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SECTION 2

SYSTEM

CONTENTS
Group 1 Control System
Outline .....................................................T2-1-1
Engine Control .........................................T2-1-2
Pump Control .........................................T2-1-23
Valve Control..........................................T2-1-32
Other Controls........................................T2-1-40

Group 2 Hydraulic System


Outline .....................................................T2-2-1
Pilot Circuit...............................................T2-2-2
Main Circuit ............................................T2-2-12

Group 3 Electrical System


Outline .....................................................T2-3-1
Main Circuit ..............................................T2-3-2
Electric Power Circuit ...............................T2-3-3
Indicator Light Check Circuit.....................T2-3-4
Accessory Circuit .....................................T2-3-5
Preheat Circuit .........................................T2-3-6
Starting Circuit .........................................T2-3-8
Charging Circuit .....................................T2-3-10
Serge Voltage Prevention Circuit ............T2-3-14
Engine Stop Circuit.................................T2-3-16

1HH-2-1
(Blank)

1HH-2-2
SYSTEM / Control System
OUTLINE

The main controller (MC) is used to control machine After processing the received signals in the logic circuit,
operations. Electronic signals from the engine control the MC sends out control signals to the EC motor,
dial, various sensors and switches are sent to the MC. solenoid valve units, torque control solenoid valve, and
other control circuits to regulate the engine, pumps,
motors and valves.

Input Signals Output Signals


• EC Sensor → Engine Control (EC Motor)
• Engine Control Dial → Engine Control Dial
• Pump 1 Control Pressure Sensor → HP Mode Control
• Pump 2 Control Pressure Sensor → E mode Control
• Pump 1 Delivery Pressure Sensor → Auto-Idle Control
• Pump 2 Delivery Pressure Sensor → Auto Acceleration Control
• Pump 3 Delivery Pressure Sensor Auto Warming Up Control
(Oprtional) → Idle Speed-Up Control

• N sensor → Attachment Operation Speed Increase Control

• Pressure Switch (Travel) → Attachment Operation Speed Limit Control
• Pressure Switch (Front Attachment) → Engine Learning Control
• Pressure Switch (Swing) →
• Pressure Switch (Boom Raise) → Pump Control (Torque Control Solenoid Valve)
• Pressure Switch (Arm Roll-In) → Speed Sensing Control
• Pressure Switch (Auxiliary)(Optional) → Slow Speed Torque Increase Control

• Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor → MC Pump 1 Flow Rate Limit Control (Optional)

• Auto-Idle/Acceleration Selector → Pump 2 Flow Rate Limit Control

• Power Digging Switch → Pump 3 Torque Decrease Control (Optional)
• Power Mode Switch (HP/E/P) →
• Travel Mode Switch (Fast/Slow) → Valve Control (Solenoid Valve Unit)
• Work Mode Switch Power Digging Control
(Digging/Attachment) → Arm Regenerative Control
• Learning Switch → Travel Motor Swash Angle Control
• Key Switch → Auto-Power Lift Control
• Auxiliary Mode Switch (Optional) →

Other Controls
Work Mode Control

Travel Alarm Control


NOTE: Only on the machines equipped with the
corresponding optional parts.

T2-1-1
SYSTEM / Control System
ENGINE CONTROL

The engine control system is grouped as follows:

• Engine Control Dial Control • Idle Speed-Up Control



• HP Mode Control • Attachment Operation Speed Increase Control

• E Mode Control • Attachment Operation Speed Limit Control
• Auto-Idle Control • Engine Learning Control
• Auto-Acceleration Control
• Auto-Warming Up Control

NOTE: Only on the machines with the
corresponding optional parts.

Engine Control System Layout

Learning Switch Pressure Sensor

Travel
Front Attachment Pump 2 Pump 1
Swing Delivery Delivery
Boom Raise Pressure Pressure
Key Switch
Sensor Sensor
Arm Roll-In
Auxiliary (Optional)
Engine EC Sensor
Control Dial
Auto-Idle /
Acceleration
Selector

Auto-Idle
EC Motor
Auto-Acceleration

Power Mode Switch

HP Mode Pump 2 Pump 1


Control Control
Pressure Pressure
E Mode Work Mode Sensor
Sensor
Switch
P Mode Auxiliary Mode Hydraulic Oil
Digging Attachment Switch Temperature
Mode Mode (Optional) Sensor
T1HH-02-01-001

T2-1-2
SYSTEM / Control System
(Blank)

T2-1-3
SYSTEM / Control System
Engine Control Dial Control

Function: Controls the engine speed in response to Engine


the rotation angle of the engine control dial Speed
-1
and reduces the engine speed by 100 min
to reduce fuel consumption and noise level
when all control levers are in neutral. Control Range Engine speed is
reduced by 100
min-1 when the
Operation: The MC drives the governor lever in control levers are
response to the rotation angle of the engine in neutral.
control dial to regulate the engine speed.

NOTE: Even if the control dial is rotated to the full Engine


speed position, the governor lever doesn’t Control Dial
Minimum Maximum Position
come in contact with the full speed stopper.
Speed Speed
(Refer to the HP mode control.)

Approx. 1 second after all control levers are in neutral


(the travel and front attachment sensors are OFF), the
MC drives the EC motor so that the engine speed is
-1
reduced from the maximum speed by 100 min .

NOTE: The engine speed is reduced from the


-1
maximum speed by 100 min . Therefore,
when the engine speed set by the engine
control dial is already slower than the
-1
maximum speed by 100 min , the engine
speed remains unchanged. This engine
speed reduction control is activated
regardless of whether the auto-idle and/or
auto-acceleration control is activated or not.

T2-1-4
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor
Travel
Front Attachment

Engine
Control Dial

EC Motor

T1HH-02-01-004

T2-1-5
SYSTEM / Control System
HP Mode Control

Function: Slightly increases digging power such as Engine


arm roll-in operation while excavating Speed Maximum
1650 min-1 speed
deeply. increases by
100 min-1 .
Operation: The MC drives the EC motor to slightly 1500 min-1
increase the engine speed set by the
engine control dial when all the following
conditions exist with the power mode
switch is in the HP position.

• Engine Control Dial: Set at 1500 min or faster.


-1
Engine
• Boom Raise and/or Arm Roll-In Control: In Control Dial
Operation Minimum Maximum Position
• Average Delivery Pressure of Pumps 1 and 2: Speed Speed
High

NOTE: The engine governor stopper position is


adjusted in the HP mode. Accordingly, the
governor lever doesn’t come in contact with
the stopper in the normal mode.

