‘Post–colonialism’ marks the end
independence of a country. According to Bill Aschcroft, of colonialism by giving the indigenous people the
Griffith & Tiffin, “The semantic basis of the term ‘post- necessary authority and political and cultural freedom
colonialism’ might seem to suggest a concern only with to take their place and gain independence by
the national culture after the departure of the imperial overcoming political and cultural imperialism.
power”2 The term ‘colonialism’ is important in defining the
Meenakshi Mukherjee rightly observes: specific form of cultural exploitation that developed
Post-colonialism is not merely a chronological with the expansion of Europe over the last 400 years.
label referring to the period after the demise of Elleke Boehmer defines ‘colonialism’ in her book
empires. It is ideologically an emancipatory concept Colonial and Postcolonial Literature as “a settlement
particularly for the students of literature outside the of territory, the exploitation or development of
Western world, because it makes us interrogate resources, and the attempt to govern the indigenous
many concepts of the study of literature that we were inhabitants of occupied lands”.5
made to take for granted, enabling us not only to
read our own texts in our own terms, but also to re-
Colonialism has been a recurrent feature of
interpret some of the old canonical texts from Europe human history. The history of colonialism has existed
from the perspective of our specific historical and since ancient times. By 1900 almost every country or
geographical location 3. region in the world had been subjugated by European
colonialism at one time or another. The Period after
It seems that Postcolonial theory emerged from
the Second World War saw an upsurge of new
the colonized peoples’ frustrations, their direct and
independent states. India and Pakistan were granted
personal cultural clashes with the conquering culture,
independence in 1947. France’s decolonization was
and their fears, hopes and dreams about their future
marked by wars in French, Indochina, Morocco,
and their own identities. How the colonized respond
Tunisia, and Algeria. Belgium, Portugal, and the
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 41 42 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Netherlands all divested themselves of their overseas Female Protagonists in R. K. Narayan's
possessions during the 1950’s, 60’s and 70s.
Novels : A Critical Study
‘Colonialism’ has taken many different form and has
engendered diverse effects around the world that can Dr. Kumar Chandradeep
be gauged by thinking about its relationship with the
two other terms: ‘Capitalism’ and ‘imperialism’. R.K. Narayan is a noted luminary of the “Big
Colonialism was the means through which capitalism Three” among Indian Novelists in English , the other
achieved its global expansion. Ania Loomba marks, two being Raja Rao and Mulk Raj Anand . R.K.
“Colonialism was the midwife that assisted the birth Narayan’s literary output is rare, impressive and
of European capitalism, or that without colonial amazing . Narayan is one of the most widely read
expansion the transition to capitalism could not have novelists, not only in India but all over the world. The
taken place in Europe”. Colonialism was the lucrative fiction of R.K. Narayan has been evaluated from many
commercial operation bringing wealth and riches to angles but little have critics and readers realised the
western nations through the exploitation of others. It pioneering contribution that Narayan has made to the
was the first and foremost part of commercial venture cause of women in his fiction . Narayan was perhaps
of the Western nations. Dennis Judd argues, “no one one of the first few to give voice to women’s aspirations
can doubt that the desire for profitable trade, plunder and opinions in Indian English fiction . R.K. Narayan
and enrichment was the primary force that led to the was a genius in the portrayal of the ordinary middle-
establishment of the imperial structure …..”. Thus, class milieu. It is in the midst of this milieu that
colonialism was pursued for economic profit, reward Narayan has placed the most exceptional of female
and riches. characters.
Works Cited : R.K. Narayan’s depiction of the women characters
provides a large canvas for study and research ranging
Bressler, Charles E., Literary Criticism : An Introduction to Theory
from Savitri in The Dark Room. Sita in The World of
& Practice, p.265
Nagraj, Bharati in Waiting for the Mahatma, Rosie in The
Ashcroft, Bill; Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin. The Empire
Guide to Daisy in The Painter of Signs. Therefore the
Writes Back : Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures.
purpose of the present paper would be to place in a
Mukherjee, Meenakshi. “Interrogating Post-colonialism”.
proper perspective whatever is vital about woman in
Interrogating Post-colonialism : Theory, Text and Context. Ed.
life and literature . The evolution of characters from
Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee,pp.3-4.
Savitri and Sita to Bharati and Rosie and Daisy is not
Rai, G. “ Postcolonialism : Its Meaning and Significance” The
an evolution merely in terms of ideas but also in terms
SPIEL Journal of English Studies, Volume : 1 No. 2 July
2005,p.2 of art. The concern here is not with the ‘Feminist
movement’ as such but with the ‘feminist sensibility’
Boehmer, Elleke. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature.
in literature.
The cry of women emancipation is today a common
theme in fiction all the world over. But the Indian
Research Scholar, Dept. of English, L.N.M.U., Darbhanga tradition has always considered self effacement and

