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ZUBAIR MISHRIF DGS

FACILITY EXPANSION PROJECT

FEED SERVICE ENGINEERING

LOSS PREVENTION & ENVIRONMENT PHILOSOPHY

CD-FE 00 04/12/2017 Issued for Tender D. Costa D. Rampoldi D. Rampoldi


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00251034BFRB85001
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New DGS and Water Injection Plant ZUBAIR OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT n.a. 1 / 109
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LOSS PREVENTION & ENVIRONMENT PHILOSOPHY Plant Area Plant Unit
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 6


1.1 SCOPE OF WORK ................................................................................................................................................ 6
2.0 SCOPE OF THE DOCUMENT .......................................................................................................................... 7

3.0 ABBREVIATION LIST ....................................................................................................................................... 9

4.0 REFERENCE ...................................................................................................................................................... 11


4.1 PROJECT REFERENCE ....................................................................................................................................... 11
4.2 COMPANY STANDARD ...................................................................................................................................... 11
4.3 LOCAL STANDARDS/REGULATIONS .................................................................................................................. 11
4.4 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ........................................................................................................................... 12
4.5 GENERAL REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 14
5.0 DEFINITION ...................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.0 GENERAL SAFETY PHILOSOPHY .............................................................................................................. 16


6.1 INHERENT SAFETY - HIERARCHY OF APPROACH .............................................................................................. 16
6.2 DESIGN MEASURES TO ACHIEVE HAZARD PREVENTION .................................................................................. 16
6.3 DESIGN MEASURES TO ACHIEVE HAZARD CONTROL....................................................................................... 17
6.4 DESIGN MEASURES TO ACHIEVE HAZARD MITIGATION .................................................................................. 17
6.5 EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND A MEANS OF ESCAPE, EVACUATION AND RESCUE IN THE EVENT OF AN INCIDENT
18
7.0 LOSS PREVENTION CRITERIA .................................................................................................................... 19

8.0 DESIGN SPACES AND SAFETY LAYOUT .................................................................................................. 21


8.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................... 21
8.2 RELATIVE LOCATION OF EACH UNIT ................................................................................................................. 22
8.2.1 Process and Utilities Units ......................................................................................................................... 22
8.3 MAIN SAFETY UNITS ....................................................................................................................................... 23
8.4 “CRITICAL” PLANT UNITS ................................................................................................................................ 23
8.5 SAFETY DISTANCES ......................................................................................................................................... 24
8.6 CLEARANCES ................................................................................................................................................... 24
8.7 BUND/KERB REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................................ 25
8.8 ROADS ............................................................................................................................................................. 26
8.9 FIRED HEATER .................................................................................................................................................. 27
8.10 FENCES ............................................................................................................................................................ 27
8.11 ESCAPE ROUTES............................................................................................................................................... 28
9.0 FIRE & GAS DETECTION AND ALARM COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS ............................................ 32
9.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................... 32
9.2 FIRE AND GAS DEVICES .................................................................................................................................... 33
9.2.1 Fire detection .............................................................................................................................................. 33
9.2.1.1 Heat Sensors ....................................................................................................................... 34
9.2.1.2 Smoke Sensors.................................................................................................................... 36
9.2.1.3 Flame Sensors ..................................................................................................................... 37
9.2.2 Flammable gas sensors ............................................................................................................................... 37
9.2.3 Toxic / Asphyxiating gas detection.............................................................................................................. 39
9.3 MANUAL ALARM CALL POINT ......................................................................................................................... 39
9.4 ALARMS ........................................................................................................................................................... 40
9.5 PUBLIC ADDRESS AND GENERAL ALARM ........................................................................................................ 40

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10.0 HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATION ..................................................................................................... 41

11.0 ACTIVE & PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM ................................................................................. 42


11.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................... 42
11.2 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION ............................................................................................................................... 42
11.3 FIREFIGHTING NET ........................................................................................................................................... 46
11.3.1 Firefighting pumps ................................................................................................................................. 47
11.3.2 Water system components....................................................................................................................... 47
11.3.3 Fixed cooling system .............................................................................................................................. 48
11.3.4 Fixed foam system .................................................................................................................................. 48
11.3.5 Oil separation decantation basins and plant basins surrounded by rise border .................................... 50
11.3.6 Saturation fixed system ........................................................................................................................... 50
11.3.7 Mobile and portable firefighting equipment ........................................................................................... 50
11.3.8 Water storage replenishment system ...................................................................................................... 50
11.4 FIREPROOFING ................................................................................................................................................. 51
11.5 FIRE BRIGADE, FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................... 51
12.0 HVAC SYSTEM ................................................................................................................................................. 53