T2-1-6
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor

Pump 2 Pump 1
Delivery Delivery
Boom Raise Pressure Pressure
Sensor Sensor
Arm Roll-In

Engine
Control Dial

EC Motor

Power Mode Switch

HP Mode

T1HH-02-01-005

T2-1-7
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System
E Mode Control
Engine
Function: Reduce the engine speed by the constant Speed
specified ratio.
Engine speed is
Operation: The MC drives the EC motor to reduce the reduced at the
engine speed set by the engine control dial constant
when the power mode switch is in the E specified ratio.
mode position. The engine speed is
reduced in proportion to the rotation angle
of the engine control dial.

Engine
Control Dial
Minimum Speed Maximum Speed Position

Engine
Control Dial

EC Motor

Power Mode Switch

E Mode

T1HH-02-01-006

T2-1-8
SYSTEM / Control System
(Blank)

T2-1-9
SYSTEM / Control System
Auto-Idle Control

Function: Reduces the engine speed when all control


levers are in neutral to reduce fuel
consumption and noise level.
Engine
Operation: Approx. 3.5 seconds after all control levers Speed
are return to neutral, the MC drives the EC Engine speed is
reduced to the
motor so that the engine speed is reduced auto-idle speed
to the auto-idle speed. As soon as a control 3.5 seconds later.
lever is operated (the travel and/or front
attachment pressure sensor is turned ON),
the MC drives the EC motor so that the
engine speed is increased to the original
engine speed (set by the engine control
dial). Engine
Control Dial
Minimum Maximum Position
Auto-Idle System Deactivation Requirements: Speed Speed
• Control Levers: Being operated (either travel or Auto-Idle
front attachment control levers with pilot sensor Speed
ON)
• Power Mode Switch: When the E mode is
changed to P mode or the P mode is changed to
the E mode.
• Engine Control Dial: When engine speed is
changed.

T2-1-10
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor

Travel
Front Attachment

Engine
Control Dial
Auto-Idle/
Acceleration
Selector

Auto-Idle

EC Motor

Power Mode Switch

E Mode

T1HH-02-01-007

T2-1-11
SYSTEM / Control System
Auto Acceleration Control
Engine
Function: Automatically regulates the engine speed to Speed Engine speed is
meet the machine operating conditions. automatically
When all the control levers are in neutral, controlled in
response to the
the engine speed is reduced to reduce fuel control lever Engine speed is reduced
consumption and noise level. operations. to the auto-idle speed 3.5
seconds later.
Operation: When a control lever is operated with the
Engine speed is reduced
auto-idle / acceleration selector in auto from the maximum speed by
acceleration position, the MC calculates the 450 min-1 .
most proper engine operating speed
Engine
corresponding to the signals from pressure Control Dial
sensors (travel, swing, boom raise, and arm Minimum Maximum Position
roll-in), the pump control pressure sensors, Speed Auto-Idle Speed
and the pump delivery pressure sensors. Speed
Then, the MC drives the EC motor so that
the engine speed is set to the rotation
speed calculated by the MC. Operating Time Progress VS. Engine Speed Change
When all control levers are returned to
Control Lever Stroke
neutral, the engine speed is reduced by 450
-1
min from the maximum speed first. Then, Full Stroke
3.5 seconds later, the engine speed is
further reduced to the auto-idle speed.
Neutral
NOTE: When all control levers are returned to Position
neutral, the engine speed is reduced by
-1
450 min from the maximum speed. In Time
case the engine speed is set by the engine
control dial and is running at a speed In response to the control
slower than the maximum speed by 100 lever stroke and the pump
-1 Engine Speed delivery pressure, the
min , the engine speed will be reduced by optimum engine speed is
-1
350 min . Max. Engine
selected.
Speed (P Mode) Auto
Acceleration
Control
Auto-Idle
Engine Speed

Time

T2-1-12
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor
Travel
Pump 2 Pump 1
Delivery Delivery
Swing Pressure Pressure
Boom Raise Sensor Sensor
Arm Roll-In

Engine
Control Dial
Auto-Idle/
Acceleration
Selector

Auto- EC Motor
Acceleration

Pump 2 Pump 1
Control Control
Pressure Pressure
Sensor Sensor

T1HH-02-01-008

T2-1-13
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System
Auto-Warming Up Control

Function: Automatically warms up the hydraulic Engine


Speed
system (similar to the auto choke on
automobiles).

Operation: When the hydraulic oil temperature is


below 0 °C (32 °F), the MC drives the EC
motor in response to signals from the key
Increasing
switch and the hydraulic oil temperature Speed
sensor to run the engine at the auto-warm
up speed for 15 minutes after starting the
engine. Engine
Control Dial
Minimum Maximum Position
IMPORTANT: When adjusting the auto-idle speed Speed Speed
deactivate the auto-warming up Auto-Warm
control function using Dr. EX, or wait Up Speed
to adjust until 15 minutes after
starting the engine.

Key Switch

EC Motor

Hydraulic Oil
Temperature
Sensor
T1HH-02-01-009

T2-1-14
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System
Idle Speed-Up Control

Engine
Function: Prevents the engine from hunting when Speed
running the engine at slow speed.

Operation: When the travel or front attachment


function is operated while the engine is
running at a speed between the minimum
Increasing
speed and the Idle Speed-Up Speed, the Speed
MC drives the EC motor so that the engine
speed is increased to the Idle Speed-Up
Speed. Engine
Control Dial
Minimum Maximum Position
Speed Speed
Idle Speed-Up
Speed

Pressure Sensor
Travel
Front Attachment

Engine
Control Dial

EC Motor

T1HH-02-01-010

T2-1-15
SYSTEM / Control System
Attachment Operation Speed Increase Control
(Only on the machines equipped with the
When all
auxiliary mode switch (Optional).) Engine
conditions exist,
Speed
the maximum
Function: Increases the maximum engine speed to engine speed is
increased to the
the attachment (hydraulic breaker, speed set by Dr.
secondary crusher, primary crusher or EX.
vibrating hammer) operating engine speed
set by Dr. EX when the attachment is
operated.

Operation: When the following conditions exist, the MC


drives the EC motor so that the engine Engine
maximum speed is increased to the Control Dial
Minimum Maximum Position
attachment operating speed set by Dr. EX Speed Speed
when the attachment is operated.

Operating Conditions:
Dr. EX: Resets the maximum engine speed to a faster
(+) attachment (hydraulic breaker, secondary crusher,
primary crusher, or vibrating hammer) operating speed
in the service mode.
Engine Control Dial: Maximum Speed Position
Power Mode Switch: HP Mode
Auxiliary: In Operation
Work Mode Switch: Attachment Mode
Auxiliary Mode Switch (Optional): Attachment position
(hydraulic breaker, secondary crusher, primary crusher,
or vibrating hammer) reset by Dr. EX.