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not self emancipation as the norm for women. As new Gouri emerges :
Meenakshi Mukherjee elaborates:
For a brief moment the thought that earth must
“Sometimes the conflict resolves itself nearly into open up to rescue her as it had opened up to receive
two issues: duty to the family and personal fulfilment. Sita, came as an echo from the memory of her race.
The fulfilment of one self , however desirable a goal But the ground was so hard and solid under her feet,
according to the individualistic ideas of western and showed no signs of opening up to prove her
society, has always been alien to Indian tradition, innocence.
especially when it is achieved at the cost of duty to
the family…. Sexual love and personal happiness, those She waved her head to forget Sita, and thought of
two prime concerns of the Western novelists , do not the road to the town.2 (p.284)
have such central importance in the Indian context. Suddenly, she is transformed from the gentle,
The classic is ideas of the god- like hero and the patient submissive cow like figure to a real, full individual
heroine extol the virtues of the extinction of the ego with a personality of her own. The only other woman
whereas the novel in the Western world often focuses protagonist who parallels her is Ibsen’s Nora , who
upon the achievement of the selfhood or personality. goes to pieces as she realizes with awe and wonder
One night argue that classical ideals no longer obtain what a heartless husband she had been doting on all
in the Indian context. But in actual literary practice , the eight years and with a sudden decision walks out
numerous characters are found to adhere to classic of her husband’s house.
prototypes, especially the women of fiction who
Gouri at once take us to Savitri, R.K. Narayan’s
persistently re- enact the suffering, sacrificing role of
Savitri in The Dark Room. From the submissive Savitri
Sita or Savitri.1(p.29)
to the liberated Daisy, R.K. Narayan intends to draw
So, deeply imbedded is the role of woman in the a complete graph of womanhood and proceeds from
Indian Psyche that one hardly seems to wonder type to type. But all of them are designed for the same
whether the image of woman as the symbol of purity end : pitted against insensitive males. It is the woman
and goodness draws from real life or merely follows a who either by submissive suffering like Savitri or by
literary convention. Things are alright so long as Gouri, self-assertion like Daisy preserves the age- old human
the protagonist of Mulk Raj Anand’s The Old Woman values. Man- woman relationship is an obsession with
and the Cow chooses to behave like Sita- the ever Narayan and his novels are at the core studies of this
obedient, docile type. But once her uncle sells her off relationship in both marital as well as extra marital
to a barbarous shopkeeper she refuses to play the environments. The joys and sorrows, the pains and
conventional prototype of the suffering, passive woman. sacrifices, the concerns and sympathies, the give and
She proves too strong and virtuous for the purchaser take, all that are involved in keeping a relationship
who wants his money’s worth. But, as in Sita’s case, going are the subject of Narayan’s study. The English
her chastity remains suspect in public view and her Teacher celebrates the joys of togetherness. Narayan’s
husband also refuses to accept her. The parallel, words lend a touch , a sublimity to the simple pleasures
however, does not go any further because there just of a morning outing that he undertakes alongwith his
cannot be any agnipariksha. And it is here that the wife: “I was highly elated . The fresh sub, morning
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 45 46 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
light, the breeze, and my wife’s presence, who looked a married woman ?- The prostitute changes her men;
so lovely- even an unearthly loneliness- her tall form, but a married woman doesn’t; that is all, but both earn
dusky complexion, and small diamond ear-rings – their food and shelter in the same manner.3(p.120)
Jasmine, Jasmine… “I will call you Jasmine hereafter.” And she chides herself for being unfit to earn a
I said ( p.53) But the harsh truth is that eternal paradise handful of rice except by begging, for not being strong
is not for man . enough to live on her own.
The English Teacher is autobiographical and I am afraid to go even a hundred yards from the
describes the illness and subsequent death of house unescorted; yes, afraid, afraid of everything .
Narayan’s wife. Though shortlived, Narayan’s paradise One definite thing is life is fear. Fear, from the cradle
has an unsurpassable idyllic beauty where tragedy , to the funeral pyre, and even beyond that, fear of torture
like humour and happiness have been deftly woven in the outer world… How many nights have I slept on
together. As Elizabeth Bowen puts it : “The atmosphere the bed on one side, growing numb by the unchanged
and texture of happiness, and above all, its illusiveness, position, afraid lest any slight movement should
have seldom been so perfectly transcribed . Like Jane disturb his sleep and cause him discomfort. Afraid of
Austen , like Chekhov, R.K. Narayan is able to lend a one’s father, teachers and everybody in early life, afraid
sense of extra – ordinariness to the ordinary events of of one’s husband, children, and neighbours in later
day-to-day life”. life – fear, fear …(p.116).
R.K. Narayan’s obsession with man- woman Thus it so happens that Savitri’s attempt to live a
relationship bears fruits of all hues. The sublime bliss life on her own soon proves unsuccessful and she goes
that pervades the pages of The English Teacher is not to back to the life she had left behind and we come back
be found anywhere else. The Dark Room as the title a full circle to where the novel had begun. But it is
indicates, is grim gloomy for there is little only seemingly so. Things are not the same with Savitri
understanding between husband and wife . Life , herself- something within her is dead. She does not
however, goes on in this dark household for Savitri fret about opening the garage door for Ramani when
has accepted for herself the role of the traditional he is back from office nor does she care for his wish to
Hindu wife, bearing all insults and insinuations with sit and talk for a while after dinner. The relationship,
fortitude until things come to a breaking point. The it seems, now lacks any vitality.
villain of the piece is none other than her husband
Besides Savitri there are other women too in this
Ramani who swears by the heroines of the epics and
novel who voice different opinions. There is Janamma,
wants his wife to follow their footsteps like shadow
a friend of Savitri, who is absolutely traditional about
following substance. His affairs with a new employee
a woman’s behaviour towards her man. She recounts
in the company, Shanta Bai, is something that Savitri
instances of the patience of wives; her own
cannot take. With a sudden decision she leaves her
grandmother who slaved cheerfully for her husband
home, though she is barely equipped for living on her
who had three concubines at home; her aunt who was
own. So demoralizing is her despair the she compares
beaten up every day by her husband and had never
herself with a prostitute:
uttered a word of protest for fifty years; and so on ….
What is the difference between a prostitute and (p-60). Janamma herself never moves freely among
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people and would have to be at home when husband and the sophisticated have their own ways. Shanta
was expected. This is the traditional pattern of good Bai has her own coy ways of manipulating Ramani.
Indian wife in total subjection to her husband and
Among Narayan’s works dealing with man-woman
master. It is this view of women as the weaker sex
relationship in extra- marital environment there are
that feminism changes and seeks to change .
two novels worthy of serious study. Waiting for the
Savitri is the most comprehensive picture of an Mahatma and The Painter of Signs. And once again it is
appressed woman .What is more interesting, she is the women characters, Bharati and Daisy, who are at
increasingly aware of her growing powerlessness. Her the centre and who reign supreme. The men, Sriram
reactions to her husband’s total insensitivity to her and Raman, are unheroic, inconsequential men who
feelings and her dignity in relation to their children would stoop to any level to win the favours of these
are revealing: “ How impotent she was, she thought; women. Sriram, in particular has been a good-for-
she had not the slightest power to do anything at home, nothing fellow who spends his time literally doing
and after fifteen years to have asserted herself a little nothing. And it is during one of his evening strolls
more at the beginning of her married life ….” (p-6) that he comes across Bharati when she was collecting
money for a national cause. She is a strong woman
The Dark Room has its share of dominating ladies
committed to the Gandhian movement . She is witty,
too. There’s Gangu, another friend of Savitri, who is a
infuriating, capable and even condescending to the
picture of humour and frivolity. An eccentric character,
moonstruck Sriram. Her first loyalty, though, is to the
she left home when she pleased and went where she
Mahatma and Sriram joins Gandhi’s camp just to be
liked, moved about without an escort, stared back at
with her. He is enamoured of her to the extent of
people and talked loudly (p.19). And then there is Ponni
offering her his servile devotion:
whose husband Mari is intensely devoted to her. Her
one ambition in life is to fill a bars pot with coins and He held her in an iron embrace in his madness…
precious metals. Mari even commits burglary to fulfil He revelled in the scent of sandal wood that her body
his wife’s wishes. He cares a great deal for his wife , exuded. ‘You are sweet smelling, he said. ‘I will do
although he chases her about and throws things at anything you ask me to do for you. I will buy you all
her when he is drunk. Ponni, however, knows how to the things in the world.’ He behaved like an idiot. She
manage him: “But when I know that he has been wriggled in his grasp for a moment and at the same
drinking, the moment he comes home, I trip him up time seemed to respond to his caresses.4 (p.132)
from behind and push him down, and sit on his back a
Evidently Bharati is not bereft of emotions - she
little while; he will wriggle a little, swear at me and
does have soft feelings for Sriram and she does not
then sleep , and wake up in the morning quiet as a
try to conceal them. But she is absolutely firm about
lamb. I can believe any husband is unmanageable in
one thing- she cannot marry without Bapu’s sanction.
this universe …” ( pp. 136-137). Ponni’s ways come as
She does not have anything against marriage but it
a comic relief to the grim tragedy of Savitri . Hers are
possible only if Bapu permits. Bharati is the first step
the methods of the rustic, the uneducated and the
in Narayan’s journey from passive feminism to active
uncouth. Obviously Savitri cannot hope to emulate her.
feminism. She is the first woman in his world to
But when it comes to managing men even the educated
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broaden the national perspective for women, signifying purpose from which I will not swere. I gave my word to
that the Indian woman has come of age and that she the Reverend that I would not change my ideas. If you
need not be confirmed to her home. Her activities want to marry me, you must leave me to my own plans
envelop the nation and humanity at large. Indeed, even when I am a wife. On any day you question why
Bharati is the bud that finds its full blossom in Daisy. or how, I will leave you. It will be an unhappy thing for
me, but I will leave you ….” (pp. 158-59) .
Daisy is more radical than one can imagine. In
comparison Bharati is just a trend–setter. Daisy was But as it happens, she finally refuses to marry
a rebel at a very early age. She refuses to marry and for she could not allow a moments’ weakness to engulf
become a prisoner of domesticity and leaves home. the whole of her life and threaten the very purpose of
She is now an attractive young woman who her existence as she saw it. It is true that she had
commissions Raman, on behalf of the population clinic promised to marry Raman but that was at a moment
she runs, to paint signs advocating two-child families. when she had surrendered to her emotions:
Together they travel around the neighbouring villages “At some moments, and moods, we say and do
where Daisy preaches birth control. Raman is things- like talking in sleep, but when you awake, you
enthralled by her beauty and her mysterious realise your folly…” she fumbled on, unable to state it
independence of spirit just as he is appalled by the all very clearly. (p.180)
hard-edged zeal she brings to her work. And as the
two, Daisy and Raman, travel together through the Her desire to get rid of the fetters of marriage is
villages there begins a bitter sweet tale of love in not for the sake of a personal whim. The purpose is
modern India. Not that Daisy is bereft of emotions . rather impersonal which involves the society at large.
No, she does respond to Raman’s love. But she is a Thus Daisy’s liberation is absolute .She is the sharpest
fanatic so far as her work is concerned and marriage image of revolt in the galaxy of Narayan’s women. What
and domesticity are to her a great hindrance. She is a elevates her character to greater heights is her
hardcore believer who will not make any compromise saintliness. No wonder then she is beyond the natural
on her work front and is prepared to make personal human desires.
sacrifices to any length. The strength of her conviction The achievements of Rosie, however, in The Guide
is far greater than Bharati’s. So that even when she Narayan’s most popular novel are on a more human
condescends to marry Raman she lays down two level. She presents an ambivalent picture – she is the
conditions :- new woman at the point of transition, acutely
One, that they should have no children, and two, conscious of the traditions she is expected to follow
if by mischance one was born she would give the child and at the same time an independent spirit waiting to
away and keep herself free to pursue her social work. burst forth its energies. She is also the only Narayan
Raman was not to object or modify this in any manner. woman to belong both to the marital and extra marital
She explained, “Long ago I broke away from the routine environments. As educated girl from a family of
of a woman’s life. There are millions of woman who go Davadasis, her marriage with Marco, the historian, is
through it happily. I am not one of them. I have planned revolutionary because it is in complete disregard of
for myself a different kind of life. I have a well defined considerations such as caste and horoscope. Though
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 51 52 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
the marriage does raise the social status of Rosie it which had its own sustaining vitality and which she
does not prove to be a success. Narayan takes up the herself had under estimated all along.6 (p.223)
complex human problems which make for the The variety of types of cases that Narayan portrays
happiness – unhappiness dichotomy in human life. suggests the evolution of the Indian woman from Savitri
Raju, who had managed to sneak into their lives and to Daisy. Evidently, it has not been an easy journey.
make for himself comfortable space, observes them at Narayan is neither a committed traditionalist nor a
close quarters and finds that they are a mismatch. rebel againt tradition. He is a sensitive observer of
people and events and portrays his characters with
Rosie’s character exhibits a remarkable
understanding and sympathy. This lends a sense of
ambivalence – though she realizes that she and Marco credibility and reality to his characters. Besides the
were just not made for each other she makes principal woman characters, grandmothers and aunts
desperate attempts to save her marriage and at the show up frequently in his tales and more often he
same time allows an intimate relationship to grow presents the mother figure through them. It is
between her and Raju . She is never really out of the Narayan’s detachment that helps him retain his touch
typical Indian wife syndrome – she never forgets her of irony. Even when he is portraying a hardcore like
husband and is proud of his achievements when she Daisy the novel remains a work of art and is not
sees his book. In fact, one of the reasons for Raju reduced to the level of feminist propaganda. And
committing the forgery could be his fear of her husband Narayan more than proves this fact that one can
sympathize with the cause of women without being
– fixation. And yet it is true that even marriage is
branded a feminist . That is why women characters in
reduced to a war for possession . The tragedy perhaps the novels of R.K. Narayan present the true voice of
is that both Marco and Rosie are intense personalities endurance.
who are passionate about their work. Marco about his
research and Rosie about her dance. Their intense Works Cited :
involvement with their work does not allow them space Mukherjee, Meenakshi : The Twice Born Fiction, London,
for music, for harmony in relationship. Even the Heinemann, 1971, p-29.
relationship with Raju loses its importance once Rosie Anand, Mulk Raj: The Old Woman and the Cow, Bombay, Kutub
has found her place: “She was a devoted artist; her Popular, 1960, p.284
passion for physical love was falling into place and Narayan, R.K. : The Dark Room, Indian Thought Publication,
had ceased to be a primary obsession with her.” (pp.163- Mysore, 1998, 1998, p.120
64). Herself assertion makes her run away, first from Narayan, R.K. : Waiting for the Mahatma, Indian Thought
her husband and then from her lover for she refuses Publication, Mysore, 1997, p.132
to be treated like a plaything . Though dance is dearest Narayan, R.K.: The Painter of Signs, Indian Thought Publication,
to her heart, dancing under Raju’s instructions makes Mysore, 1998, pp.158-59
her feel like a bull yoked to the oil-crusher. All this Narayan, R.K. : The Guide, Indian Thought Publication, Mysore,
eventually disillusions Raju of his notion of having 1958, p.223
possessed her. It is she who has possessed, bewitched
and befooled them. And finally Raju confesses: University Professor, P.G. Dept. of English, College of Com-
Neither Marco nor I had any place in her life, merce, Arts & Science, Patna -20(M.U.)