13.0 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................................... 54

14.0 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN SYSTEM .......................................................................................................... 56


14.1 SHUT DOWN LEVELS DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................. 56
15.0 BLOWDOWN (DEPRESSURIZATION) SYSTEM ....................................................................................... 58

16.0 FLARE AND VENT SYSTEMS........................................................................................................................ 59

17.0 EMERGENCY ESCAPE, EVACUATION AND RESCUE SYSTEM .......................................................... 61


17.1 SAFETY SIGNS AND NOTICES ........................................................................................................................... 61
17.2 ESCAPE AND EVACUATION ............................................................................................................................... 64
18.0 SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND EMERGENCY FACILITIES ........................................................................ 66
18.1 EMERGENCY SHOWERS AND EYEWASH FACILITIES ........................................................................................... 66
18.2 SAFETY STATION LOCATION ............................................................................................................................. 67
18.2.1 Wind indicators ...................................................................................................................................... 67
18.3 FIRE BLANKET.................................................................................................................................................. 67
18.4 PERSONNEL SAFETY ......................................................................................................................................... 67
18.4.1 Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) ................................................................................................. 67
18.4.2 Lifting appliances ................................................................................................................................... 67
18.4.3 Machinery guarding ............................................................................................................................... 67
18.4.4 Personnel protection against hot and cold surfaces ............................................................................... 68
18.4.5 First aid kits............................................................................................................................................ 68
18.5 BREATHING APPARATUS .................................................................................................................................. 68
18.6 EMERGENCY SAFETY CABINET ........................................................................................................................ 68
19.0 EMERGENCY ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS .............................................................................................. 69

20.0 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................................ 71


20.1 AIR QUALITY ................................................................................................................................................... 71
20.1.1 Emission limits ....................................................................................................................................... 71
20.1.2 Monitoring Requirement......................................................................................................................... 76
20.1.3 Fugitive Emissions.................................................................................................................................. 76
20.2 WASTE WATER DISCHARGES ............................................................................................................................ 76
20.3 NOISE ............................................................................................................................................................... 78
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20.3.1 Noise limits for equipment ...................................................................................................................... 79


20.3.2 In-plant noise limits ................................................................................................................................ 79
20.3.3 Environmental noise limits ..................................................................................................................... 80
ANNEX 1 – PROCESS AND UTILITIES UNITS LAYOUT ..................................................................................... 81

ANNEX 2 – SAFETY MAIN UNITS LAYOUT .......................................................................................................... 88

ANNEX 3 – “CRITICAL” PLANT UNITS LAYOUT ................................................................................................ 91

ANNEX 4 – SAFETY DISTANCES .............................................................................................................................. 97

ANNEX 5 – F&G DETECTORS UNIT REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................... 101

ANNEX 6 – ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION UNIT REQUIREMENTS ................................................................. 105

ANNEX 7 – IRAQI ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS.................................................................................... 109

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Scope of Work

ENI has been awarded the Zubair project for the development of an oil field (ZUBAIR FIELD) in joint
venture with, Korea Gas and Missan Oil COMPANY (as state partner), with Eni as operator.

The Zubair project is a “brown field project”, with existing facilities and infrastructure. The field is currently
in production.

The Zubair Field Development Plan foresees the introduction of new facilities required for the ramp-up of
the field and partial integration with the existing facilities.

Zubair field is currently in production through 5 de-gassing stations (DGS) (one of them being Zubair
Mishrif) plus Safwan flow station.

In order to achieve the required overall revised ERP (Enhanced Re-development Plan) plateau of 700
kBOPD, in 2011-2013 a FEED and ITT Package (the “INITIAL FEED”) was issued to construct a new 5+1
DGS trains and Water Injection Plant in the Central Area of the Zubair field (Zubair Mishrif), while the
existing facilities to be decommissioned.
As the ITT relevant to INITIAL FEED was never awarded, the renewed strategy to achieve the plateau of
700 kBOPD is to construct additional 4 process oil trains (50 kBOPD each) and related facilities along
with supporting utilities and Water Injection Plant, for which scope this ITT-3 is prepared. Moreover, with
respect to the INITIAL FEED requirements, some facilities have been removed (such as Gas
compression trains, additional spare equipment, etc…).

