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Conduction Heat Transfer

1. A steel pipe of conductivity 50 W/m-K has inside and outside surface temperature of 200 o C and

160 o C respectively. Find the heat flow rate per unit pipe length and flux per unit inside and per

unit outside area. The ID and OD of the pipe are 40 mm and 25 mm respectively.

[Ans: 26.73 kW/m]

2. Consider a cylindrical element of inside and outside diameter ' a ' and 'b ' with the inside and

outside temperature levels

T and T

1

2

. For a linear variation of ' k ' with T

k k 1T ,

0

find the average value

k

m

which satisfies

3.

plane

q   1.5 10 W/m

A

wall

6

3

of

,

a

k

A

composite

75 W/m-K

2 
k
T
T 2
m
1
.
ln
b a

q



two

[Ans: k k 1 T T ]

of

material

L

A

 A and B. The wall of material A has  50 mm . The material B has no energy

and thickness

generation with

insulated,

while

k

B

150 W/m-K

the

outer

and thickness

is

surface

of

B

2

h 1000 W/m -K .

L

B

20 mm

cooled

by

 . The inner surface of a water stream T  

A

30

is

o C

well

and

a) Sketch the temperature distribution of the composite under steady state condition,

b)

cooled surface.

Determine

the

temperature

T

o

of

the

insulated

surface

and

temperature

T

2

of

the

[Ans: To=140C, T2=105 C]

4. A silicon chip is encapsulated such that, under steady state conditions, all the power it dissipates is

. The chip is

transferred by convection to a fluid stream for which

separated from the fluid by a 2 mm thick aluminum cover plate and the contact resistance of the

2 and its maximum

clip/aluminum surface is

allowable temperature is 85 o C , what is the maximum allowable power dissipation in the chip ?

h

1000 W/m

chip

area is

2

-K and

T

25

o

C

0.5

10

4

2

m -K/W

.

If the

100 mm

5.

Find the temperature distribution in a 2D rectangular plate (at steady state) of sides a,b subject

to T 0, y0 , T x,0 0 , T ay,

0 and T x, bAx .

Ans: T x

2Aa

π

n

sinh

sin nπx sinh nπy

a

a

6. An exterior wall of a house may be approximated by a 4 in layer of common brick

k 0.7 W/m-K followed by a 1.5 in layer of gypsum plaster k 0.48 W/m-K. What thickness

of rock-wood insulation having k 0.065 W/m-K should be added to reduce the heat loss (or gain)

from the wall by 80 % ?

[Ans: 58.34mm]

7. An aluminum k 200 W/m-K protrudes from a wall. It is 3 mm thick and 75 cm long. The

back is maintained at 300 o C and the ambient temperature is 50 o C with

the heat loss per unit depth of the fin.

-K . Calculate

h 10 W/m

2

[Ans: 866W/m]

8. A certain material has a thickness of 30 cm and a thermal conductivity of 0.04 W/m-K . At a

particular instant in time, the temperature distribution with x , the distance from the left face is

, where x is in meters. Calculate the heat flow rates at x 0 and x 30 cm . Is the

solid heating up or cooling down ?

T

2

150xx30

[Ans: 1.2W/m 2 , 14.35W/m 2 ]

9. Derive a relation for the critical radius of insulation for a sphere.

[Ans: 2k/h]

3 . One side of the wall

is insulated and the other side is exposed to an environment at 93 o C . The ' h ' between the wall and

the environment is

2 -K . The thermal conductivity of the wall is 21 W/m-K . Calculate the

maximum temperature in the wall.

10. A plane wall 6 cm thick generates heat internally at the rate of

570 W/m

0.3 MW/m

[Ans: 150.28C]

11. Derive an expression for the temperature distribution in a hollow cylinder with heat source which

vary according to the linear relation

q   a br

with q is the heat generated per unit volume at

T

T

i

at r r

i

and

T

T

o

at

r r

o

.

r r

i

. The inside and outside temperature are

[Ans:

C

1

C

2

36



Tr



k T 

T

io

 b   9 k

9

ar

i

3

r

 a   4 k

22



r

o

4

r

2

br

i

3

C

1

ln



r

3

r

o

C

2

, where

36ln



T k

r

io

36

k

log

r

i

r

o

9ln



r

i

23

ar

o

4ln

r

br



io

,

36

T k

i

ln

r

o

 9 ar ln r

i

o

2

4

br

i

3

ln

r

o

36

k

l og

r

i

r

o

.

]

12. A very long thin copper rod 6.4 mm in diameter is exposed to an environment at 20 o C . The

base temperature is 150 o C and ' h ' between the rod and surrounding is 24 W/m 2 -K. Calculate heat

loss from the rod.