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 53 54 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
The Advent of Dalit Literature There are numerous theories about the origin of
Dalit Literature. Buddha (6th century B.C.)
Dr. S. Azam Hussain Chokhamela (14th century A.D.), Mahatma Jyotiba
Phule (1828-1890) and Prof. S. M. Mate (1869-1957)
Dalit literature is marked by revolt and negativism are some originators of this field. These great men
as it is concerned with the hopes for freedom of a were deeply concerned about the plight of the
group of people, who as untouchables are victims of untouchables. But in modern time history proves that
social, economic and culture inequality. It is a it is Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar who was the pioneer of
manifestation of cultural conflict going on in this group Dalit Literature. Dr. Beena Agarwal while tracing its
of the society. development in the modern time writes :
The Dalit literature movement began in Dalit literature as a nomenclature came into
Maharashtra, the birth place of Dr. Ambedkar's existence after first Dalit Literary Conference in 1958.
movement. His revolutionary ideas stirred into action It accepted Dalits as marginalized community. In
among the dalits of Maharashtra and gave them a new sixties Narayan Surve tried to represent the cause of
self respect. Dalit literature is nothing but the literary working class through his poetry. Afterwards, the
expression of this awareness. It is a new way of writing short stories of Baburao Bagul published under the
literature which caters to aspirations, feelings, title when I Had Concealed My Caste became a
emotions and thoughts of the Dalits who felt landmark in the direction of Dalit literature. Arjun
themselves possessed, suppressed, humiliated and Dangle appreciates it as, "the epic of Dalits while others
neglected for centuries. They thought the best way of compared it to Jazz music of the Blacks. Bagul's stories
expressing their agonies, desires, participation in taught Dalit writers to give creative shape to their
political and cultural activities was to write a literature experiences and feelings" (Dangle : 1994, VII). In 1972,
that is different from the traditional mode of Indian a group of young Marathi writers activities such as
writing. Namdeo Dhasal, Arjun Dangle, etc., founded a political
The term 'Dalit Literature' can be traced to the organization called 'Dalit Panthers' in expression with
first Dalit literary conference in 1958 which passed a the 'Black Panthers' who organized the struggle for
resolution defining the term. But this conference went the civil rights of Afro-Americans in United States.
almost unnoticed thus proving that the Dalit class was Dalit Literature is different from traditional
indeed neglected. Arjun Dangle defines it in a broder pattern of writing. It is new way of writing literature
frame work : which caters to aspirations, feelings and emotions,
"Dalit is not a caste but a realization and is thoughts of Dalits, who felt themselves dispossessed,
related to the experience of joys and sorrows and humiliated, suppressed and neglected for centuries.
struggles of those in the lowest stratum of society. Dr. Ambedkar, Jyotiba Phule awakened the dormant
It matures with sociological pint of view and is consciousness of the Dalits and the best way of
related to the principles of negativity, rebellion and expressing their agonies and cultural activities was
loyalty to science thus finally ending as revolutionary to write a literature that is different from the
(Dangle : 1992, 267).

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 55 56 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
traditional mode of Indian writing. All ideologies have decade,
One views comprehensively.
In 1970 the Maharashtra Buddhist Literature
What is trivial what is great
committee encouraged the publication of Dalit
Can not be understood.
Literature in a big way. The institution of Dalit Sahitya
Philosophies fill the market.
Akademy gave further impetus to this movement. The
Gods have become a cacophony;
most significant output came in autobiographies from
to the enticements of desire
Buddhist. Mahars Chambharas and other tribal
People fall prey.
communities.
All, everywhere it has decade;
Jyotiba Phule (1828-1890) was himself not a Dalit This is how people have become one everywhere.
but a man of what would today be described as an There is cacophony of opinions,
'affluent OBC'. He developed a strong Dalit following, no one heeds another;
his main organizational work was in fact among the each one thinks the opinion
middle-to-low non Brahmin castes of Maharashtra he has found is great.
traditionally classed as shudras and known till today pride in untruth
as the Bahujan Samaj. His Major writings include dooms than to destruction.
plays, poems and polemical works–poems attacking So the wise people say,
Brahminism, a ballad on Shivaji. Seek truth (1)
Phule's Ghulamgiri written in Marathi but with an Dalit literature got the fertile ground in Gujrat
English introduction was published in 1885. The and Maharashtra and gradually travelled to other
Brahamans whom Phule attacked so strongly were very states Namdeo Dhasal first great voice in Dalit protes
often moderates, liberals and reformers grouped in poetry in Marathi. Narendra Jadhav's Outcaste : A
organizations such as the Prathna Samaj, Brahma Memoir, Mahasweta Devids Water and Om Prakash
Samaj, Sarvajanik Sabha & Congress. All of these were Valmika's Joothan are some of the ground breaking
seen by him as elite efforts designed to deceive the works in this field.
masses and establish upper caste hegemony. Caste
It was the first attempt by an elite Indian at the
system was to him slavery, as vicious and brutal as
prompting of Mahatma Gandhi and E.M. Forster at
the enslavement of the Africans in the United States
Sabarmati Ashram to write about the mental and
of America.
physical humiliation undergone by him. Mulk Raj
Phule sought to unite the Shudras (non- Anand took up this promptness and 'Untouchable' a
Brahmins) and Atishudras (Dalits). According to him creative debut bust on the literary horizon in 1935. It
the latter were not only more oppressed but had been was the most comprehensive and logistic outlook on
degraded because of their earlier heroism in fighting the problem of untouchability.
Brahmin domination. He constantly stressed the need
The Indian novel in English gathered momentum
for shudras and Atishudras to stand forth and think
only in the 20th century. So we always follow British
their own; and his response to the ideological
pattern of writing. And Mulk Raj Anand was very much
confusions of his day sounds strikingly 'Post modern'.

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 57 58 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
influenced by the western thinkers like Rousseau, a family of sweepers. His power and place in society
Tolstoy, Gorkhy and attributes his choice of an are determined by his birth in a particular caste of
untouchable to them. untouchables. They are socially deprived and
economically poor and they depend on upper caste
The three major writers who emerged in the 1930s
people for their basic requirements like food, cloths
were Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao and R. K. Narayan.
etc. Bakha's character is different in the sense that
catering to different orders of social reality. Raja Rao
he can think for himself though he is a commoner.
began his writings with the exploration of the freedom
struggle and in the influence of Gandhi in a Village of Sohini, Bakha's sister becomes the object of the
Karnataka in Kanthapura (1938). Some of the priest's lust, being a Dalit, she becomes the first
characters in this novel are untouchables who join recipient of Pandit Kalinath's genoristy. He tries to
the Gandhian movement, but they are seen from the malign her and asks her to come and clean the
perspective of a sympathetic Brahmin widow, who is courtyard of his house at the temple. On the arrival
the narrator. he holds her by her breasts when she bent in the
lavatory of his house. (P-48)
Anand believes neither in Shiva nor in Christ,
but in ordinary man. It is precisely a simple toiler Bakha the protagonist being Sohini's brother
whom Anand praises in his works. The very titles of wants to rise in protest against the priest, against the
his works testify to this fact, Untouchable, Coolie (1936), tyranny of caste Hindus of the insult and abuses of
The Village (1939) etc. In Untouchable, Anand deals with the high caste Hindus. He even goes to the extent of
the theme of exploitation based on caste. He paints a being converted into Christianity by the influence of
Dalit family that has been inhumanly deprived of all Col. Hutchinson but soon he realized by his wife's
the basic social necessities of a man. Anand had chiding to her husband.
shared the feelings of the untouchables in real. The
In 1997 Arundhati Roy has also attacked on the
struggle of untouchables during the 30s remarkably
problem of Dalits and untouchability in her novel The
got a momentum for communal identity. His thoughts
God of Small Things. Velutha, the son of Vellaya Pepen
towards untouchables crystallize when Bakha appears
who plucks coconuts from the tree is an untouchable.
as a hero in the novel.
Puppach would not allow Paravans into the house. They
The novel opens with the description of the were not allowed to touch anything.
outcaste colony which is located at a considerable
With the coming of British to Malabar a number
distance from the caste Hindu settlements. The book
of Paravans, Pelayas and Pulyas (all Dalits in South
begins when the outsiders colony was a group of mud
India) converted to Christianity and joined the Anglican
walled houses. The surroundings of the outcaste colony
church to escape the curse of untouchability. They
are filthy because the civic amenities are not extended
were given little food and money as incentive for
to the areas. There live the scavengers, leather
converting into Christianity.
workers, washer men, barbers, water carriers and
grass cutter-all are untouchables. Bakha, the hero of And to their utmost despair, they found after
the novel also is born and brought up in this colony in independence that they were not even entitled to any

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government benefits like job, reservations or bank loans The Aroma of Comedy in English
on low interests because officially they were Christians
and therefore casteless. Sanjay Kumar

Velutha, untouchable was like a magician. He was Comedy from very old times har been relegated
accomplished carpenter besides finishing high school to a lower place in the dramatic hierarchy. It has never
from the untouchable school. Apart from carpentry skill been taken with the same seriousness as tragedy
with German design sensibility he had a way with charles lamb, wile dealing with the plays of
machines. Mamachi often commented that if he would shakespeare first thought of tragedy and decided to
not have been a Paravan (Untouchable) he might have confine his obervations to the tragic aspects of
become an engineer. Shakespeare, leaving the comic ones for a later
In the contemporary India, with the advent of enquiry. The Elizabethans, like the Greeks, were
Kanshi Ram and Mayavati and their stirring called to equally enamoused of tragedy, and did not pay much
the Dalits to fight for a political space in India ignited attention on the comedy. It had been low esteem and
the flame of hope and aspirations. Maharashtra has was regarded as the Cinderella of the muses. Tragedy
sowed the seed of contemporary Dalit Literature which rules the roost for a considerable time and comedy
in the words of Shri Raj Gopalachari was "Flowerful was just a kitchenmaid to be tolerated in the rear
but it will yield fruts later on". Dalit Literatur which parts of the palatial building of drama. Tragedy was
is distinguished by its realistic assessment, straight gorgeous and awe-inspiring where as comedy had
forward outburst has over the years acquired a unique something of ridicule and base-ness about it.
status in literary are. According to Aristotle, "The aim of comedy is to exhibit
men worse than we find them, that of tragedy better.
It is an imitation of bad characters but not with respect
to every sort of vice but to the 'ridiculous' only, as
being a species of turpitude or deformity, since it may
be defined to be a fault or deformity of such a sort as
is neither painful of destructive. The object of comedy
is to imitate or represent men worse than they are in
actual life, and create ridicate out of comic portraiture.
English comedy beginning form the early years of
the sixteenth century till today has considerably been
influenced by Greek and Roman comedy writers. It
does not mean that Engish Comedy has no originality,
and is a mere imitation of the classical comedy of
Greece and Rome. The English comedy has taken
Dr. S. Azam Hussain, Syed Azam Hussain, New Colony, Ward
different forms and shapes and has passed through
No.-03, Dharampur, Samastipur- 848101, Mob. : 9431282574,
E-mail : prof.azamhussain@gmail.com various stages of development.