As far as ITT-3 Project scope is concerned, reference shall be made to document “Scope of Work for
EPC of Zubair Mishrif New DGS & Water Injection Plant” (doc. N° 00251034BGSC09304).

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2.0 SCOPE OF THE DOCUMENT

Scope of this document is to give a guideline for a safe design of Zubair PROJECT facilities and to
provide clear guidelines to ensure that the PROJECT is developed during all phases in accordance with
Iraqi laws and regulations, about noise, liquid, solid and gaseous discharges. The final scope is to ensure
that the entire specialist department is aware and comply with the PROJECT requirements.
The approach of safe design shall consider the following objectives:
- to minimize the possibility of domino effects;
- to minimize the frequencies and consequences resulting from an accidental event;
- to minimize the potential for hazardous occurrences;
- to ensure a safe working environment for personnel;
- to ensure adequate means of escape;
- to provide sufficient safety devices and redundancy to detect, isolate and minimize
uncontrolled releases of flammable and toxic (if any) liquids and gases;
- to provide appropriate fire protection systems to rapidly bring under control and extinguish
any reasonably foreseeable fire that could develop during normal operations;
- to ensure that electrical equipment design of facilities minimizes fire and explosion risk;
- to ensure shutdown system minimizes possibility of accident escalation;
- to minimize the potential for pollution of the environment from accidental spills, venting or
flaring of hazardous materials;
- to eliminate/minimize environmental impact of all hydrocarbon discharges, emissions,
accidental spills of oil or chemicals.

In order to achieve the objectives identified above, the following subjects will be considered:
- Layout design and safety distances between both equipment inside plant area and external
structures;
- Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm system;
- Hazardous Area Classification;
- Active & Passive Fire Protection measures to ensure adequately protection in case of fire
scenarios;
- Flare and Vent systems;
- HVAC system;
- Drainage system;
- Emergency Shutdown and Depressurisation system;
- Emergency Escape, Evacuation and Rescue system;
- Emergency Energy Supply system;
- Environmental requirements.

The environmental requirements have been structured in order to consider during all engineering phases
the following environmental components:
- Air quality and air emissions;
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- Water quality and liquid effluents;


- Noise level;
- Solid waste and hazardous materials;
- Soil protection.

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3.0 ABBREVIATION LIST


ACGIH Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable
API American Petroleum Institute
BDV Blow down Valve
BOPD Barrels of Oil per Day
CED Contractual Effective Date
CG Catalytic gas detector
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
dB(A) Decibel weighed for human ear sensitivity
DCS Distributed Control System
DGS Degassing Station
EER Escape, Evacuation and Rescue
EPC Engineering, Procurement and Construction
ESD Emergency Shutdown System
ESDV Emergency Shutdown Valve
FG Infrared gas detector (at point)
F&G Fire & Gas System
FP Fusible plug detector
FPZ Fire Proofing Zone
FT Fixed Temperature Detector
FVS Forced Ventilation System
HP High Pressure
HSE Health Safety & Environment
HVAC Heat Ventilation Air Conditioning
IR Infrared Flame Detectors
IR3 Multi-Frequency Infrared detectors
LAeq Equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level
LEL Lower Explosivity Limit
LER Local Equipment Room
LFL Lower Flammable Limit
LG Linear infrared gas detector
LP Low Pressure
Lp(d) Sound pressure level at “d” metres from the source surface
and 1.5 metres from ground level
LTD Linear Temperature Detector
PA/GA Public Adress / General Alarm
PPE Personnel Protective Equipment
PSV Pressure Safety Valve
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment

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RC Rate Compensated heat detector


ROR Rate of Rise Temperature Detectors
SCE Safety Critical Elements
SDV Shutdown Valve
SI Smoke Ionisation
SO Smoke Optical Detectors
SOW Scope of Work
SPL Sound Pressure Level
SSS Sub Surface System
UV/IR UV and IR Detectors
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
UV Ultraviolet Flame Detectors

