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1. What are the essential qualities of the Kingdom of God? Explain each briefly.

 Its Creative Power and Potential for Growth- represents the active growth of the church from small
beginnings even if it is confronted by numerous hindrances and the progress of the church despite the
spread of sin
 Its immeasurable value- the Kingdom of God has the greatest worth that cannot be compared with
anything else
 Its Universality- The Kingdom of God doesn’t have partiality and is for all who are willing to embrace the
conversion and the gospel and It opens the possibility of salvation not just to the members of the
chosen people of Israel but also to all the people with good will
2. Latin Prayer of Our Father
Pater Noster
Qui Es in Caelis
Sanctificetur Numen Tuum
Adveniat Regnum Tuum
Fiat Voluntas Tua
Sicut in Caelo Et, In Terra

Panem Nostrum Cotidianum Da Nobis Hodie


Et Dimitte Nobis Dibita Nostra
Sicut Et Nos Dimittimus Dibitoribus Nostris
Et ne Nos Inducas In Tentationem
Sed Libera Nos A Malo. Amen
3. What is the difference between a Human Act and an Act of Human Being?
 Human Act- done knowingly, intentionally and freely, like playing, surfing the Internet, reading a book,
cheating during tests, or hurting someone
-Done without due knowledge, freedom or intention
 Act of Human Being- mostly physiological and instinctive, like breathing, digesting, snoring, feeling
happy or sad, or falling in love.
4. What are the impediments to human activity? Explain each briefly.
CLASSICAL IMPEDIMENTS
 Ignorance- lack or absence of due knowledge that prevents one from the right use of her intellect
because of lack of necessary data
 Passion- an intense emotion which clouds one’s reasoning ability or hinders one’s capacity to decide
properly
 Fear- stressful condition arising from the threat of an impending future evil which is produced by the
perceived danger to oneself or to someone
 Violence- use of force in order to compel a person to act against his or her will that prevents a person to
act against his or her will
CONTEMPORARY IMPEDIMENTS
 Temperament- an inborn or innate disposition towards a certain way of acting or behaving
 Habit- easy, pleasurable, and relatively permanent behavior acquired by the constant repetition of the
action concerned
 Upbringing- conduct that is the result of the influences of the environment during one’s trainable years
 Illness- physical or psychological in nature may interfere in one’s behavior and decisions
5. What is conscience and its types?
Conscience- most secret core and sanctuary of the human person
- the ultimate guide to human behavior and the final arbiter of what we are to do and how we
can abide by the Divine Will.
-is the knowledge that comes into play in handling a concrete situation of daily life.
TYPES OF CONSCIENCE
 Synderesis- the general sense of value found in all human beings
- urges one to do good and avoid evil without specifying which one to do or which one to
avoid
 Moral Science- the conscience in search for the truth and the focus for the formation of conscience
 Syneidesis- the Greek word for conscience; conscience deciding on a concrete course of action
6. What are the different kinds of norms? Explain each.
 Eternal Law- the whole extent of the saving plan of God; plan to be realized
 Natural Law- refer to the demands of creation; path towards human fulfillment and the direction that
must be taken by all in order to bring out the fulfillment of humanity
 Positive Law- demand of Eternal and Natural Law that has been made explicit by God or by some
human authority
7. Explain the three Hebrew words that describe sin.
 Pesha- best translated as offence; refers to the relationship that is broken because of the hurt caused
by the sinner
 Awon- best translated as guilt; disfigurement cause by massive weight and it is heavy to bear
 Hattah- translated simply as sin; losing one’s way in the journey of life; missing the target of one’s
existence
8. Explain the two degrees of sinfulness and their difference.
 Mortal Sin- offend God gravely and cause the spiritual death of the offender; firm decision against God;
rejection of God; entails serious matter, sufficient knowledge, and deliberate consent
 Venial Sin- offend God slightly and cause spiritual sickness to the individual; committed when
requirements for mortal sins aren’t met.
9. What are committed and omitted sins?
 Committed Sins- when evil is done; results from the violation of a prohibition
 Omitted Sins- when good is not done; results from the violation of a prescription
10. Explain what is capital sins and its seven kind.
Capital Sins- roots, sources or causes of all sins committed by human beings; original sin
 Vainglory- is the petty and ridiculous claim to superiority
 Envy- dislike for the excellence of others and looks at such excellence as an obstacle to one’s own
advancement
 Anger- instinctive urge to suppress and repel whatever is hostile, that goes beyond the bounds of
prudent moderation
 Avarice or greed- the disorderly pursuit of material things
 Lust- unrestrained quest for sexual pleasure
 Intemperance- lack of control or self-discipline