NOTE: When the P mode engine speed is preset to


a slower speed in the Dr. EX service mode,
the maximum engine speed won’t be
increased when operating the attachment.

T2-1-16
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor

Auxiliary(Optional)
Engine
Control Dial

EC Motor

Power Mode Switch

HP Mode

Work Mode
Switch
Auxiliary Mode
Attachment Switch
Mode (Optional)
T1HH-02-01-011

T2-1-17
SYSTEM / Control System
Attachment Operation Speed Limit Control (Only
on the machines equipped with the auxiliary
mode switch (Optional).) Engine
Speed
When all
Function: Decreases the maximum engine speed to conditions exist,
the attachment (hydraulic breaker, the maximum
engine speed is
secondary crusher, primary crusher or reduced to the
vibrating hammer) operating engine speed speed set by Dr.
set by Dr. EX when the attachment mode is EX.
selected.

Operation: When the following conditions exists, the


MC drives the EC motor so that the engine Engine
maximum speed is reduced to the Control Dial
Minimum Maximum Position
attachment operating speed set by Dr. EX
Speed Speed
when the attachment mode is selected.

Operating Conditions:
Dr. EX: Resets the maximum engine speed to a slower
(−) attachment (hydraulic breaker, secondary crusher,
primary crusher, or vibrator) operating speed in the
service mode.
Work Mode Switch: Attachment Mode
Auxiliary Mode Switch (Optional): Attachment position
(hydraulic breaker, secondary crusher, primary crusher,
or vibrating hammer) set by Dr. EX.

T2-1-18
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

EC Motor

Work Mode
Switch
Auxiliary Mode
Attachment Switch
Mode (Optional)
T1HH-02-01-012

T2-1-19
SYSTEM / Control System
Engine Learning Control

Function: Inputs the governor lever stopper positions IMPORTANT: Be sure to perform the engine
on both the STOP and FULL sides as the learning if the following repair work is
standard data to control the engine. done. (Refer to the Troubleshooting
Section in T/M.) After performing the
Operation:When the learning switch in the rear engine learning, check that the
console is turned to the engine learning engine learning has been performed
position, the EC motor is driven by the correctly using Dr. EX.
signals from the MC. The EC motor moves • After the engine, engine control
the governor lever from the IDLE to FULL able, or EC motor has been
and to STOP positions in this order. The EC removed or replaced.
sensor detects the stopper positions of the • After the MC has been replaced.
governor lever on both the FULL and STOP
sides and sends each stopper position NOTE: The engine learning is not required when
signal to the MC. The MC stores these the batteries are replaced.
signals in its memory.

Learning Switch

Key Switch

EC Sensor

EC Motor

T1HH-02-01-013

T2-1-20
SYSTEM / Control System
PUMP CONTROL

The pump control system has the following functions:

• Speed Sensing Control


• Slow Speed Torque Increase Control

• Pump 1 Flow Rate Limit Control

• Pump 2 Flow Rate Limit Control

• Pump 3 Flow Torque Decrease Control


NOTE: Only on the machines equipped with the
corresponding optional parts.

Pump Control System Layout


Pressure Sensor

Travel
Pump 3
Pump 2 Pump 1 Delivery
Delivery Delivery Pressure
Pressure Pressure Sensor
N Sensor Sensor Sensor (Optional)
Auxiliary(Optional)
Engine
Control Dial

Torque Control Solenoid Valve

Max. Pump 2 Flow Rate


Limit Solenoid Valve

Max. Pump 1 Flow Rate Limit


Solenoid Valve (Optional)

T1HH-02-01-002

T2-1-21
SYSTEM / Control System
Speed Sensing Control

Function: Controls the pump flow rate in response to


engine speed changes due to variations in
load so that the engine output can be utilized
more efficiently. (Engine stall is prevented
when the machine operates under adverse
conditions such as operating at high altitude.)

Operation: Q
1. The target engine operating speed is set by Flow Rate
controlling the engine control dial.
2. The MC calculates the difference in speed P-Q Curve
between the target operating speed and the actual
operating speed monitored by the N sensor. Then,
the MC sends signals to the torque control
solenoid valve.
3. The torque control solenoid valve delivers pilot
pressure oil in response to the signals received
from the MC to the pump regulator, controlling the
pump flow rate.
4. If the engine load increases and the actual engine
operating speed becomes slower than the target
operating speed, the pump swash angle is
Pressure P
reduced so that pump flow rate will be reduced.
Therefore, the engine load is reduced, preventing
engine stall.
5. If the actual engine operating speed becomes
faster than the target operating speed, the pump
swash angle is increased so that the pump flow
rate will increase, by which the engine output can
be utilized more efficiently.

NOTE: The pump control consists of the speed


sensing by the MC and the pump control
valve on the control valve.
(Refer to the COMPONENT OPERATION /
Control Valve and Pump Device groups.)

T2-1-22
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pump 2 Pump 1
Delivery Delivery
Pressure Pressure
N Sensor Sensor Sensor

Engine
Control Dial

Torque Control Solenoid Valve

T1HH-02-01-014

T2-1-23
SYSTEM / Control System
Slow Speed Torque Increase Control
Q
Function: Allows the machine to travel at the maximum Flow Rate B
pump flow rate when the engine is running at
slow speed. When travel operation is made Increased Torque
P-Q Curve
with the engine running at slow speed, A
normally, the hydraulic pump delivers
pressure oil at the flow rate corresponding to
point A on the P-Q curve illustrated to the
right. Therefore, if any difference exists
between pump 1 and pump 2 flow rate, the
machine will mistrack. To prevent
Normal P-Q Curve
mistracking, the pump P-Q curve is raised so
that, when traveling the machine with the
engine running at slow speed, the pump
delivers pressure oil at the flow rate
Pressure P
corresponding to point B (maximum flow
rate).

Operation:
1. When the engine speed set by the engine control
dial is slow, the MC processes signals from the
travel pressure sensor, and pump 1 and 2 delivery
pressure sensors and sends control signals to the
torque control solenoid valve.
2. The torque control solenoid valve delivers the pilot
pressure oil corresponding to the signals received
from the MC to the regulator, increasing the pump
flow rate.

NOTE: If the MC stops the slow speed torque


increase control when the front attachment
is operated while traveling, the pump flow
rate will be reduced quickly, developing a
shock load to the machine. Therefore, the
MC maintains the slow speed torque
increase control even if the front
attachment is simultaneously operated
while traveling.