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4.0 REFERENCE

4.1 Project Reference


Reference Title
[1] 00251034BFPU85070 Hazardous Area Classification Philosophy
[2] 00251034BFPT85220 Fire Safety Assessment Methodology
[3] 00251034BFPT85230 Explosion Study Methodology
[4] 00251034BFPT85200 Quantitative Risk Assessment Methodology
Fire & Gas Detection Philosophy for Zubair Mishrif
[5] 00251034BFPU85036
DGS
[6] 00251034BFRB85141 Fireproofing Specification for Zubair Mishrif DGS
[7] 00251034BFDS85151 Fireproofing Zones Layouts for Zubair Mishrif DGS
Flare/Vent Thermal Radiation and Gas Dispersion
[8] 00251034BFPT85210
Study Methodology

4.2 Company Standard


Reference Title
[1] 20243.VON.SAF.SDS Design layout and safety spacing
[2] 20199.VON.SAF.SDS General safety criteria - Onshore installation
Selection of sensors and gas and fire detection
[3] 20193.VAR.SAF.SDS
criteria
[4] 27607.DOC.STA.SDS Design guideline for integrated automation systems
Criteri di progettazione dei sistemi di ventilazione ai
[5] 07636.MOD.SAF.PRG
fini della sicurezza
[6] Circ.N.522 Doc.N.1.3.0.07 HSE Minimum design Requirements
[7] 20244.VON.SAF.SDS Fixed and mobile Fire fighting systems
[8] Doc.N.1.3.0.03 HSE risk management
Standard For Basic and Front-End Engineering
[9] 03510.VON.CIV.FUN Design Request - ON SHORE CIVIL WORKS- Rev.
1 June 2009

4.3 Local standards/regulations


The Iraq legislative framework is currently in a state of flux and that tracking changes is challenging. In
addition to new laws being developed and ratified, Executive Regulations/implementation guidelines are
either not yet available or are under development. In the absence of Iraq legislation, appropriate "Industry
Best Practice" guidelines will be followed.

ANNEX 7 – Iraqi environmental regulations lists the available excerpt of the national regulations, in Arabic
and English, as provided by ENI in June 2010.

Reference Title
[10] Act No B(2)-2001 amendment Preservation of water sources
"Oil National Hydrocarbon Law ", which, despite the
[11] Doc. ID 94702 draft version was issued in 2007, it is again under
discussion.

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Reference Title
“The Hydrocarbon Preservation Law” , which, in the
environmental section, prescribe to “adopt modern
oilfield and petroleum industry practices (GIIP) and
standards including advanced techniques (BAT),
[12] Iraqi Law No (84), 1985
practices and methods of operation for the
prevention of environmental damage in conducting
its Petroleum Operations and take necessary and
adequate steps to prevent environmental damage”.
"Environmental Instructions for the Industrial
Projects", which define the environmental
[13] Iraqi Law No (xx), xxxx
requirements and location limitations for Chemical,
Petrochemical and Oil Industries.
"Article 41 – Protection of the Environment", which
as stated in Article 41.1 contains general
prescriptions on how “Contractor shall conduct its
[14] Iraqi Law No (xx), xxxx
Petroleum Operations with due regard to concerns
with respect to protection of the environment and
conservation of natural resources”.
"Protection and Improvement of the Environment",
which as stated in Article 1 contains the general
prescription “to improve the environment through
removing and treating the already existing damages
or that which may happen and saving the public
[15] Iraqi Law No (27), 2009
health, natural resources, the biological diversity and
the cultural and natural heritage in cooperation with
competent authorities to accomplish sustainable
development and to achieve the international and
territorial cooperation in this field”.
“Safety in Storing and Handling Chemical Materials”,
which contains all the administrative constrains to
[16] Iraqi Instruction No (4), 1989 manufacture, store and handle of chemical materials
and the cautions to be enforced for Health, Safety
and Environmental protection.
"Standard Specification for Drinking Water", which
contains the maximum allowable limits of natural,
Iraqi Legislation No (417),
[17] 2001
chemical and biological characteristics together with
the maximum allowable limits of pesticides &
radiation.
“The Professional Health Instructions to protect
Iraqi Public Health Act No (89),
workers from Vibrations”, which contains the
[18] 1981 & Minister of Health,
maximum allowable limits of Vibrations for a range of
1993
time duration.
"Emission Limits of Air Pollutants", which contains
the maximum allowable limits of gaseous pollutants
[19] Iraqi Law xxx, 2009 from stationary sources, hydrocarbon fuel
combustion sources, solid waste incinerators,
hazardous and medical wastes incinerators.