 Spiritual Sloth- lack of interest in the spiritual realm
11. Explain what is conversion and its kinds.
Conversion- refers to a change of direction
 Intellectual- moving from the empirical level to the intellectual level of consciousness; process of getting
rid of all falsehood and of being open to the truth no matter what; seen in authentic behavior
 Moral- moving from the intellectual level to the rational level of consciousness; the process of shifting
one’s standards of judgement from mere satisfactions to genuine values; seen in the courage to
behave differently from the majority of people
 Religious- moving from the rational level to the responsible level of consciousness; process of doing
everything for the one to whom he or she is responsible; seen in the attachment to God alone and
above all else
12. Explain the four levels of consciousness.
 Empirical- awareness of the what; the consciousness regarding one’s surroundings
 Intellectual- awareness of the why; the consciousness regarding the reasons behind one’s
surroundings
 Rational- awareness of the which; the consciousness of the choices one has and of the option made
 Responsible- awareness of the who; the consciousness of the one to whom he or she is answerable for
his or her behavior
13. What are cardinal virtues?
Cardinal Virtues are hinges on which other virtues depend; most ancient of virtues
 Prudence- right way of doing things; perfection of the practical intellect
 Justice- determination to give whatever is due to everyone; perfection of the will
 Fortitude or courage- steadfast determination to pursue whatever is needed in the face of danger;
perfection of the irascible tendencies
 Temperance- control one exercises over the desire to indulge in the satisfaction of basic human needs;
perfection of the concupiscible tendencies
14. What are the theological virtues?
Theological Virtues- virtues centered on God; gifts of grace to man which God pours directly into his
soul; considered as supernatural virtues
 Faith- perfects a person’s practical intellect regarding the understanding of present realities
 Hope- perfects a person’s practical intellect regarding the understanding of future realities
 Love- perfects the will so that its decision are all for God and the good of others; strongest force in the
world
15. What are capital virtues?
Capital Virtues- virtues that oppose the seven capital sins; called capital because other virtues move on
them like hinges
 Humility- as opposed to vainglory
 Generosity- as opposed to avarice or greed
 Kindness- as opposed to envy
 Patience or Meekness- as opposed to anger
 Chastity- as opposed to lust
 Temperance- as opposed to intemperance, particularly gluttony
 Diligence- as opposed to spiritual sloth
16. Explain the two kinds of faith and their differences.
 Fides qua creditur- refers to the faith by which one believes; attitude of total self-surrender to God
which a person makes; a very personal act; personal dimension of faith
 Fides quae creditor- refers to faith which is believed; acceptance of the body of revealed truths;
communitarian dimension of faith
17. What are the eight beatitudes?
Beatitudes- set of teachings or solemn blessing by Jesus that respond to the desire for happiness
which God has placed in the human heart
 Fortunate are those who are poor in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven
 Fortunate are those who mourns, they shall be comforted
 Fortunate are the gentle, they shall possess the land
 Fortunate are those who hunger and thirst for justice, for they shall be satisfied
 Fortunate are the merciful, for they shall find mercy
 Fortunate are those with pure hearts, for they shall see God
 Fortunate are those who work for peace, they shall be called children of God
 Fortunate are those who are persecuted for the cause of justice, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven
18. What is the opposite of love? Explain.
Opposite of Love is Hatred. We all know how powerful a force love is, but also how it can turn into bitter
hatred. But some says that the real opposite of love is apathy or indifference. It is the lack of interest, concern
or sympathy towards a person or thing.
19. What is the different Greek words of Love and their meaning?
 Eros- refers to the sensual love, a love that consists in the activity of the senses; love aroused by
physical beauty; tends to fade away with the passing away of physical beauty
 Philia- natural love; love based on some motive of nature, like goodness
 Agape- supernatural love; to love like God; the love of the Father for us; love that caused Jesus to offer
his life for us; love that only people inspired by the Holy Spirit can grasp
20. What is “religion” according to St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine of Hippo?
 St. Thomas Aquinas- Religion is a moral virtue whose purpose is to render God the worship due to him
as the source of all being and the principle of all government of things
 St. Augustine of Hippo- Religion came from the Latin “religare” which means “to bind again or
reconnect” thus it means that Religion means the bond uniting man to God.