T2-1-24
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor
Travel Pump 2 Pump 1
Delivery Delivery
Pressure Pressure
Sensor Sensor

Engine
Control Dial

Torque Control Solenoid Valve

T1HH-02-01-015

T2-1-25
SYSTEM / Control System
Pump 1 Flow Rate Limit Control (Only on the Pump 2 Flow Rate Limit Control (Only on the
machines with the auxiliary sensor (Optional).) machines with the auxiliary sensor (Optional).)

Function: Limits the maximum pump 1 flow rate when Function: Limits the maximum pump 2 flow rate when
a front attachment (mainly a vibrating a front attachment (mainly a hydraulic
hammer) is used. breaker) is used.

Operation: Operation:
1. When a front attachment is used, the MC receives 1. When a front attachment is used, the MC receives
signals from the pressure sensor (auxiliary). signals from the pressure sensor (auxiliary).
(optional) (optional)
2. In response to the signals arriving from the 2. In response to the signals arriving from the
pressure sensor, the MC drives the maximum pressure sensor, the MC drives the maximum
pump 1 flow rate limit solenoid valve (optional) to pump 2 flow rate limit solenoid valve (optional) to
reduce the maximum pump flow rate. reduce the maximum pump flow rate.

NOTE: In proportion to the attachment control NOTE: In proportion to the attachment control pedal
pedal stroke, the maximum pump flow rated stroke, the maximum pump flow rated is
is reduced. The minimum pump swash set- reduced. The minimum pump swash set-
angle for a front attachment (hydraulic angle for a front attachment (hydraulic
breaker, secondary crusher, primary breaker, secondary crusher, primary
crusher or vibrating hammer) can be set in crusher or vibrating hammer) can be set in
the service mode of Dr. EX. the service mode of Dr. EX.

Q
Flow Rate Maximum flow rate is reduced.

Normal P-Q Curve

Pressure P

T2-1-26
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor

Auxiliary(Optional)

Max. Pump 2 Flow-Rate


Limit Solenoid Valve
Max. Pump 1 Flow-Rate Limit
Solenoid Valve (Optional)

T1HH-02-01-016

T2-1-27
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System
Pump 3 Torque Decrease Control (Only on the
machines equipped with pump 3 (Optional).) Q

Function: Reduces pump 1 and pump 2 driving Flow Rate P-Q curve is controlled in
proportion to pump 3 delivery
torque to prevent the engine from stalling, pressure.
utilizing the engine output efficiently when
the pump 3 driving torque increases.
Normal P-Q Curve
Operation: When the MC receives signals from pump
3 delivery pressure sensor (optional), the
MC drives the torque control solenoid valve
so that pump 1 and pump 2 flow rates are
reduced. Thereby, the total pump 1, 2, and
3 driving torque is maintained not to exceed
the engine output, utilizing the engine
output efficiently.
Pressure P

Pump 3 Delivery
Pressure Sensor
(Optional)

Torque Control Solenoid Valve

T1HH-02-01-017

T2-1-28
SYSTEM / Control System
(Blank)

T2-1-29
SYSTEM / Control System
VALVE CONTROL

The valve control system functions as follows:

• Power Digging Control


• Auto-Power Lift Control
• Arm Regenerative Control
• Travel Motor Swash Angle Control

T2-1-30
SYSTEM / Control System
Valve Control System Layout

Pressure Sensor
Travel
Front Attachment Pump 2 Pump 1
Swing Delivery Delivery
Boom Raise Pressure Pressure
Arm Roll-In Sensor Sensor

Power Digging
Switch

Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

Fast
Pump 2 Control
Pressure Sensor
Slow

Pump 1 Control
Travel Mode Switch
Pressure Sensor

Solenoid Valve Unit

Main Relief Valve


Control Valve

Travel Motor

Arm Regenerative
Valve

T1HH-02-01-003
Swash Angle
Control Valve

T2-1-31
SYSTEM / Control System
Power Digging Control

Function: Increases digging force by temporarily


increasing relief pressure.

Operation: For maximum 8 seconds after the power


digging switch is turned ON, the MC
continuously activates solenoid valve
unit(SG). Solenoid valve unit (SG) delivers
the pilot oil pressure to the relief valve,
increasing the relief set-pressure. (Refer to
the COMPONENT OPERATION / Control
Valve group.)

T2-1-32
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Power
Digging
Switch

Solenoid Valve Unit

Main Relief Valve

Control Valve

T1HH-02-01-018

T2-1-33
SYSTEM / Control System
Auto-Power Lift Control

Function: Increases oil pressure when raising the


boom.

Operation: The MC activates solenoid valve unit (SG)


when signals from pressure sensor (boom
raise) and pump 1 delivery pressure sensor
meet the following conditions. Solenoid
valve (SG) delivers the pilot pressure oil to
the relief valve, increasing the relief set-
pressure. (Refer to the COMPONENT
OPERATION / Control Valve group.)

Operating Conditions:
Boom Raise Pressure Sensor: Outputting signals.
(The boom must be raised to a certain extent.)
Pump 1 delivery Pressure Sensor: High pressure.
Arm Roll-In Pressure Sensor: Output zero. (The
control lever is in neutral.)

NOTE: This control system is activated during


combined operations (except for the arm
roll-in combined operation).

T2-1-34
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor

Pump 1 Delivery
Boom Raise Pressure Sensor
Arm Roll-In

Solenoid Valve Unit

Main Relief Valve

Control Valve Control Valve

T1HH-02-01-019

T2-1-35
SYSTEM / Control System
Arm Regenerative Control

Function: Accelerates the arm roll-in speed to prevent


arm hesitation during arm roll-in operation.

Operation: The MC activates the solenoid valve unit


(SC) so that solenoid valve delivers the
pilot pressure oil to shift the arm
regenerative valve when signals from the
pump 2 delivery pressure sensor, swing
pressure sensor, arm roll-in pressure
sensor, and boom raise pressure sensor
meet the following conditions. When the
arm regenerative valve is shifted, the return
circuit from the arm cylinder rod side to the
hydraulic oil tank is closed. Then, the return
oil from the cylinder rod side is combined
with the pressure oil from the pump and is
routed to the cylinder bottom, accelerating
the arm roll-in speed and preventing arm
hesitation. (Refer to the COMPONENT
OPERATION / Control Valve group.)

Operating Conditions:
Pump 2 Delivery Pressure Sensor: Low pressure. (The
arm doesn’t need much power.)
Arm Roll-In Pressure Sensor: High output. (The arm
control lever stroke is large.)
Swing or Boom raise Sensor: Outputting signal.

NOTE: To improve arm leveling performance, the


MC gradually activates solenoid valve unit
(SC) when the hydraulic oil temperature is
at 0 to 10 °C (32 to 50 °F).

