Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

LABORATORY REPORT

CHM 138
(BASIC CHEMISTRY)

NAME : Muhammad Mirza Hizami Bin Rajiei


STUDENT NO. : 2019289394
NAME OF PARTNERS : i) Jeremiah Baien
ii) Nightangel Jana
iii) Clement Soon
PROGRAMME : AS115
GROUP : 1A
NUMBER AND TITLE OF EXPERIMENT : EXPERIMENT 1 BASIC LABORATORY
TECHNIQUE
DATE OF EXPERIMENT : 25 September 2019
DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION : 7 October 2019
NAME OF LECTURER : Norhasnan Bin Sahari
Laboratory Report Marking Scheme

Full Marks (to be filled by


Mark(s lecturer)
)
Objective of the Experiment
Introduction
Experimental Procedure
Results and Observations
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Answers to Questions
References
Format
Total Marks
OBJECTIVES:

1. To learn the qualitative and quantitative aspects of common


laboratory equipment.
2. To expose student to the factors that affect the accuracy of an experiment

INTRODUCTION:

Laboratory experiment is an important part in chemistry course which


required a good observation and utilization of right laboratory technique.
Through that experiment, student will be exposed on basic and appropriate
methods in Chemistry.
It is important to record the correct measuring number in order to show the
accuracy of apparatus. This technique involved the concept of significant
figures and round-up numbers.

WEIGHING: TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE AND ELECTRICAL


BALANCE

Triple beam balance was created to weigh with the accuracy near to 0.0gram
(one decimal point) and for electrical balance is near 0.000 gram. The basic
principle for modern balance is to vary the weight of material which is
unknown with the known weight.

WEIGHING VOLUME

The volume measurement can be carried out using measuring cylinder,


pipette, burette, volumetric flask etc. Volumes measurement made using
pipette and burette are more accurate than measuring cylinder.
PROCEDURE:

A. Calibration of Volumetric Flask


1. A 25 mL volumetric flask was clean and dried and weigh accurately using
analytical balance.The mass of empty volumetric flask was recorded.
2. Distilled water was added until the calibration mark (using a dropper to
add the last few drops of distilled water) and weigh again (using the same
balance). The mass of distilled water and volumetric flask was recorded.
3. The temperature of the distilled water was recorded.
4. From the Table 1, the actual volume of the volumetric flask was
determined.

B. Calibration of Pipette
1. A 50 mL beaker was cleaned and dried and weigh accurately using
analytical balance.The mass of empty beaker was weighed.
2. A pipette (20 or 25 mL) was cleaned and rinsed with distilled water.
3. The pipette was filled with distilled water using the procedures that have
been discussed in the introduction part.
4. The distilled water was drained into the beaker and weighed again.The
mass of distilled water and beaker was recorded.
5. Step 1-4 was repeated one more time and the temperature of the
distilled water was recorded
6. From the Table 1,the actual volume of the pipette was determined.
C. Calibration of Burette
1. A 50 mL beaker was cleaned and dried and weighed accurately using
analytical balance.The mass of empty beaker was recorded.
2. The burette was cleaned and rinsed using distilled water and the distilled
water was filled in the burette until the zero mark. (Make sure there are no
bubbles in the tip of the burette)
3. 5 mL of the water was drained from the burette into the beaker and
weighed as soon as possible.The mass recorded.
4. Step 3 was repeated by draining water from the burette until the
following burette reading become 10 mL, 15 mL and 20 mL. (Each time 5
mL distilled water has been added from the burette).The mass was
recorded (distilled water + beaker) every time after adding 5 mL of water.
5. The temperature of the distilled water was recorded.
6. From the Table 1,the actual volume for every addition of 5 mL of distilled
water was determined.
RESULTS AND OBSERVATION:

A. Calibration of Volumetric Flask


Mass of empty volumetric flask (g) 23.1822
Mass of volumetric flask + distilled 40.0771
water (g)
Mass of distilled water (g) 16.8889
Temperature of distilled water (°C) 23.0000
Density of water (from Table 1) 1.0034
(g/ml)

B. Calibration of Pipette
(i) (ii)
Mass of empty beaker (g) 35.2860 35.3008

Mass of beaker + distilled 54.0315 54.0468


water (g)
Mass of distilled water (g) 18.7455 18.7460

Temperature of distilled water 23.0000 23.0000


(°C)
Density of water (from Table 1.0034 1.0034
1) (g/ml)

c. Calibration of Burette

Mass of empty beaker (g) : 35.2560

Temperature of distilled water (oC) : 23.0000

Density of water (from Table 1) (g/mL) : 1.0034


After addition of distilled water :

Reading of Mass of beaker + Mass of distilled Mass of distilled


burette (ml) distilled water (g) water (g) water for each
5ml burette
reading (g)

5 39.5663 5.1519 5.1519

10 44.5119 10.0955 4.9436

15 49.6770 15.2606 5.1651

20 54.08829 19.6665 4.4059

CALCULATIONS :

a) Determine the actual volume of the volumetric flask based on calculation.

Density = mass
Volume

1.0034 = 23.1822
Volume

Volume = 23.1036 mL
b) Determine the actual volume of the pipette based on the calculation for
experiment (i) and (ii).

(i) Density = mass


Volume

1.0034 = 18.7455
Volume

Volume = 18.6819 mL

(ii) Density = mass


Volume

1.0034 = 18.7460
Volume

Volume = 18.6824 mL

c) Determine the actual volume of distilled water in ml for each of 5 ml


burette reading based on calculation.

Reading of burette (ml) Volume of water (ml)


0-5 5.1355
5-10 4.9279
10-15 5.1486
15-20 4.3918
Discussion:

The results that was obtained in this experiment were different from what
the theory said. The volume for the volumetric flask had slight run which the
volume that have been calculated was 23.1822 mL while the theory was
supposed to be 25 mL. The volume for the pipette also does not accurate
which the calculated volume for the first attempt was 18.7455 mL and the
second attempt was 18.7460 mL when the theoretical volume was 25mL.
Supposedly, each time the burette volume removed was 5mL but the
calculated volume that have been removed was less than 5mL. This may be
caused by parallax error which the position of the eyes was not
perpendicular to the scale while the reading was taken. Not only that, the
result may be affected because of the volume of distilled water which may
be under or over the meniscus level.

CONCLUSION :

At the end of the experiment the basic laboratory apparatus in measuring


mass, volume, temperature and density had been learned. The accuracy and
precision of the results and proper way in reporting in significant figures is
important in using this measurement.In doing laboratory experiment,a
careful and keen observation plus proper and right laboratory techniques and
operations are required to obtain correct results.
Answer of the questions:

1) How do you overcome or reduce the problem of random error and


systematic error while doing an experiment?

To overcome or reduce the problem of random error and systematic error


while doing an experiment is by repeating the experiment and averaging
over the result.

2) In what situation do you use a volumetric flask, conical flask, pipette and
graduated cylinder? Explain your answer from the accuracy aspects of these
apparatus.

Volumetric flasks are used for precise dilutions and preparation of standard
solutions Conical flask used for titration and suitable for boiling liquids
.Pipette are commonly used to transport measured volume of liquid.The
graduated cylinder is used for measuring volumes of liquids.Therefore,they
are not for quantitative analysis but for general purposes.

3) Explain how to read a burette. What are the factors to be considered while
using burette?

The factors to be considered while using burettes is our eyes must be


perpendicular dito the burette column.
REFERENCES
1) http://mit-ot.blogspot.com/2012/05/chm12l-experiment-no-1-basic-
laboratory.html

2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flask