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 61 62 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
The earliest of the English comedies Ralph Roister corrected. All the comedies of Ben Jonson, particularly
Doister is considerably inffuenced by the model of Every Man in his Humour. Alchemist, Bartholomew
Terence and Plautus. Ralph Roister Doister hero of Fair, are the illustration of his theory of comedy. They
the comedy, is a swaggering boastful person and is are realistic in tone and satrical in purpose. He gave
modelled on the bombastic miles glorious of Plautus. birth to the realistic comedy of humours. The
The second comedy Gammer Gutron's needle is more Jonosonian reaction was in the direction of the humous
English than the first comedy and represents the life comedy in which the characters are possessed by
of the peasant class. It is a domestic comedy of pure someone pecullar quality and lay themselves open to
fun and delight and has no intention to ridicule vice. ridicule. His characters are humours and are in the
The comedies of Lyly have a courty appeal and are grip of one dominant quality.
satirical in intent, though they herald the birth of the
"Instead of lawless and fantastic translations from
romantic comedy which Shakespeare cultivated with
romance and history Ben Jonson planned comedy
great success. Shakespeare's comedies have been
based on a rational and ordered study of life of his
classified as : 1. Early comedies, 2. Middle comedies
own times, contrived with all regard possible on the
and 3. Life comedies. The best specimen of the early
modern stage to the models of Plautus and
comedies of Shakespeare is Love's Labour Lost; The
Aristophanes. Instead of haphazard selection of story,
Middle comedy is best represented by As you like it
scenes and persons he proposed to base his carefully
and Twelfth Night, the later comedies are A winter's
constructed plots on analysis of society into humours
Tale. Cymbeline and Tempest, Shakespeare shines out
and dominant characteristics. In so far these humours
best in his Middle Comedies. He abounds in Kindly
represented folllies and absurdities the duty of comedy
mirth and derives delight from the witty and pretty
was to satirize and reform.2
talks of all his comic characters. "The genial laughter
of Shakespeare at human absurdity is free from that Thomas Dekker was interested in London, and
amiable cynicism, which gives to the humour of Jane preented London life sympathetically. His Shoemaker's
Austen a certain Piquant flavour. It is like the play of Holiday is sympathetic study of the shoe makers, and
Summer lightning which hurts no loving creature but his Symon Eyre is an interesting character. Dekker
surprises, illuminates and charmes". I Shakespearean seems again to forestall Dickens.
comedy is not satiric it is poetic. It is not Conservative. "His Plays Chiefly comedies, have an attraction
Its appeal is to imaginatioin rather than to reason. It quite unusual for the time they have sweetness, an
is an artist's vision, not a critic's exposition. arch sentimentality, and an intimate knowledge of
Ben Jonson, the greatest contemporary of Common men and things that have led to his being
Shakespeare, set his face against the Romantic called the Dickens of the stage. His plots are chaotic
Comedy perfected by Shakespeare, and revived the and his blank verse, which frequently gives place to
lore of Classical Comedy in his time. His comedies, prose, is weak and sprawling."3
are realistic in character and satirical in intent. In In 1642 the theatres were closed and for nearly
his view comedy should deal with the "ragged follies two decades drama gasped for breath. The puritan
of the time" in such a manner that follies may be period of Cromwell was a cusse for the stage and during

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 63 64 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
two decades dramatic production particularly the There are sparks of wit reminiscent of Congreve in
production of comedy, was feeble and almost negligible. wilde's comedies.
The restoration of Charles II to the throne of England
"What wilde did unscrupulously but hardly ever
in 1660 marked the revival of drama and a new lease
with such sparking wit by the long series of British
of life was given to English comedy the prominent
dramatists who have taken over his role of the social
comedies of Restoration Period are The Man of Mode
entertainer in the last fifty years."4
or Sir Fopling Flutter by Etherege, the country wife by
Wycherley, the way of world by Congrave. The provoked After the second world war new types of comedies
wife by Vanbrugh, and the Beaux startagem by came into vogue, especially "the comedy of Menace"
Farquhar. Goldsmith and Sheridan led the reaction as practised by Harold pinter and the "comedy of
against the sentimental comedy of the age. The first moods" as practised by Christopher Fry. The torch of
play of Goldsmith The Good Natured Man could not comic airs has been kept alive by contemporary British
win applause, for it still had some sentimental scenes, dramatists such as John Osborne, Terrence Raltigan,
but she stoops to conquer swept the audience of its John Arden, Arnold Wesker and Henry livings. Henry
feet, for it had wonderful scenes of laughter produced Livings made his name by such farces and comedies
by Sir falsestaff, comedy had provided so much pure as Stop it whoever you are (1961), Big Soft Nellie (1961)
laughter and pure comedy. Sheridan's two plays the Nill carborundum (1962) Eh ? (1964).
Rivals and The School for Scandal are comedies of wit Works Cited :
deriving inspiration form the artificial comedy of the
Restoration age. E. Doweden : The Mind and Art of Shakespeare. Cambridge
University Press July, 20, 2009.
English comedy suffered a set back during the
H. Thorndike : English Comedy, Rowman and 'Littlefield
Romantic and the Victorian Age, when literary artists Publishers, January 1, 1975.
exhibited a greater love for poetry and drama. The
twentieth century has witnessed a revival of dramatic E. Albert : A History of English Literature. Oxford University
Press, 1979.
activity, and comedy has recieved a new lease of life
in our times. In widower's House Shaw attacks slums G. S. Fraser : The Modern Writer and His world. Prager, January
and dirty houses and holds municipalities responsible 30, 1976.
for them. In Mrs. Warren's profession, he is up against
prostitution as an institution. In Arms and the Man,
he denounces war and romantic love. In Apple cart he
attacks plutocracy and in Candida, he sets forth his
ideas about marriage and love.
Oscar wilde's witty drawing room comedies Lady
windermere's fan, A woman of No Importance. The
Importance of Being Earnest are social comedies of
Manners. The main charm of wilde's comedies lies in
the style the fine dialogues and fiashes of writicism.
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 65 66 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
POEM The Gifts of Nature

O Mountain! Thou teach us


Life How to face all circumstances and challenges firmly.
O Tree! Thou teach us
Life! Life! Thou art like bubble How to live for others.
And no one can double. O Creeper! Thou teach us
O life of man! How to love all whoever comes near to us.
Thou art less than span. O Cloud! Thou teach us
How to exist for all beings.
Thy duration is like candle
And difficult to extend and handle. O Blowing wind! Thou teach us
How to embrace all.
Thou art like fly O Forest! Thou teach us
On time thou have to die. How to live together with mutual understanding.
Thou art like walking shadow O Sun! Thou teach us
According to time thou have to bestow. How to care all living beings equally.
O Moon! Thou teach us
Thou have come on the stage to play thy part How to enlighten all beings.
On right time thou have to depart.
O Pond! Thou teach us
Thy actions of the just How to survive for others.
Smell sweet and blossom in thy dust. O River! Thou teach us
Dr Sushil Kumar Mishra How to strive tirelessly.
O Tree! Thou teach us
How to sacrifice life
For the sake of others.
O Fruit-laden tree!
Thou teach us how to
Bend down to get power.
O Flower! Thou teach us
How to smile in all circumstances.
Nature, thou art love, cooperation & sacrifice
Which everyone should follow in life.
Dr Sushil Kumar Mishra

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 67 68 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Water Famine 2
blank windy unsoftened stare
Water dead-bone dry Water pots’ tumbling train leaps on
dead wood dry rot watertank trains, full but edgy
burning rock and stone rubble? miming the earth water supply
babbling brooks choked in memory Goading scramble spares
sizzling pan fry no time to breathless filling
to let off steam
Throat, gut, skin?now leather
alimentary canal and clothes Painter’s cubes done to a fine art
all water maniacs famished brush and polish the cracked earth
languish, moan, drone and cry and tickle the shrunken nerve centre
tear- dry of the underground water supply
watermill a molten dust heap to flow or soak or daub even a dot
on the canvas dying for a drop
Cooking sungas gashes to raise a line-and-colour spring
inthe kaleidoscopic crack design and spray in tormenting empathy
of arable, fertile land
Amarendra Kumar, Hajipur
endemically oppressive
cut-up cakes stone-hard
no grass and weed there S.Radhamani
to hold a tottering animal bite
or to give a fleeting balmy rub They Are a Batch
to the crazy digger dug in deeper Fallen ,dry leaves loitering aimless
Gather pals on ground.
by every dig
There are dead bones,
Wells a muddy scowl Plastic disposables ,disposing
handpipes hoarse, hollow, sick Our hygienic and calm.
cough, screech and choke Like nomads,desperate,
Pools and ponds all mud and scum Go, curled into a corner
smelly parched pockets of mouth dribble Of their own choice.
dust dry They are Frisbee like.
In dark, they are like
Rivers now canals or wetland wading patches Threatening heaps, ghastly
sand dry Ghost like. Yet again, blown
dunes and humps clinical lifts By a whiff of wind, roam and romp.
in the sick riverbed Off their stems, they are in doldrums.