T2-1-36
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor

Swing
Boom Raise Pump 2
Arm Roll-In Delivery
Pressure
Sensor

Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

Solenoid Valve Unit

Control Valve

T1HH-02-01-020
Arm Regenerative Valve

T2-1-37
SYSTEM / Control System
Travel Motor Swash Angle Control

Function: Controls the travel mode.

Operation: When the travel mode switch is in the


SLOW position, the travel motor swash
angle is kept in the maximum angle so that
the travel speed is slow.
When the MC receives the signals from the
travel pressure sensor, pump 1 and 2
delivery pressure sensors under the
following conditions with the travel mode
switch in the FAST position, the MC
activates the solenoid valve unit (SI). Then,
the solenoid valve (SI) delivers the pilot
pressure oil to the travel motor swash angle
control valve, reducing the swash angle to
the minimum so that the travel speed
increases.

Operating Conditions:
Travel Pressure Sensor: ON
Front Attachment Pressure Sensor: OFF
Pump 1 and 2 Delivery Pressure Sensor: Both pump
delivery pressures are low.
Pump Displacement Target Angle (controlled by the
MC according to signals from sensors): Large

NOTE: When one side track is raise off the ground


using the front attachment and is rotated,
the one side pump displacement target
angle remains small so that the travel motor
speed does not increase.

T2-1-38
ANIMATION
SYSTEM / Control System

Pressure Sensor
Travel
Front Attachment Pump 2 Pump 1
Delivery Delivery
Pressure Pressure
Sensor Sensor

Hydraulic Oil
Travel Mode Switch Temperature Sensor

Fast
Pump 2 Control
Pressure Sensor

Pump 1 Control
Pressure Sensor

Solenoid Valve Unit

Travel Motor

T1HH-02-01-021
Swash Angle
Control Valve

T2-1-39
SYSTEM / Control System
OTHER CONTROLS
Work Mode Control
Two work modes, digging and front attachment, are
available by operating the work mode switch.

• Digging Mode:
Normal control is performed.

• Front Attachment Mode:


Functions only when a front attachment in the
optional kit is operated. The engine speed (see
T2-1-16 and 18) and pump flow rate (see T2-1-
26) are controlled so as to match the installed
front attachment operation in response to the
movement of the auxiliary valve spool. The engine
speed and pump flow rate control settings are
made by using Dr. EX.

T2-1-40
SYSTEM / Control System
Travel Alarm Control (Only on the machines
equipped with the travel alarm device)

Function: Sounds the buzzer while traveling.

Operation: As long as the MC receives signals from


the travel pressure sensor when travel
operation is made, the MC sends out
signals to the travel alarm device to sound
the buzzer.

NOTE: After traveling continuously for more than


13 seconds, the buzzer can be stopped
with the buzzer deactivation switch.

Pressure Switch
Travel

Travel Alarm
Device
Buzzer Deactivation Switch

Buzzer T178-02-01-025

T2-1-41
SYSTEM / Control System
(Blank)

T2-1-42
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
OUTLINE

The hydraulic system is broadly divided into two cir-


cuits, the main circuit and the pilot circuit.

Main Circuit:

Power Source Controller Actuator


Main Pumps → Control Valves → Motors
Cylinders
Front Attachmens (Optional)

Pilot Circuit:

Power Source Controller Pilot Circuit


Pilot Pumps → Pilot Valves → Operation Control Circuit
Pump Regulator Pump Control Circuit
Solenoid Valve Unit Valve Control Circuit
Swing Parking Brake Release Circuit
Travel Motor Swash Angle Control Circuit
Hydraulic Oil Heat Circuit

T2-2-1
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
PILOT CIRCUIT
Outline:
• Pressure oil from the pilot pump is used to oper-
ate the operation control circuit, pump control cir-
cuit, valve control circuit, swing parking brake re-
lease circuit, travel motor swash angle control cir-
cuit, and hydraulic oil heat circuit.

T2-2-2
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Operation Control Circuit

Left Pilot Travel Pilot Right Pilot


Valve Valve Valve

Pilot Shut-Off
Shockless Valve (Pressure Sensor)
Valve

Hydraulic Oil
Heat Circuit Swing Parking Brake
Swing Motor Release Circuit

Solenoid Valve Unit

Arm Regenerative Valve SC

Main Relief Valve SI Valve Control Circuit Main Pump


Regulator
Control Valve SG 1

5-Spool Pump 4-Spool Pump 2


Control Valve Control Valve
SA
Control Valve
Max. Pump 1 Flow Rate
Limit Solenoid Valve Pump Control
(optional) Circuit
Max. Pump 2 Flow
Rate Limit Solenoid
Valve
Torque
SB ST Control
Solenoid
Valve
Travel Motor Swash
Angle Control Circuit
Relief Pilot Filter
Valve

Pilot Pump

Travel Motor Travel Motor


Suction
Filter

Hydraulic Oil
Tank

T1HH-02-02-001

T2-2-3
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Operation Control Circuit
• The pilot valves control the pressure oil from the
pilot pump to operate the control valve spools.

• The shockless valve is provided between the pilot


valves and the control valve. The shockless valve
dampens quick spool movement in the control
valve.

T2-2-4
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Travel Pilot Valve Pilot Valve (Left) Pilot Valve (Right)

Shockless Valve

9 10 11 12 4 3A 3 2 1 8 7 6 5

Control Valve

11 12
10 9

7 8

2 1
3A

5
6

Pilot Pump

T1HH-02-02-002
1 - Boom Raise 4 - Arm Roll-In 7 - Bucket Roll-In 10 - Left Travel Reverse
2 - Boom Lower 5 - Left Swing 8 - Bucket Roll-Out 11 - Right Travel Forward
3 - Arm Roll-Out 6 - Right Swing 9 - Left Travel Forward 12 - Right Travel Reverse

T2-2-5
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Pump Control Circuit (Refer to the COMPOMENT
OPERATION / Pump Device group.)

• Pump Delivery Flow Rate Control by Pump Control


Pressure Pi
• In response to the control valve spool, the pump
control valve controls the pilot pressure from the
pilot pump.

• The pilot pressure controlled by the pump control


valve is routed to either main pump 1 or 2 as
pump control pressure Pi.

NOTE: When the boom (raise/lower), arm (roll-


in/out), bucket (roll-in/out), and/or travel
(right) function is operated, pump control
pressure Pi is routed to main pump 1.
When the boom (raise/lower), arm (roll-
in/out), auxiliary, swing (right/left), and/or
travel (left) function is operated, pump con-
trol pressure Pi is routed to main pump 2.