[Ans: 10.1 W assuming k = 390W/m K]

13. For a strip of infinite y -dimension and length 2L in x -dimension, prove that the slope of the

isothermals is zero at x L for all

0 and

; and zero and infinite at x 0 and 2L , for

and the boundary conditions are

Tx,0 T

1

  
1
; T 
0,

y

1

1 respectively. Here

T T

0

T

0

and

T

2Ly,

T

0

.

14. Consider a long metal rod of square cross-section L L . The upper and lower side faces are at

. The left face is induction heated; assume that the effect is a uniform flux input at the surface. The

T

0

right face is at

T .

1

a. Find temperature distribution in the rod-material.

b. Obtain a solution if the left face is adiabatic.

, 5cm in diameter and initially at a uniform

temperature of 450 C is suddenly placed in a controlled environment where the temperature is

15. A

steel ball

C

p

o

0.46 kJ/kg-K,

k

35 W/m-K

maintained at 100 C . The convective heat transfer co-efficient is

required for the ball to attain

o

2

10W/m -K . Calculate the time

150

o C . Assume specific gravity of steel to be 7.85.

16. A large block of steel

of

k

45 W/m-K,

35

o C . The surface is exposed to a heat flux



1.4

10

5

m

2

/s

[Ans: 1.6 hrs]

, is initially at a uniform temperature

a. by suddenly raising the surface temperature to

250

o

C .

b. through a constant surface flux of

5

3.210 W/m

2

.

Calculate the temperature at a depth of 2.5cm

after a time of 0.5min in both cases.

17. A large plate of aluminium

k

215 W/m-K;



8.4

10

5

m

2

/s

200

o

C is suddenly exposed to a convection surface environment of

[Ans: a) 118.506C b) 79.34 C]

5.0cm thick and initially at

70

o

C with

2

h 525W/m -K .

Calculate the temperature at a depth of 1.25cm from one of the faces one minute after the plate has

been exposed to the environment. How much energy per unit area has been removed per unit area of the plate during this time.

[Ans: 203.57 C ]

18. A plate of thickness initially has a sinusoidal temperature distribution varying from

x 0 to

T

m

at

x

2

to

T

0

T

0

at

at x . If the surfaces of the plate are held at for subsequent times,

T

o

find the temperature distribution as a function of time.

Ans:



x t

,

sin



xe

2

t

19. Consider two semi-infinite solids, one initially at

, which are suddenly

at 0 placed in intimate contact at their surfaces. Assuming no contact resistance, calculate the

subsequent contact surface temperature. Qualitatively show the temperature plots in the two solids at different time instants.

0

o

C and the other at

o

[Ans:

]

20. A large slab of copper having a thickness of 3.0cm is initially at

to a convection environment on the top surface at

o C . It is suddenly exposed

o C while the bottom surface is insulated. In

300

80

6minutes , the surface temperature drops to

k

400W/m-K;



1.12

10

4

2

m /s

.

140

o C . Calculate the value of 'h' . Assume for copper,

[Ans: 308.3 W/m 2 K]

21. A steel sphere 10cm in diameter is suddenly immersed in a tank of oil at

temperature of the sphere is

sphere to cool down to

C . The initial

2 -K . How long will it take the centre of the

10

o

220

o C , h 5000W/m

k

120

o

C ? For steel,

45W/m-K;



1.4

10

m /s

.

5

2

[Ans: 26.8 s]

22. A very thick low carbon steel plate

heat treatment bath at

k

34.96 BTu/hr-ft F

variation

o

initially at

time

for

60

short

o F , is placed in a

times.

Assume

860

the

o F . The surface process is characterized by a convection coefficient of

with

150Btu/ft 2 -hr-F.

Find

surface

temperature

2

0.688ft /hr .

[Ans: , 860 800 12.66 3.56 where t is in hrs]

23. Steel plates being thinned by rolling must be periodically reheated. How long must plates 3in

thick, which are at

order

1000

o

F , be kept in a furnace surrounding at 1600

a

minimum

2

metal

temperature

of

o

F ,

h 30BTu/hr-ft

1300

2

o

F , in

to

reach

o

 o F ? Assume [Ans: 152 s]

k

20BTu/hr-ft F; =0.37ft /hr .

24. A semi-infinite solid initially at

.

A surface coefficient 'h' may be used at the exposed surface. If

there is any such function or functions, which will permit a ‘similarity’ type of solution, that is in

T

o

throughout is in contact at its face with an environment at

T

e

T

e

is a function of time, determine if

x
terms of 2

.

[Ans: 1