4.4 International standards


Reference Title
Recommended practice for classification of location
[20] API RP 505 for electrical installation at Petroleum Facilities
classified as Class I Zone 0, Zone 1, Zone 2
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Reference Title
Fireproofing practices in petroleum and
[21] API 2218
petrochemical processing plants
[22] API Standard 521, 2007 Pressure-relieving and Depressurizing Systems
Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-
[23] API Standard 520, 2008
relieving Devices in Refineries
Design, Construction, Operation, Maintenance, and
[24] API Standard 2610, 2005
Inspection of Terminal & Tank Facilities
[25] API Standard 2510, 2001 Design and Construction of LPG Installations
[26] API 581, 2000, First Edition Risk-Based Inspection Base Resource Document
Fire-Protection Considerations for the Design and
[27] API Standard 2510A. 2006 Operation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Storage
Facilities
[28] NFPA 24 Private fire service mains and their appurtenances
[29] NFPA 1 Fire Code
[30] NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code
[31] NFPA 15 Water spray fixed systems
[32] NFPA 11 Low expansion foam
[33] NFPA 12 Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems
[34] NFPA 2001 Clean agent fire extinguishing systems
[35] NFPA 30, 2008 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for
[36] NFPA 20, 2010
Fire Protection
Recommended Practice for Fire Protection for
[37] NFPA 850 Electric Generating Plants and High Voltage Direct
Current Converter Stations
[38] NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
[39] NFPA 101, 2009 Life safety code
American Institute of Chemical
Green Book - Methods for the determination of
[40] Engineers, TNO, CPR 16E,
possible damage
1989
American Institute of Chemical Guidelines for Fire Protection in Chemical,
[41] Engineers, Center for Chemical Petrochemical and Hydrocarbon Processing
Process Safety, 2003 Facilities
[42] World Bank, 1999 Pollution Prevent and Abatement Handbook
Environmental, health and safety guidelines: air
[43] IFC guidelines, 2007
emissions and ambient air quality
Threshold limit Values and Biological Exposure
[44] ACGIH, 2008
Indices
Safety colours and safety signs: design principles for
[45] ISO 3864-1, 2002
safety signs in workplaces and public areas
Safety colours and safety signs: design principles for
[46] ISO 3864-2, 2004
product safety labels
Safety colours and safety signs: design principles for
[47] ISO 3864-3, 2006
use in safety signs
[48] ANSI Z358.1 Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment
[49] IEC 60079-10 Classification of Hazardous Areas
[50] IEC 60529 Degrees Of Protection Provided By Enclosures
Functional safety of electrical/electronic/
[51] IEC 61508
programmable electronic safety-related systems
Functional safety - Safety instrumented systems for
[52] IEC 61511
the process industry sector

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4.5 General References


CPR 16E, “Methods for the determination of possible damage to people and objects
[53] resulting from releases of hazardous materials” - Green Book”, Committee for the
Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances, December 1989.
“Report from the Center for Chemical Process Safety of the AIChE (USA): Guidelines
[54] for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions and Fires”, 1996.

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5.0 DEFINITION
PROJECT Zubair Oil Field Development Project
PLANT LOCATION Iraq - Zubair
COMPANY ENI Iraq B.V.
CONTRACTOR Who will be awarded the contract, responsible for carrying out the
whole activities described in the SoW
ALARP The concept that effort to reduce risk should be continued until the
incremental sacrifice (in term of time, effort, cost or other
expenditure of resources) is grossly disproportionate to value of the
incremental risk reduction achieved.
LAeq Equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level:
1 T
 p A (t )  
2

LAeq = 10 log 
 T
∫0  p0  dt 

Fire Zone Area within the installation where equipment are grouped by nature
and by homogeneous level of risk. The partition into fire zones is
such that the consequences of a fire corresponding to the credible
event likely to occur in the concerned fire zone will not impact other
fire zones to an extent where their integrity could be put at risk.
Hazardous Area A location where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to
flammable gases or vapours, flammable liquids, combustible dust,
or ignitable fibre or flyings.
Safety Critical Elements Any part of an installation or plant (including computer software)
whose failure could cause or contribute to a major incident or whose
purpose is to prevent, or limit the effect of, a major incident.
Work Area Any position at a distance greater than 1 m from equipment
surfaces which is accessible to personnel, or any position where an
operator's ear may be exposed to noise in the normal course of
duty. It includes any walkway or ladder.
Common Path of Travel The portion of exit access that must be traversed before two
separate and distinct paths of travel to two exits are available.