• Torque Control (Speed Sensing) by Torque Control


Solenoid Valve
• After the pilot pressure from the pilot pump is
regulated by the torque control solenoid valve, the
regulated pilot pressure is routed to main pump 1
and 2 as the speed sensing pressure.

T2-2-6
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Pump 2 Control Valve

Control Valve

Pump 1 Control Valve

Pump 1

Pilot
Pump
Pump 2

Torque Control
Solenoid Valve

T1HH-02-02-003

T2-2-7
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Valve Control Circuit (Refer to the COMPONENT
OPERATION / Control Valve group.)
• The following valves are controlled by the pilot pres-
sure from the pilot valves, solenoid valve unit (SC
and SG), and the pilot signal circuit pressure.

• Boom Raise Pilot Pressure: Travel Flow Rate


Control Valve.

• Boom Lower Pilot Pressure: Boom Anti-Drift Valve


(Switch Valve)

• Arm Roll-In Pilot Pressure: Arm Anti-Drift Valve


Rod Side (Switch Valve)
Bucket Flow Rate Control Valve (Switch Valve A)

• Arm Roll-Out Pilot Pressure: Arm Anti-Drift Valve


Bottom Side (Switch Valve)

• Solenoid Valve SC: Arm Regenerative Valve

• Solenoid Valve SG: Main Relief Valve (increasing


the set-pressure)

• Pilot Signal Circuit Pressure: Flow Combiner


Valve

• Bucket Flow Rate Control Valve (Switch Valve A):


Bucket Flow-Rate Control Valve (Switch Valve B)

• Attachment Pilot Pressure (Optional): Bypass


Shut-Off Valve.

T2-2-8
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Main Relief Valve


Travel Flow Rate Control Valve
Pilot Signal Circuit Pressure

Boom Raise
Pilot Pressure
Flow Combiner
Valve

Boom Lower Bucket Flow Rate


Pilot Pressure Control Valve
(Switch Valve B)
Arm Roll-Out
Pilot Pressure Arm Anti-Drift Valve Rod
Side (Switch Valve) Arm Regenerative
Valve

Arm Anti-Drift Arm Roll-In


Valve Bottom Pilot Pressure
Bucket Flow Rate
Side (Switch Control Valve
Valve) (Switch Valve A)

Boom Anti-Drift Valve Bypass


SG (Switch Valve) Shut-Off Valve

Attachment Pilot Pressure


Solenoid Circuit (Optional)
Valve Unit

SC

T1HH-02-02-004

T2-2-9
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Swing Parking Brake Release Circuit (Refer to the
COMPONENTS OPERATION / Swing Device
group.)
• When the front attachment and/or swing function
is operated, the pilot signal circuit pressure in-
creases in response to the spool in the control
valve

• The pilot signal circuit pressure shifts the swing


parking brake release spool.

• Consequently, the pilot pressure is routed to the


swing motor, releasing the swing parking brake.

Travel Motor Swash Angle Control Circuit (Refer


to the COMPONENTS OPERATION / Travel Device
group.)
• The pilot pressure from solenoid valve SI regu-
lates the travel motor swash angle control valve.

Hydraulic Oil Heat Circuit (Refer to the COMPO-


NENTS OPERATION / Others (Upperstructure)
group.)
• When the pilot shut-off valve is closed, the pilot
pressure is routed to the shockless valve so that
hydraulic oil is warmed while passing through the
orifice in the shockless valve.

• The warmed pilot pressure oil flows to the shock-


less valves and the pilot valves so that the pilot
system components are warmed.

T2-2-10
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Travel Pilot Valve Pilot Valve (Left) Pilot Valve (Right)

Pilot Shut-Off Shockless Valve


Valve

Orifice

Swash Angle Control Valve Travel Motor

Bucket

Boom

Pilot Swing Circuit


Arm

Solenoid Valve Unit


Swing

SI

Swing Motor

Swing Parking
Brake Release
Spool Pilot Pump

T1HH-02-02-005

T2-2-11
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
MAIN CIRCUIT
Outline
• Main pumps (1 and 2) draw hydraulic oil from the
hydraulic oil tank. Main pump 1 and main pump 2
deliver pressure oil to the 4-spool control valve
and the 5-spool control valve respectively.

• Delivered pressure oil is routed to the motor(s) or


cylinder(s) in response to operation(s) of the
spool(s) in the control valve(s).

• The return oil from the motor(s) and/or cylinder(s)


flows back to the hydraulic oil tank via the control
valve and/or the oil cooler.

• When the oil temperature is low (high viscosity),


the oil flow resistance increases in the oil cooler,
which opens the bypass check valve, allowing hy-
draulic oil to return directly to the hydraulic oil tank
without passing through the oil cooler.

T2-2-12
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Travel Motor (Left) Travel Motor (Right)

Bucket Cylinder

Front Attachment (s)

Control Valve Boom Cylinder

4-Spool
Arm Cylinder Side

Travel (Left) Travel (Right)

Auxiliary Bucket

Boom 2 Boom 1

Arm 1 Arm 2

Swing

5-Spool Side

Bypass Check
Valve

Swing Motor
Oil Main Main
Cooler Pump 2 Pump 1

Suction Hydraulic
Filter Oil Tank

T2-2-13
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Neutral Circuit
• When the control lever is in neutral, pressure oil
from the main pump passes through the control
valve and returns to the hydraulic oil tank via the
pump control valve.

Single Operation Circuit


• Pressure oil from main pump 1 is routed to the 4-
spool control valve and is further routed to each
spool of the travel (right), bucket, boom 1, and
arm 2.

• Pressure oil from main pump 2 is routed to the 5-


spool control valve and is further routed to each
spool of the swing, arm 1, boom 2, and travel
(left).

• The boom raise and the arm (roll-in / out) are ac-
tuated by pressure oil from two main pumps.
Pressure oil from each main pump is combined
and supplied together.

NOTE: When operating the boom lower, pump 1


pressure oil from the boom 1 spool is
routed to the boom lower circuit as the
boom 2 spool circuit is shut off.

T2-2-14
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Travel Motor (Left)


Pump Control Valve
Control Valve

Travel Motor (Right)

Travel (Left)
Travel (Right)

Bucket
Auxiliary Cylinder

Bucket

Arm Cylinder
Boom
Boom 1
Cylinder

Boom 2

Arm 1 Arm 2

Swing

Pump Control
Valve
4-Spool Side
5-Spool Side Hydraulic Oil Tank
Swing Motor

Pump 2 Pump 1

T1HH-02-02-007

T2-2-15
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
Combined Operation Circuit
• Swing and Boom Raise Operation
• When the boom is raised while swinging, the pilot
oil pressure shifts the swing, boom 1, and boom 2
spools.