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 69 70 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Waiting You

With no one beside save a feeling You have been a riddle at all times
of an image, a body or an outline A ghazal for some, a sonnet for others,
palpitations of the heart faster than before, A heap of images and imagination
the mind auguring all good and bad omens, for your outline, sketches and curves
he spreads his eyes on trodden paths that make you beautiful.
yet no one around not even afar.
Your body--- a mere covering, uncovered
He tries hard to read the split pages
by lusty eyes, lures me still the most
of the periodical bought for time pass
your soul is yet intact after several battles
nothing but brutalities stamped in bold
you fought alone, helplessly with ravenous rogues
of murder, rape and honour killing
that take your life and call you names.
for crossing the lakshamanrekha
Our wise forefathers created with aplomb.
You --- a panacea to all ills, lending voices to
The beautiful noon melting fast generations treading you down with trade and tirade
Evening creeping in, he hears some sound your bulging eyes and sizzling body are but a prelude
none around, he looks at cell phone still dead to peace I foresee in various forms in my dreams
the sound grows sweet, sombre, rhapsody at times that await after the war of civilizations.
the dazzle, dim and discotheque of the riverside five
Binod Mishra
star grate
and grumble, reddening the river’s swollen eyes petu-
lantly.

Binod Mishra

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 71 72 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Hitler Indignities

Born without a thumb on his right hand I saw long dark passages flowing from his eyes
he'd taught himself to count in base nine. an accmulation of indignities
Singing 'The-World-as-Will- rising from the pit of his stomach
and-Representation-Blues', through his coiled intestines
passengers on the bus shied away from his heavy work
Accompanying himself on a guitar
clothes
missing top and bottom strings.
he was a glass man in busy downtown stores
The spark of conscience is God himself. spending his few soiled coins
The work of the Spirit is Art, an intruder surfacing on their home planet
But if you do nothing with our freedom submissive to their plan of creation
only accept the status quo the police car followed him along the street
"Hey, boy !"
are you really worthy of it ? I go anywhere, stay anywhere, die anywhere
The old gods chose a leader for us,
"come here !"
a man in brown, a man-of-the-poeple, stifling blasts of thunderous rage
before decamping to another star "Stay off this street !"
leaving nothing but a dreadful blaring silence human being constrained within a clamped case
echoing around the shattered trees, struggling to be free
to awake to a new day
sweeping the dusty streets, and setting up to destroy the world.
some kind of strange resonance
from an over-taut washing-line tied to the shaft
of Longinus legendary spear.
Geoff Sawers

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 73 74 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
From all directions Stenograph

How many thousand years the wind kept blowing Alas, there's not a single rose
words over cities, which are always far too noisy ? and least of all one that blushes most
There never has been any sentence smart enough which lacks the thorns
not to be overvoiced by all days hurly-burly. although no one will come to terms with that.
Life in the caravansarayas and taverns Because as soon as one's illusions grew
may differ from the life lead at the altars, they will be raped away
and yet all speakers at all places ever and most of them
have but recognized their own word as truth. by one's own disbelief.
And so the warrior's profession had been born, And even to the salesman you will give
and there is no spot spared by all of this, most frequently your valuable coins
until the stones that used to weave up buildings to get a small amount
lie scattered on rubble tips, withering away. of almost worthless change,
And then, how many years the wind will have been not earning more
blowing for all the difference
but the cognition thoroughly repeated
words over cities not so loud no more ? of being powerless by your own sight.
Because there never is a sentence full of peace
enough not to be overvoiced soon by the hurly-burly. Unbroken Ice

Agh, that looming anaxiphilia


I hear its faint rustling in the corridor
Treading softly, I attempt to elude it
I am standing naked in the rain
Like ancient roots my truth runs deep into
soil hardened and dried by the fruitless ages
Shall I cast a Hermit's spell and
save myself from lovers' Bane ? Or
saunter down to the swamplands and
carry me back harmoney - blind ?
Could I still pretend to be an orator
and spew ridiculous rhetoric if that be the case ?
Let no woman find me quenched, my numbers
have grown enough. I can only make room for one more.
I did much better when I was a prick.
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 75 76 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
The Voice Within Transcreation of Bharathiar’s Poem
A. Vanitha
Wordsworth had it right, you know, about the daffodils
A beautiful thing in nature some deepest need fulfills.
This is a Transcreation of an extensively popular
Have you ever heard the mockingbird that sings in
poem of the Tamil Poet Subramania Bharathi – a poem
your own backyard ?
which reveals a moment of uncertainty experienced
Perhaps you need to concentrate and listen very hard. by the poet about the transience of life and the even-
All nature may be singing some beautiful song for you- tual revelation.
be it daffodils or warbler's trills, it's meant to change Chinnaswami Subramania Bharathi (December
your view. 11, 1882 – September 11, 1921) was an Indian writer,
Forget the raucous music, violent films, and all the poet, journalist, Indian independence activist and so-
sports, cial reformer from Tamil Nadu, India. Popularly known
and turn your heart to life's sweeter things- you'll find as "Mahakavi Bharathiyar", he is a pioneer of modern
there are many sorts. Tamil poetry and is considered one among the great-
est of Tamil literary figures of all times. His numer-
There are scents, and sounds, and sights to see you'll
ous works were fiery songs kindling patriotism and
remember as you grow old.
nationalism during Indian Independence movement.
And some truly beautiful thing to recall when days
are gray and cold. The poem in source language (Tamil)
These things are there in nature, just waiting there Translated Version in English
for you. [In] Sights
So look around and they'll found; they're sure to come Ye that stand, stride and soar! – But
in view. mere delusions? Or sheer illusions?
Ye that are learnt, received and reflected! - But
And when you find that special thing that makes your mean deceptions? With no keen perceptions?
grow still- Ye sprawling skies, morning sun and awning thick-
Now listen deep inside you-you'll hear it if you will- ets! - But
It's God's own voice-but it's your choice-to show you a mocking mirages? Or distorted visages?
better way. If the gone and the past domed reveries be, then
You'll be fulfilled and totally thrilled, and you can do just a passing dream am I? And is this sphere a
it this very day ! sham? Oh fie!
Would the moment’s mullings, eyed evokings
forms and facades, forgeries be?
Their crux and core, charades on a spree?
Oaks spring from acorns, evidently – Hence

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 77 78 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
can foliage a falsity be? – Thence Book Review
ban it out of the lexis would we?
If what’s seen fritters away, then Christel R. Devadawson: Out of Line: Cartoons,
is revival of the forgone on its way? Caricature and Contemporary India. New Delhi,
Would undying be this fate we borne? – Can’t Orient Blackswan Pvt. Ltd., 2014. ISBN 978 81 250
this hollowness be cured and shorn? 55136. PP. 278/ Rs.650.
Moored are our roots in the sphere of the seen –
Christel R. Devadawson's Out of Line: Cartoons,
And
Caricature and Contemporary India offers an engaging
No verve is served by that which is unseen.
The seen, indeed, holds power - Wherein lies insight into the journey of graphic protest in
Eternity’s bower. contemporary India. Focusing on the cartoons in
famous English dallies; the book explores the
interdependence of image, text and medium through
studying the extrapolation of these cartoons from their
original context of print journalism to their compilation
in volumes. As the forms of the popular culture cartoons
and caricatures may appear superfluous but they are
significant to map the contemporary status of a
community as well as the future course that it may
take because their success depends on the readers'
'duty to see' rather than their 'right to look'. Moreover
visual protest astonishingly serves as a potent resource
to examine the paradigm shift in the life of a nation at
a stretch. The tradition of graphic protest has been
analysed here as an effective form of national
'lifewriting' since the days of Shankar Pillai to the most
recent signatures in this field. The book is astutely
drafted with five chapters- Romancing the Republic:
Shankar, Nehru and the Man of the Week, Uncommon
Citizens: Laxman and the Common Man, Abu and the
Keeping of the National Conscience, Reconfiguring the
Nation: the Thoughts of O.V.Vijayan, Critiquing the
Assistant professor, PG & Research Department of English, Contemporary: Suraiya and Ninan. These chapters
Vellalar College for Women, Erode, Tamilnadu, India, unfold the career of graphic satire in India after
Pincode - 638011 Independence.

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 79 80 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
The first chapter "Romancing the Republic: coloniser. Though preserving the political and moral
Shankar, Nehru and the Man of the Week" focuses seriousness of Shankar's legacy for pictorial satire
upon the art of Shankar Pillai whose fervent yet pensive Vijavan who started his career with Shankar's Weekly
reconstruction of Jawaharlal Nehru offers a judicious gradually drifted away from Shankar's concept of
parametre to comprehend the trials and travails of a caricature as he felt that the comic spectacle offered
nascent republic. After his association with the by him in the Nehruvian era can no longer be a model
Hindustan Times Shankar founded Shankar's Weekly, for the cartoonist in 1980s. Vijayan represents the
the first Indian magazine dedicated to pictorial satire tragicomedy of the rulers and the ruled after forty
wherein Nehru, the Man of the Week, is modelled as years of India's journey as an independent nation when
a prism to reflect the vast space occupied by the ruling justice and equity are yet a distant dream for the poor
class in the new Republic. and the marginalised.
The advent of the Common Man is strongly felt in The tale continues in the collaborative work of
the second chapter "Uncommon Citizens: Laxman and Jug Suraiya and Ajit Ninan discussed in the fifth
the Common Man." The iconic presence of Laxman's chapter "Critiquing the Contemporary: Suraiya and
Common Man on the front page of the Times of India Ninan." Stepping out of the doorsill of the first
offers musings on the complexities of Nehruvian legacy. generation of the economic reforms Suraiya and Ninan
The unchanging presence of such a commonplace yet explore the aftermath of the economic liberalisation.
powerful emblem engages the attention of the readers In an era when comic book culture usurps the market
to existing social reality and the patterns of the Suraiya, Ninan and Neelabh take on the challenges of
contemporary history. Silence, here becomes 'the most the globalised world.
eloquent form of communication' to question those
Apart from scrutinising the anthologised works of
crucial issues that most sensible newspaper readers
the well- known newspaper cartoonists the book also
might wish to ask.
tries to understand the artistic devices and stratagems
The third fragment "Abu and the Keeping of the of the famous artists in the field- how they select and
National Conscience" analyses Abu Abraham's tell their stories through acts of seeing and knowing;
representation of the period of Emergency when what the limitation and privileges of graphic protest
development and democracy confronted with each are and so on. With its keen insight into the world of
other. Abu's 'Private View' focuses upon each specific graphic art the book will be significantly beneficial to
threat that democracy faced against the mayhem the students and scholars of journalism, cultural
caused by the Emergency. The fourth chapter history and visual culture.
"Reconfiguring the Nation: The Thoughts of O.V.Vijayan"
Sandhya Saxena
constitutes O.V.Vijayan's world, the period of sombre
1980s when capital begins to enter the robe of the