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6.0 GENERAL SAFETY PHILOSOPHY


The risk management is an iterative process that will be continuously conducted throughout the design, with
the overall goal of demonstrating that the risks for people, environment, asset and reputation are As Low As
Reasonably Practicable (ALARP).

6.1 Inherent Safety - Hierarchy of Approach


The design will take full account of the principles of “inherent safety” to prevent or eliminate the likelihood of
major initiating events and the scale of any subsequent consequences. Adopting an inherently safe
approach to design engineering allows for the identification and removal of hazards at an early stage.

The approach to achieve inherent safety and assurance of ALARP in design consists in the implementation
of design measures in the following order of preference:
• Hazard Prevention;
• Hazard Control;
• Hazard Mitigation;
• Emergency response and a means of Escape, Evacuation and Rescue in the event of an incident.

6.2 Design Measures to Achieve Hazard Prevention


Safeguards to achieve inherent safety in design by prevention shall include:
• Simplify the process ensuring that operator intervention is minimized;
• Minimize risk of loss of containment through material selection, inspection and quality control
measures;
• Substitution of hazardous materials e.g. where option of a number of chemicals is available,
use the least hazardous or toxic;
• Proper positioning of emergency shutdown and blowdown valves, exhaust and venting
points, to aid rapid and safe removal of hydrocarbons;
• Plant features open layouts with wide spacing of equipment. Location of control rooms,
switch rooms and workshops should be outside the process area. Distances are based upon
risk analysis to optimize separation distances;
• Equipment layout should minimize the need to work at height;
• Segregate the plant into hazardous and non-hazardous areas;
• Eliminate possible sources of ignition present in a hazardous area or entering a hazardous
area;
• Prevent the uncontrolled release of flammable or explosive substances, by limiting potential
leak paths;
• Prevent the unwanted and potentially dangerous accumulation of combustible, flammable or
explosive substances and atmospheres;
• Provide access for maintenance, vehicle and personnel traffic;
• Ensure the ergonomic aspects of plant operation are taken into account at every location;
• Minimize the risk of escalation by reducing the probability of ignition;
• Segregation of drainage systems.

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• Provision and installation of pressure protection devices and suitable control system to
minimize discharge to atmosphere.
• Provision of insulation for hot surfaces.

The design shall take account of potential future facilities and shall strive to ensure hazards associated with
the installation of these future facilities are minimized as far as possible by:
• Making provision to ensure the layout of future equipment does not compromise the existing
safe design;
• Minimizing the quantify of new equipment to be installed in the existing areas;
• Reducing the time spent by the installation personnel within the hazardous areas of the
existing facilities;
• Allowing for locating future equipment such that access to the existing facilities by
construction traffic is minimized and providing sufficient spacing of access ways in cases where it is
unavoidable.

6.3 Design Measures to Achieve Hazard Control


Safeguards to achieve inherent safety in design by control shall include:
• Provision of fire detection to detect fire incidents rapidly should they occur;
• Provision of gas detection to detect flammable release incidents rapidly should they occur;
• Isolation of inventories using an ESD system to limit inventory available for release and
shutdown of plant equipment;
• Provision of block valve stations on the export pipelines to limit the inventory available for
release in the event of pipeline rupture;
• Blowdown of plant sections to make them safe by removing process hydrocarbon inventories
and reducing pressures in the systems;
• The design and layout of common systems such as utilities shall prevent escalation of a
hazardous event;
• Minimize the duration of any event by reducing pressure and inventory and increasing
blowdown rate;

6.4 Design Measures to Achieve Hazard Mitigation


Safeguards to achieve safety in design by hazard mitigation shall include:
• Provision of necessary firefighting systems to extinguish fires or to protect (cool) equipment
adjacent to a fire to prevent it spreading;
• Provision of fireproofing on the equipment supports to prevent escalation and failure of
primary structures and equipment as so to mitigate damage to adjacent equipment;
• Reduce the effects of any resultant explosion e.g. overpressure;
• Provide containment contingency on site to avoid pollution of the area;
• Provide the necessary equipment and plant to recycle spills,
• Provision of access for firefighting and emergency response facilities (teams, vehicles and
equipment) to all areas of the plant;

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6.5 Emergency response and a means of Escape, Evacuation and Rescue in the event of an
incident
The emergency response measures insert in the framework of the control and mitigation of the hazardous
event when it occurs, in order to:
- Assure the safety of all personnel;
- Minimize impacts on environment;
- Minimize impacts on asset and reputations.