• Pressure oil from pump 1 flows into the boom cyl-


inders via the parallel circuit and the boom 1 spool,
raising the boom.

• Pressure oil from pump 2 flows into the swing mo-


tor via the swing spool.

• At the same time, pressure oil from pump 2 flows


through the parallel circuit and after being com-
bined with pressure oil from pump 1, flows into the
boom cylinders, raising the boom together with
pressure oil from pump 1.

• At the beginning of the swing, the pressure of the


swing circuit is high and the pressure oil is easily
routed to the boom cylinder from the boom 2
spool, so the boom is raised.

• When operating the swing, the pressure of the


swing circuit becomes low and the pressure oil is
easily routed to the swing motor from the swing
spool, so the swing speed becomes faster.

• Consequently it is possible to do the work more


quickly.

T2-2-16
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Control Valve

Parallel Circuit

Parallel
Circuit

Boom 2 Boom
Cylinder
Boom 1

Parallel
Circuit
Swing

Swing Motor

Pump 2 Pump 1

T1HH-02-02-008

T2-2-17
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
• Travel and Arm Roll-In Operation
• When the arm is rolled in while traveling, the pilot
oil pressure shifts the travel, arm 1 and 2 spools.

• In response to the arm spool, the pilot signal cir-


cuit pressure except the travel rises, shifting the
flow combiner valve.

• Pressure oil from pump 1 drives the right travel


motor via the right travel spool.

• At the same time, pressure oil from pump 1


passes through the flow combiner valve and the
left travel spool and drives the left travel motor.
Consequently it is possible to travel straight.

• Pressure oil from pump 2 flows into the arm cylin-


der via the arm 1 spool, moving the arm.

• Consequently, pressure oil from pump 2 is used


only to operate the arm. Pressure oil pump 1 is
equally routed to both the right and left travel mo-
tors, ensuring that the machine can travel straight.

T2-2-18
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System

Pilot Signal From Pilot


Circuit Except Pump
Travel Motor (Left) Flow Combiner Valve Travel
Control Valve

Travel Motor
(Right)

Left
Right Travel
Travel

Arm Cylinder

Arm 1
Arm 2

Pump 2 Pump 1

T1HH-02-02-009

T2-2-19
SYSTEM / Hydraulic System
(Blank)

T2-2-20
SYSTEM / Electrical System
OUTLINE

The electrical circuit is broadly divided into the main


circuit, monitor circuit, and control circuit.

• Main Circuit
The engine and accessory operation related circuit.

• Monitor Circuit
The electrical circuit group consists of the monitors,
sensors, and switches, and displays the machine
operation status.

• Control Circuit (Refer to the SYSTEM / Control


System group.)
The control circuit is categorized into the engine,
pump, and valve control circuits. Each circuit
consists of the actuators such as solenoid valves,
MC (main controller), switch boxes, sensors and
pressure switches.

T2-3-1
SYSTEM / Electrical System
MAIN CIRCUIT

The major functions and circuits in the main circuit are


as follows.

• Electric Power Circuit: Supplies all electric power


to all electrical systems on this machine. [Key
Switch, Batteries, Fuses (Fuse Boxes, Fusible
Links), Battery Relay]

• Indicator Light Check Circuit


Checks all indicator bulbs for burning.

• Accessory Circuit
Becomes operative when the key switch is turned
to the ACC position.

• Preheat Circuit
Assists the engine to start in cold weather. [Key
Switch, QOS Controller, Coolant Switch, Glow
Plug Relay, Glow Plugs]

• Starting Circuit
Starts the engine. [Key Switch, Starter, Starter
Relay]

• Charging Circuit
Charges the batteries. [Alternator, Regulator]

• Serge Voltage Prevention Circuit


Prevents the occurrence of serge voltage
developed when stopping the engine. [Load
Damp Relay]

• Engine Stop Circuit


Stops the engine using the EC motor. [MC, EC
Motor]

T2-3-2
SYSTEM / Electrical System
ELECTRIC POWER CIRCUIT
(KEY SWITCH: OFF)

The battery ground terminal is connected to the vehicle


frame. Current from the battery plus terminal flows as
shown below when the key switch is OFF.

Battery
→Glow Plug Relay
↓ →Terminal #1: Radio (Backup Power)
(Power)
Fusible Link Monitor (Backup Power)
→Key Switch (B)
ICX Controller (Backup Power)
→Load Damp Relay
→Terminal #2: MC (Power)
→Fuse Box
→Terminal #3: MC (EC Motor Power)
→Terminal #10: Optional

Key Switch

Fusible Link

Battery

Load
Damp
Relay

Fuse Box

Glow
Plug
Relay
Radio, Monitor,
ICX Controller
Optional

MC

MC

T178-02-03-001

T2-3-3
SYSTEM / Electrical System
INDICATOR LIGHT CHECK CIRCUIT (KEY
SWITCH: ON)

• When the key switch is turned ON, terminal B is


connected to terminals ACC and M in the key
switch.

• Current from key switch terminal M excites the


battery relay.

• Therefore, the battery current enters the monitor


controller via the battery relay and fuse #5 and
checks the indicator bulbs.

Key Switch

Battery

Battery
Relay
Fuse
Box

Monitor
Controller

T178-02-03-002

T2-3-4
SYSTEM / Electrical System
ACCESSORY CIRCUIT

• When the key switch is turned to the ACC position,


terminal B is connected to terminal ACC in the key
switch.

• Current from key switch terminal ACC flows to


horn (fuse #14), radio (fuse #15), lighter (fuse
#16), cab light (fuse #17) and auxiliary (fuse #18)
through the fuse box, making each accessory
operable.

Fuse
Box

Horn

Radio

Lighter

Cab Light

Auxiliary

T178-02-03-003

T2-3-5
SYSTEM / Electrical System
PREHEAT CIRCUIT (KEY SWITCH: ON /
START)

• When the key switch is turned ON or to the NOTE: After preheating has been performed,
START position, terminal B is connected to heating will continue for approx. 30
terminal M in the key switch. Current from seconds after the engine starts.
terminal M is routed to QOS controller terminal #1
through fuse #19.

• When the key switch is ON or in the START


position with the coolant switch OFF (when the
coolant temperature is 10 °C (50 °F) or below),
QOS controller terminal #4 is connected to
terminal #5 (ground).

• Accordingly, the glow plug relay is turned ON,


routing current to the glow plugs so that
preheating begins.

• When preheating begins, QOS controller terminal


#6 is connected to terminal #5 for 8 seconds,
turning the preheat indicator ON. (When
preheating is not performed, the preheat indicator
comes ON for 2 seconds for indicator light check.)