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 81 82 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Fragrance in the Ambiance by Dr. Shagufta Ghazal, not allow herself to either lapse into sentimentality
Published by Kafla Intercontinental, Chandigarh, and bitterness.
2016 pp. 64, Rs. 100/-
The sense of personal loss looms large in her po-
Dr. Shagufta Ghazal is a noted trilingual poet and etry "God knows / When did / The Morning breeze
ghazal writer so much so that she has become came / Silent Pawed / .... And then left me.” "Night of
"Gahzal". The poems in this book were originally writ- loneliness", "Trust", "A Brief Moment" are some of the
ten in Urdu and later on translated into English by poems written in the same vein. But she is not as
translators namely late I. H. Rizvi, G. S. Bajwa, Harish confessional or bold in depiction as some of the women
Thakur and Gurdev Chauhan. They all are poets and poets have been like Kamla Das, Nandini Sahu and
scholars of repute and hence I assume they must have others. "The loss of marriage partner can bring untold
rendered these poems into English in approximation aguish". She churns out sweet poetry from this an-
with the original texts. guish. It results into longingness and nostalgic reflec-
tion as in "In the Mountains" and "Morning Breeze".
It comprises thirty six short and crisp poems about
She laments the loss of relationship over trifles in
various subjects of life like loss, desire, love, mother,
"This World".
dreams, beauty and some philosophical musings. It
also includes 23 Mahiye and 40 Haiku (both are three Here
liners) in unconventional form. Relations break
And the ties of life and death, too
Urdu has its own charm and melody of recitation
On trivial things
that cannot be transferred to another language. This
And this world
loss of lyricism, a reader has to bear while reading
Keeps watching
these songs of loss and life.
Her Mahiye, three liners, are pleasantly refresh-
"I am full of sorrow
ing with an input from nature:
The flame of my desire burns weak."
Peacocks dancing in forest
She wants to rein in the surging desire, "Let de-
Rainy season has arrived
sire not turn into error' to fulfil her deep seated 'long-
Homes are delighted.
ing to meet him'. Many of her poems seem to have a
bearing of her personal life and hence are born out of But they don't offer a clean departure from her
her lived experiences. Look at the depth of her pa- earlier emotive engagement with him.
thos:
Ours was a dream
"O my beloved you will have to return My heart my dear
You will have to carry out your words." Is eager for you.
Time and again she turns back to the courtyard The same sensibility reverberates in her Haiku :
of her life and her relationship with her life partner.
"I am remembering
She explores it with calm and cool composer and does
Why are you so indifferent

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 83 84 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
My life is ending." and questions all stereotypical and patriarchal assump-
The poems translated by I. H. Rizvi display a little tions regarding the defined roles of male and female:
greater depth and philosophical ramblings with love "Why does he act
being kept in the centre: only as a ruthless chieftain
"I am having an eternal sleep all the time collecting his levy ?"
So not wake me up, O gentlemen". Continuing his tirade in the second poem "Outside,
It is a collection of soft, supple and tender feel- Inside" he takes a dig at the notion of history:
ings in verse. It can offer solace to embittered souls. "Women can't create history
Dr C L Khatri but they suffer history in their womb."
This comes in response to the stereotypical as-
Pashupati Jha, Taking on Tough Times, sumption about history that it is created in the battle-
Authorspress, Q-2A Hauz Khas Enclave, New Delhi- field and not inside homes. In the same vein he takes
110016, PP-80, Rs. 250/- to task the infidelity of a son in the backdrop of all the
sacrifices a mother makes:
Prof. Jha, a significant signature in Indian En-
"I fed her only once–
glish poetry holds poetry as criticism of life with a
the burning flame in her mouth"
view to generating the milk and tears of human kind-
ness to make a better world to live in. We are living in In the poem "Hats off" the ironic refrain 'Hats off
an age in which there is a blind race to seek solution to you....' effectively works to expose the sham and
for all human problems in technology or machine. Here hypocrisy prevailing in the system. He takes on God
a professor in an IIT is trying to address human prob- also for his passivity.
lems with human tools-moral and aesthetic values. "And hats off to you my God
Poetry and other art forms are the repository of 'vi- for watching everything indifferently
brant humanity and pristine purity, and are able to and doing nothing at all."
humanize and sensitize the human folk. Prof. Jha In "Cheapened All" he vents his anger against
seems to have a clear insight into the ills and odds several facets of life in sweeping generalization which
besetting his age. He is ill at ease with the tough may not be politically correct. He belittles all– author-
times but he takes them on with the song of Muse. ity, culture, modernity, modern music, etc. and finally
The present book Taking on Tough Times with fifty poet. For example ‘Modern love’–
five gems of poetry is his fifth collection. The personal "Merely lust and nothing
and public disillusionment that one often comes to in fore, after, and beyond.
this age bears clear imprint on his poetic outpourings. In "Contrasting Concerns" woman's plight is pit-
In the very first poem "Woman" he creates a female ted against the man's and in the next half of the poem
persona that takes on the gender bias in the family he dresses down both:

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 85 86 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
"She takes a dip in the old river buck on novels to take up this book even for casual
with the myth of its magical power reading. It will help you take on your tough times in
and comes out fresh...." life and recharge you with the verve to fight and enjoy
the vicissitude of life.
In his poetry the poet is on a mission moderation
of what feels awkward to his taste and sensibility be C L Khatri
it the love birds playing 'passion passion' on the cam-
pus, the young generation aping the west, 'These West-
ern clones' or growing craze for premarital sex as a
XXI Century World Literature (An International An-
symbol of women's liberation.
thology of Poetry and Fiction) Edited by Linda
Some of his poems are in a situational mode where Ibbotson, Kafla Intercontinental # 3437, Sector-46-
he evocatively describes an event or a situation, passes C, Chandigarh-160047; 2016 pp Rs. 500/- (U.S. $ 25)
authorial comment and then leaves you pondering over
The book under review is like an "Eden's Para-
it. For example in "A Sordid Day in the Jungle" hu-
dise" of world poetry reinforcing the essential fact that
mans are animals perpetrating sexual abuses with
poetry cuts across geographical and political bound-
impunity under the cover of Khakhi or Khadi fatigue.
aries and poets across the world communicate at the
However, in most of the poems he employs ironic same wavelength in the same idiom of humanity. It
mode with recurrent use of the tools of contrast and defies the parochial classification of Muse / Poetry on
comparison. In "Contrast" the village folk are contrasted the basis of nationality. The true art is a "journey,
with the urban folk to ridicule the latter: beyond space and time… into the invisible thought it
"The people there has its root.”
Start the day with good morning This anthology comprises 84 poems, two short sto-
and end the same with goodnight ries namely "The Saint" by Isajon Sulton and "Tombs
But there is nothing good inside." A and B" by Asror Allayarov and one review article
In "Paradox or Hypocrisy" earth, the symbol of fe- "Translation As a Love Affair". Though they are worth
male sex stands in contrast with mountain, a male reading they present themselves as uncalled for in-
force. The former is 'submissive' but more 'stable' and trusion in the flow of poetry. Altogether eighty four
formidable. poets from 37 countries have contributed to it in an
effort to make it a mirror of world literature. In Intro-
Prof. Pashupati Jha's poetry has several qualities duction Alison Hill rightly claims that they showcase
like a strong sense of form in which each poem has its the best of these diverse writers’ works and accentu-
own rhythmic pitch echoing the sense and mood of ate their place in today's literary world. The book also
the poet. But the most remarkable thing for which I proves how fertile verse and prolific English Poetry
would suggest a budding poet to turn to his poetry is has gone of late showing Arnoldian future for it. As
how a poem is composed in everyday, colloquial words there is no thematic focuss, the poems cover a wide
with Christ like simplicity and lucidity. At the same range of subjects ranging from ethics, religion, love,
time I recommend general readers who spend their nature, personal, confessional poems to poems of so-
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 87 88 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
cial concern and of transcendental quest. It is beyond Ximena Gautiea Grave, a Chilean-female poet living
the purview of review to comment on each poet or poem. in France shows how accumulated fury of exile gushes
I will just touch upon some of the brilliant flashes out in powerful poetry through rhetorical devices:
that impressed me. Linda Ibbotson from the country of
“Devours my sources,
W.B. Yeats stretches her poetic arms to reach at its
In spite of time which uproots me”
beauty in her nostalgic poem with patriotic fervour:
It is heartening to know Kalpna Singh, a jewel of
“Born on the cusp of the Western wind
Bihar through poetry. Her poem "Trespassing My An-
Persephone emerged from tips of whitethorn,
cestral Lands" is a diasporic poem at both personal
Tight buds unfurling from winter silence.
and impersonal levels. She goes back to the time 'be-
She awakens, stretches the oceans hem
fore the birth of nations' when there were no 'borders
As if searching for a new boundary.”
and demarcations but only 'destination'. In this allu-
Dr. Arpilla Zank gives an effective comparative sive poem she tries to work out a synthesis of all reli-
picture of her challenging spirit in the past "I would gions as Vivekananda did in his prose and poetry. Ku-
throw nets for fleeting sunbeams–" and the present dos to Kalpna. Guillermo Tovar Torres' poem "America
grim reality: "the sun blinds me / with splinters of is an Asleep Indian" is important for his striking vi-
light." It's a well crafted poem in situational mode. sion "I discover the Indian that I am" and the Upanisdic
Yuri Zambrano's "Flying Neurons" is remarkable for call "Awake, Arise America !"
its ingenious imagery drawn from science and ques-
Rokiah Hashim in her memory poem "The Stories
tioning spirit calling the ‘dove of peace’ a hallucina-
of Walls" tries to achieve the same world of love and
tion:
humanity that Kalpna Singh or for that matter any
“Starlings resembling butterflies poet advocates. The reminiscences lend it a lingering
like neurons buzzing in random synthetic figures effect. Samcilla Baakojr from Ghana beckoned me for
within your oneiric brain highways.” his conversational style of writing poem with native
force and vigour expressing deep seated angst: "No
In Luz Maria Lopez poetry seems to well up from
matter how hard I try, / I'll never forget or get you
the depths of mysteries: "On the far side of the sea/
back / I lie when I say I'm okay and / face all those
the infinite breath of God/ Keeps tying us / in divine
miserable faces." (Like a Brothel, 86).
balance / a universe without / dead times."
Antonia Alexandra Klimenko's "Art Isn't Dead– It's
Susana Roberts appears to be a voyager on poetic
Still Dying", Ruchi Chopra's "A Cup of Tea", Milena
boat for peace, harmony and brotherhood in a future
Nikolova's 'Forever', Prof. Ernesto Kahan's "Echo and
global society. Amen !
Narcissus", Harmonie Botella's "I Want to Forget", Alejo
Alison Hill convincingly works out the existential Urdaneta's ‘'The Last Poem” (with several quotable
quest in 'uncertain world' in her poems "Sweeping up expressions : 'The book of the snow keeps its secrets'
the Rainbows" and "Rendezvous at Noon". She displays etc.), Makhfuza's "My Name is", Kristen's "This Evening
a keen sense of form, feel for rhythm and acute sense I am Old", Santosh Alex's tightly packed poem “Dis-
of awareness to chilling headlines in newspapers. tance”, Alicia's "Traveller", Saleha Begum's "We Walk
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 89 90 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Across the Gallery", Irene's "For a World of Peace", The book is a brief autobiography of the writer
Iram Fatima's "An Oath to My Love" and Sunil Sharma's dealing with his birth and childhood, schooling,
"Cerberus" (intellectual and allusive composition) are teaching and domestic life moving from place to place
some of the poems which appealed to me for different encountering small hurdles and enjoying God's
reasons and left an impression on me. However, I en- recurring blessings. He has taken into account several
joyed most of the poems. The young poets too have little incidents like his evening walks, his college
displayed great talent in expressing their supple sen- getting a U.G.C. grant etc. may be important to him
sibility. Poets from Uzbekistan generally dwelt on their though. In fact, the incidents are varied and don't
emotional attachment with their motherland and its belong to any category in particular. However, one thing
natural beauty. is common, Rao's unswerving faith in God. He has
recounted several incidents to substantiate the power
The inspiring force behind this noble work is cer-
of prayer. He says, "The more we pray, the closer we
tainly Dev Bhardwaj, a creative genius, resourceful
will get to God. Prayer is what binds us to God and
organizer and publisher who has been nurturing cre-
establishes a proximity to him." (72) He knows that
ativity and promoting upcoming writers. In his poem
mysterious are the ways of God. Whenever Professor
"Man is Dead" he creates a situation with a blend of
Rao had a problem he prayed and everytime his prayer
myth and reality about the identity of an anonymous
was granted.
man who had died long back and who announces his
death now. Written in a simple language it takes a dig The writer fondly remembers his mother,
at man's monomaniac success and fall because of his grandfather, father-in-law, father, wife, children and
selfish attitude to life. friends at home and abroad. He has a chapter "My
wife becomes a reputed writer" as much as "An old
This elegantly published anthology on the whole
friend discoverd". Similarly he has nostalgic memories
is worth reading and preserving as its gives a glimpse
of Kendrapara where he spent the greatest part of his
of world poetry today.
life. The chapter "Satya Yuga Revisited" describes how
C. L. Khatri he missed his holdall which actually fell from the top
of his taxi near a rice mill and the mill owner kept it
My Days in Tulasi Kshetra. P.G. Rama Rao, Prakash in his safe custody and wrote to him to collect it. He
Book Depot, Bareilly, pp. 165, Rs. 220/- has experienced that "there is no unmixed blessing.
Every victory is pyrrhic in that defeat is inbuilt in it.
P.G. Rama Rao, the retired octogenarian Professor Every joy or gain is modified by some sorrow or loss or
of English has written his memoirs titled My Days in pain and every day is foreshadowed by the declining
Tulasi Kshetra. It is a document of his personal sun or an overcast sky." (32)
experiences at different stages of his life in differnt
circumstances. Though a renowned Professor and Regarding modern art he has quoted the words of
writer of several critical volumes of international Pablo Picasso as a piece of disillusionment–
repute, the present book is a wholly personal account People no longer seek consolation or
with zero scholarly showmanship. inspiration in art. But the refined people, the rich,