T2-3-6
SYSTEM / Electrical System

Monitor

Power
Coolant Temperature Switch
Preheat Indicator
QOS
Key Switch
Controller

Fuse
Box

Glow
Plug
Relay

Glow Plug

T178-02-03-004

T2-3-7
SYSTEM / Electrical System
STARTING CIRCUIT (KEY SWITCH:
START)

• When the key switch is turned to the START Starter Relay Operation
position, terminal B is connected to terminals M • When the key switch is turned to the START
and ST in the key switch. position, key switch terminal B is connected to
terminal ST so that current is routed to the base in
• As current from terminal M excites the battery transistor (Q2) through resistance R4 in the
relay, battery current is routed to starter terminal B starter relay. Then, transistor (Q2) is turned ON,
and starter relay terminal B via the battery relay. allowing current to flow to coil (L) in the starter
relay. Therefore, starter terminal B is connected to
• Key switch terminal ST is connected to starter terminal C, rotating the starter.
relay terminal S so that current flows through the
starter relay coil. • After the engine starts, the alternator starts
generating electricity, increasing voltage at starter
• Then, the starter relay is turned ON, allowing relay terminal R.
current to flow from starter relay terminal C to
starter terminal C. • When this voltage increases up to 21 to 22 V,
Zener diode (Z) is turned ON so that transistor
• Consequently, the relay in the starter is turned ON (Q1) is turned ON. Then, current to the base of
so that the starter begins rotating. transistor (Q2) is not routed, turning transistor
(Q2) OFF. At this moment, starter terminal B is
• On the other hand, current from key switch disconnected from terminal C, stopping the
terminal M flows to the MC via fuse #6 as a signal starter.
indicating that the key switch is in the ON or
START position. Condenser C1 is used to stabilize the operating
voltage and diode D4 protects the circuit in case the
• As soon as the MC receives this signal, the MC battery terminals are reversely connected.
drives the EC motor, moving the governor lever to
the engine start position.

Starter Relay
S B
D3
(1)
R4 L
C
R3 (2) (1)
R2 Z D2 C
To Alternator R Q2 MB
Terminal L Q1
(2)
C1 C
D4 Starter
E

12V
B
ST

Key Switch 12V

Battery

T107-04-04-003

T2-3-8
SYSTEM / Electrical System

Key Switch

Battery

Battery
Relay
Starter Fuse
Box

Starter Relay

EC Motor

MC

T178-02-03-005

T2-3-9
SYSTEM / Electrical System
CHARGING CIRCUIT (KEY SWITCH: ON)

• After the engine starts and the key switch is


released, the key switch moves to the ON
position.

• Then, key switch terminal B is connected to


terminals ACC and M in the key switch.

• When the alternator starts generating electricity,


current flows from alternator terminal B to the
batteries via the battery relay, charging the
batteries.

• Current from alternator terminal L flows to the


monitor controller and the ICX controller, turning
the alternator indicator OFF.

Key Switch

Battery Monitor
Controller
ICX
Battery Controller
Relay

Alternator

T178-02-03-006

T2-3-10
SYSTEM / Electrical System
(Blank)

T2-3-11
SYSTEM / Electrical System
Alternator Operation
• The alternator consists of field coil FC, stator coil • At the beginning, no current is flowing through
SC, and diodes D. The regulator consists of field coil FC. When the rotor starts turning,
transistors (T1 and T2), Zener diode ZD, and alternate current is generated in stator coil SC by
resistances (R1 and R2). the rotor remanent magnetism.

• Alternator terminal B is connected to base B of • When current starts to flow through field coil FC,
transistor T1 through the circuit [B → R → RF the rotor is further magnetized so that the
→ ( R ) → (R1)]. generating voltage increases. Thereby, current
flowing through field coil FC increases and
• When battery relay is ON, the battery voltage is generating voltage is increased further, to charge
applied to base B of transistor T1 so that collector the batteries.
C is connected to emitter E. Therefore, field coil
FC is grounded via transistor T1.

Alternator
B R L Regulator
Battery Relay RF (R) R3 R4 R5

R6
D
ZD
R2
Battery SC B

R1 E
C
FC T2
B
D1 C E

T1
(F)

(E)
E

T157-04-02-008

T2-3-12
SYSTEM / Electrical System
Regulator Operation
• When generating voltage increases more than the • When generating voltage decreases lower than
set-voltage of Zener diode ZD, current is routed to the set-voltage of Zener diode ZD, transistor T2 is
base B of transistor T2, connecting collector C to turned OFF, causing transistor T1 to turn ON
emitter E. again.

• Then, current which was routed to base B of • Then, current flows through field coil FC,
transistor disappears, turning transistor T1 OFF. increasing generating voltage at the stator coil.
The above operation is repeated so that the
• Therefore, no current flows through filed coil FC, alternator generating voltage is kept constant.
reducing generating voltage at stator coil SC.

Battery Relay RF
R3 R4 R5

R6
ZD
R2
Battery B
SC
A E
C
FC T2
B
R1 E
C
T1
(F) D1

(E)
E

T157-04-02-009

T2-3-13
SYSTEM / Electrical System
SERGE VOLTAGE PREVENTION CIRCUIT

• When the engine is stopped (key switch: OFF), • When the alternator is generating electricity,
current from key switch terminal M is generating current from alternator terminal L flows
disconnected, turning the battery relay OFF. to monitor controller terminal #A-2 so that the
monitor controller connects terminal #C-3 to
• The engine continues to rotate due to inertia force ground.
just after the key switch is turned OFF so that the
alternator continues to generate electricity. • Then, current flows through the load damp relay
exciting circuit, turning the load damp relay ON.
• As the generating current cannot flow to the
battery, surge voltage arises in the circuit, possibly • Accordingly, even if the key switch is turned OFF
causing failures of the electronic components, while the engine is rotating, the battery current
such as the controller. To prevent the occurrence continues to excite the battery relay via the load
of surge voltage, the surge voltage prevention damp relay until the alternator stops generating.
circuit is provided. Therefore, the battery relay is kept ON, allowing
the generating current to flow to the batteries.

T2-3-14
SYSTEM / Electrical System

Key Switch

Battery

Battery
Relay
Load
Damp
Relay

Alternator

Monitor Controller

T178-02-03-007

T2-3-15
SYSTEM / Electrical System
ENGINE STOP CIRCUIT

• When the key switch is turned from the ON


position to the OFF position, the signal current
indicating that the key switch is ON stops flowing
from terminal M to MC terminal C-31.

• Then, the MC drives the EC motor to the engine


stop position.

Key Switch

EC Motor

MC

T178-02-03-008

T2-3-16