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 91 92 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
the idlers, seek the new, the extraordinary, the Maudlin Musings. Manas Bakshi, Sparrow
original, the extravagant, the scandalous. And Publication, 2, Benigpukur Lane Kolkata- 700014,
myself, since the epoch of cubism, I have contented pp. 80, Price Rs. 150/-
these people with all the many bizarre things that
have come into my head. And the less they Poetry today matters more to the poet than the
understand it the more they admire it. (The Hindu, public. This is because art never expires, the artist is
Dec. 2, 1964, p. 7) born in all ages irrespective of his appreciators and
Prof. Rao's book through his life's incidents and critics. One such poet is Manas Bakshi who has been
experiences, has much appeal to the general reader composing his thoughts in several volumes by now ten.
because of his racy style and simple straightforward, Before I talk about his latest volume Maudlin Musings I
matter-of-fact language. There are also elements of admit I have a prejudicial liking for his adventures in
humour particularly in the use of similes and imagination and style of expression.
metaphors. For example, he calls a date-palm 'a The present book as the poet claims is a collection
naughty girl with unkempt hair'; the mature tree is of 'micro-verse or short ranging from 3 to 9 lines– not
called 'Miss Palm' and 'Palm Maiden' (actually titles of segregated as Haiku, Tanka, Zen or anything else'.
his poems). Again, the two casuarina trees on either The poems are thematically as diverse as the forms of
side of the ashram are like giants guarding the campus writing. Though the title cries that the theme is sad,
or like Jaya and Vijaya gate keepers of Lord Vishu's the poems register happy feelings as well as
Vaikuntha.
philosophical musings. They defy categorization,
The book also shows the writer's essential maudlin being just one strain out of many, for example,
humanity and kindness to animals. Prof. Rao is also a poem nos. 1 & 4 in which he writes 'Sea returns / All
keen observer of their activities. He has described a that it takes' (1) and 'Wave recedes / sand returns / A
mother monkey suckling her infant and passing it to bit of foot prints'. (4) Or 'A sea bound river / like primitive
another female who fondles it before passing it on to passion / Flowing forever' (15) 'Love and lust / weaved
another female. One day an infant monkey dies and in a wedlock / As straws and twings / In the making
the mother refused to let go of it. For a whole day she of a nest' (66).
held it to her bosom until the smell of the dead body
The poems are multi-coloured, multi-layered as
became unbearable.
life its elf. To call them maudlin is like a father
The writer has intimate love for Tulasi Kshetra complaining his son is a bad boy because he sucks his
and wishes his book to generate a tulasi kshetra in thumb. Bakshi's poems seen in a holistic perspective
every mind. are also romantic, realistic, ironical, optimistic
I love this book and congratulate the writer. pessimistic and philosophical. To quote,
– Ram Bhagwan Singh Political game, who chases whom ?
Some are hypocrites, some are goons ! (45)
Every moment of love

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 93 94 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Responded or jerked The present book is a student's help book to
Makes one feel understand and appreciate the different aspects of The
Its real worth. (21) White Tiger. The book has as many as 16 chapters.
And, Beginning with a brief introduction to Indian English
Life worthy of living. novel the book examines Adiga as a novelist on the
Never without its pain basis of all his published prose works. For students of
For, the wood pecker English the book presents a thread bare analysis of
Seldom pecks at the theme of the novel and chapterwise summary. It
The dead wood. (153) deals with the novelist's art of characterisation and
What impressed me most is the poet's creating his tongue in cheek criticism of popular religion, failure
pictures out of his three to five lines. Such economy of of democracy, flesh trade, effects of globalisation,
words to illustrate a whole idea or imagination is servant - servant relationship, employer-employee
characteristic of the poet for example poem no. 98 relationship and Indo-China relationship. There are
separate chapters on the theme of poetry, religion
Tears not visible democratic value in India and mockey of Indian politics.
If you cry within– There is also a chapter on post-modern reflection in
Words are lost the novel. Meant for ready reference of students there
If eyes speak everything. is a chapter quoting memorable excerpts from The White
Or, Tiger. Also there are views and opinions of critics on
Drawing her lips into his the novel.
When a moment churns up
A sensual wave, Thus, the book is designed to cover practically all
Eyes speak some untold words aspects of Adiga's The White Tiger. It can serve as a
And both appear voiceless. valuable guide to students and help them prepare for
their examination. Keeping this in mind the book has
I wish others may enjoy reading these pictorial been written in simple and straightforward language
feelings and thoughts. Congratulations Dr. Bakshi ! to make it intelligible to one and all. Without making
– Ram Bhagwan Singh bones the writer in the preface has made it clear
saying "I am sure the students will find this book
helpful for their examination". And without hesitation
Aravind Adiga's The White Tiger : A Study. Sudhir I endorse his hope and conviction about the book being
K. Arora, Prakash Book Depot, Bareilly, pp. 197, Price a most valuable guide for students. It is also worthwhile
Rs. 10/- to mention that the price of Rs. 110/- for students is
the most reasonable rather cheap. I hope the book
Here is Sudhir K. Arora's latest work a critical
will be widely welcomed by students of English.
study of Aravind Adiga's Booker Prize winner The White
Tiger. Arora has published sevral critical books, his
magnum opus being Cultural & Philosophical Reflections
in Indian Poetry in English in five volumes.
Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 95 96 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
Bits of Philosophical Thoughts. Pranob Kumar It appears the poet wants to share his thoughts
Majumder Bridge-in-Making Publication, Kolkata- with readers rather than preach or educate them.
700089 pp. 96, Price Rs. 250/- Composing poetry for him is a kind of prayer, his
religious performance and not a ritual. He declares,
This is the 22nd collection of poems by Pranob
Kumar Majumder, a well-known poet, critic, novelist Poems are my conversations with God. (60)
and story writer. At the age of seventyfive he has
Being his age I endorse his philosophical thoughts
gathered his experiences and thoughts in the present
and views. But I also regret the old symphonic
volume of poetry. He calls his thoughts philosophical
sweetness and like images to retain after image on
not in the sense of belonging to any particular school
the reader's mind.
of philosophy, they are just his felt experiences and
views. One should not look for novelty of thoughts and – Ram Bhagwan Singh
ideas, common as they may be, but they are true and
tested. For example,
When we are born at once we are thrown Sudhir K. Arora. Cultural and Philosophical
Into some caste, some religion, some ration Reflections in Indian Poetry in English— Pathfinders
...Birds are free creation, free from anything Volume II. New Delhi: Authospress, 2016. Price 800
Like caste, religion, country.... no border check ISBN 978-93-5207-207-207-1.
post (p. 7)
Sudhir K. Arora’s Cultural and Philosophical
Similarly he feels Reflections in Indian Poetry in English—Pathfinders
Most urgent problem of the present world is Volume II is a detailed study of five poets, namely,
How to eliminate inhumanity in humanhood Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, Toru Dutt, Sri Aurobindo,
Inhumanity breeds quarrels (p. 9) Sarojini Naidu and Rabindranath Tagore, who are the
pathfinders as these poets introduced India to the West
Majumder is critical of the menace of terrorism and also paved the way for the future Indian poets. It
and vehemently denounces it saying. shows Arora’s critical ability in an authentic manner.
Terrorism and intolerance are latest manifestations What is stated in the blurb: “Derozio’s vison of
Of postmodern humans / Present day India is now a field reforming society with the light of knowledge, Toru
of intolerants. (p. 10) Dutt’s cultural richness in Ancient Ballads, Sri
The poet is really mortified to see the state of Aurobindo’s spirituality and his vision of transforming
affairs in the world outside as well as in India. He is man into godhead in Savitri, Tagore’s vision of
all for mutual love, tolerance, understanding and co- cosmopolitanism and the Biblical touches in Gitanjali
existence. To him 'humanity is the noblest religion' and Sarojini Naidu’s Indian landscapes dotted with
(12). Similarly, 'compatibility, co-existence, co- season, festivals and Indian people surprise the West
operation are the essence of relationship'. (p. 52) In as well as the Indians who become conscious of India’s
his considered opinion 'marriage is a fragile pretentious cultural heritage” is best demonstrated in the 173 pages
ritual / unless there is soul to soul proximity.' (90) of the book.

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 97 98 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
The first chapter ‘Introduction’ gives a brief The next chapter is devoted to Sarojini Naidu who,
introduction of the early poets and also mentions how though lacks depth, offers Indianness and paints the
they began their poetic journey from imitating the Indian landscapes with people, things and colours of
English poets and how they became mature enough to life like religious tolerance, secularism, Indian
develop their own idiom with the passage of time. It festivals, Indian ethos and culture. The next chapter
prepares the reader mentally to go deep into the poetry is about Rabindranath Tagore who has “almost become
of the five poets. The second chapter is devoted to the a symbol of Indian rich heritage by virtue of his
contribution of ‘Henry Louis Vivian Derozio’ who realizing the ideal of cosmopolitanism in his poetry,
identified himself with India and her culture and and supporting independence and interdependence at
recommended “the westernization of India without local and global levels respectively.” He is a world poet
losing her basic structure.” As a poet, he has a vision who has become a cultural ambassador. His poetry is
of reforming the society. Arora has discussed Derozio’s mystical, tinged with humanitarian colours. Arora
poem The Fakeer of Jungheera in detail and while writing ‘Conclusion’ evaluates these five
demonstrated how he has attacked the outdated pathfinders who have presented India and her culture.
tradition and superstitions. These poets are relevant in the present scenario as
The second chapter is devoted to Toru Dutt’s their poems talk of joy, peace and love.
contribution to Indian poetry in English. With her In brief, the book Cultural and Philosophical
superb story-telling, she makes the past alive and Reflections in Indian Poetry in English—Pathfinders
infuses the cultural values in Indians, particularly Volume II is a worth reading book not only for scholars
children. The simple choice of words with the deep and teachers but for general readers as it offers the
meaning is what makes the reader spellbound. rich Indian cultural storehouse, presented in the
The third chapter is about Sri Aurobindo who, with poetry of the five pathfinders. It attracts the reader
his philosophical and visionary outlook, writes with a with its beautiful cover but his taste becomes sour
mission of redemption of mankind to bring the Divine when he sees its price which is too much. He wishes
Life on earth through his integral yoga. Arora has to go through the five volumes because of the contents
analysed his poems and particularly Savitri in detail. about Indian Poetry in English right from Derozio to
He is a poet of the few. A yogi reader can decipher his the present time. It will be better if the critic and the
poetry. Praising his poetry, Arora writes: “Aurobindo’s publisher release the paperback and e-book editions
poetry, which is an ideal of creative imagination, for the wide readership.
exhibits sublimity; explores the unexplored subjects; Abnish Singh Chauhan,
reflects deep philosophy; emits the mystical fragrance; Assistant Professor, SRM University,
releases spiritual energy; surprises the serious reader Delhi-NCR Sonepat, Haryana.
with meaningful contents robed in a balanced idiom;
reveals lyrical symphony; and paints the concrete
picture through images and symbols.”

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 99 100 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
C L Khatri’s Two-Minute Silence, Authorspress, Q- poem speaks of the death of our culture, social values
2A, Hauz Khas Enclave, New Delhi-16, 2014. Pp81, and political ideals. It is a poem for our retrospection
Rs 195/- as well as introspection.
Khatri hails from Bihar, a state whose great lead- Let’s observe two-minute silence
ers started political movements which changed the On the shrinking space, shrinking sun
course of our national life. In spite of its poverty and Stinking water of the sacred rivers
backwardness, Bihar stands high in upholding human Sleeping birds, falling leaves
rights and our national values. Watermelon being sliced for quarreling cousins.
Someone whispered in my ear
So Khatri in his poetic collection Two- Minute Si-
Can’t we do with one minute…?
lence upholds certain values of humanity which sepa-
rates him from other Indian poets. He is a poet of He has a poem on ‘Tsunami’ that devastated our
imagination as well as reality. In his poems one can city of Madras and shores of Tamil Nadu, with a tragic
find both orthodoxy and heterodoxy. His poem on his and human touch:
mother is immortal.
We’re Lilliputians for tsunami’s hoods
“She was standing like mother Mary Devouring men in their muscular jaws
Feeding me her breast; As if mountains of sea waves were marching
Alas! I could not be her Christ; Forward to avenge human’s betrayal.
She bore the cross all through her life; May it toss us to his breast!
I slept in peace, bloomed in spring.”
His later poems are highly volcanic and reflect
These lines are applicable to any man who un- the opinions of Lord Russell. He delinks sex from mar-
derstands the self-sacrifice of his mother. His poem riage even though he feels romantic here and there.
on the river is wonderful.
All his poems are reflective upon our legends, ep-
“The Falgu, a river without banks ics and folk lore and give a twist to the end. Indian
Or banks are without river” spirit is in every line of his poetry.
These lines indicate how our perennial North In- At any rate Khatri has potential for great poetry;
dian rivers are becoming dry and how our governments he needs regulation of his poetic out-burst and con-
have destroyed our national resources. However, he trol of his passion; for poetry is not expression of per-
attaches spiritual values to our rivers and consoles sonality but an escape from personality.
our trembled souls. This river Falgu can be felt in any
Dr. M. Thirumeni
place of Magadh for it is salvation to every departing
spirit.
His love of the soil is reflected in many poems
like Naina Hills and Buffalo-ride. His poem “Two Min-
utes Silence” will touch the National conscience. The

Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016 101 102 Cyber Literature, vol. xxxvii, No.-I, June 2016
PUBLICATIONS OF DR. C. L. KHATRI
Indian Imagination : A Critical Study of Fiction,
Autobiography and Poetry, Aadi Publications, F-11,
Attention
SS Tower, Dhamani Street Chaura Rasta, Jaipur- The online copy of Cyber Literature (current offline issue)
302003, Rs. 795/- is available in the 'Cyber Literature International Online
Walter de la Mare : Poetry and Novels : An Evaluation, Journal'; (with the same ISSN of CL) on the following
(with D. K. Chandradeep - Price Rs. 350/- website: www.englishcyber-literature.net
Five Indian Women Novelists : Feminist Vision, (with www.clkhatri.com
Dr. Sandhya Saxena) Yking Books, 18, Jain Bhawan
Op NBC, Shanti Nagar, Jaipur- 302006, Rs. 995/-
Indian Writing in English : Voices from the Oblivion,
(ed). ISBN : 81-8152-1, Rs. 525
Indian Novels in English : Sense and Sensibility, ISBN :
81-8152-067-1, Rs. 425.
Indian Drama in English : Recent Criticism (with Dr.
K. Chandradeep) 2006, Rs. 575.
World Literature in English : Critical Responses, Rs.
525/- Chief Editor
Thunder on Stage : A Study of Girish Karnads's Plays
(Edited with Sudhir K Arora) 2008 Rs. 695
Narrative Noodles : Essays on India Novels in English,
C. L. Khatri
2008, Rs. 725. Patna
Published from Book Enclave, Jain Bhawan, opp N.E.I.
Shanti Nagar, Jaipur 302006
British Authors and Texts, Sarup and Sons, Dariyaganj,
New Delhi, Rs. 450/-
R. K. Narayan : Reflections and Re-evaluation, Sarup
and Sons, Dariyaganj, New Delhi, Rs. 575/-
Kargil (Poetry) ISBN. 81-87826-00-2, Rs. 50/-
Mohan Rakesh's Halfway House : A Critique, ISBN 81-
7977-082-6, Rs. 40/-
Vijay Tendulkar's Silence ! The Court is in Session : Editor
A Critique, Rs. 45/-
Girish Karnad : Naga Mandala : A Critique. Price Rs. Dr. Rajendraprasad Y. Shinde
60/- Associate Professor & Head,
Ripples in the Lake (Poetry) Price 60/- Dept. of English
Prakash Book Depot, Bara Bazar, Bareilly, U.P.
Vivekananda : Voices and Vision : A Literary Kisan Veer Mahavidyalaya,
Perspective (With Selected Poems & Speeches, W AI, Dist.- Satara- 412803
Authors Press, E-35/103, Jawahar Park, Mob. : 9370691812
Laxminagar, Delhi-92,2008, Rs. 600/-)
Indian Fiction in English : Recent Criticism, 2010
LL. 02167-223908
Rs. 695/- Adhyayan Publishers & Distributors, email : rajendraprasad.shinde@gmail.com
4378/4B, 105, JMD House, Ansari Road, Daryaganj,
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