The emergency response is one of the last layers of protection at a facility, therefore the emergency
response actions will be necessary when all the other layers of protection have not worked or have failed.

The means of escape, evacuation and rescue integrate to emergency response measures for ensuring a
safe escape, evacuation and rescue of the personnel under emergency conditions.

Therefore the emergency response measures shall include:


- Incorporate emergency shutdown actions and operations into the written operating
procedures for each process. Include conditions that require emergency action and the
qualified operator responsible for performing these procedures;
- Provision of emergency response training to all facility personnel including the
appropriate procedures for safely handling emergency scenarios and the proper use and
limitations of emergency response equipments;
- Provision of training to all facility personnel about the nature of the processes and the
materials involved in an emergency situation;
- Provision of training facilities and training for personnel responsible for fire fighting and
emergency response;
- Provision of emergency power and communications facilities
- Provision of a suitable and reliable PA/GA system to warn personnel of any incident and
allow them to take appropriate action;
- Provision of suitable and reliable visible warning devices (beacons) to warn personnel of
any incident and allow them to take appropriate action;
- Provision of personnel protective equipment in specific points for assisting the personnel
in the field during an emergency;
- Provision of escape and evacuation routes from all working areas, where people may be
expected during their normal activities, to the places where people muster;
- Provision of adequate illumination in the escape and evacuation routes;
- Provision of a place, or places, where people can muster while an emergency is being
investigated and, if appropriate, while evacuation preparations are being made.

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7.0 LOSS PREVENTION CRITERIA


In order to evaluate the impact of possible accidental events (Fire/Explosion) on people, the threshold
values listed in Table 1 have been considered according to ENI Risk Tolerability Matrix (Ref. [8]).

Radiation Overpressure
Flash fire
(kW/m2) (bar)
<3 - <0.03
3 - 0.03
5 - 0.07
12.5 ½ LFL 0.14
37.5 LFL 0.3

Table 1: Threshold values for people (Ref. [8])

A radiation level equal to 3 kW/m2 corresponds to potential slight injuries to personnel (Ref. [8].

A thermal radiation equal to 5 kW/m2 is the limiting radiation intensity for escape actions lasting more than a
few minutes (along unprotected escape routes and with normal clothing): at this radiation intensity the pain
threshold for exposed skin is reached in about 15 seconds; second degree burns on exposed skin would be
expected after about 2 minutes.

12.5 kW/m2 is the limiting radiation intensity for escape actions lasting few seconds: at this level the pain
threshold is reached in about 4 seconds and second degree burns on exposed skin in about 40 seconds.
Atmospheric storage tanks subjected to such radiation can get damaged.

At 37.5 kW/m2 immediate fatality occurs. At this level the pain threshold is almost instantaneous and second
degree burns occur in about 8 seconds. At this radiation intensity damages to metallic equipment take place.

At LFL concentration it is possible to assume 100% fatalities, while at LFL/2 concentration fatality becomes
possible due to local flammable accumulation following a non-uniform dispersion caused by obstacles or
ground conformation.

An overpressure of 0.03 barg can bring to reversible injuries, due e.g. to break of glass of the windows.

A 0.07 barg overpressure can cause irreversible injuries; while 0.14 barg is usually taken as the threshold
value at which lethality could occur.

At overpressure equal to or greater than 0.3 barg, damages to structures are considered possible.

In order to evaluate the impact of possible accidental events (Fire/Explosion) on assets, the threshold values
listed below have been considered.

For radiation due to fire, the threshold values that can cause domino effects and therefore potential damage
to the assets are shown in Table 2. Flame engulfment and impingement due to jet fires and pool fires must
be also considered, coupled with the duration of the fire events: jet fire impingement can lead to domino
effect when the fire event lasts more than 10 minutes for equipment and 5 minutes for steel structures, while
pool fire engulfment gives escalation if it lasts more than 20 minutes for equipment and 5 minutes for steel
structures.

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Major damage/ Major damage/


Major damage/
Domino Effect Domino Effect
Effect Domino Effect
Pressurized Atmospheric
Steel Structures
Equipment/Piping Storage Tank
Radiation – Pool
37.5 kW/m2 12.5 kW/m2 12.5 kW/m2
fire/Jet fire
Flame Impingement – if lasts at least 10 if lasts at least 10 if lasts at least 5
Jet fire minutes minutes minutes
Flame Engulfment – if lasts at least 20 if lasts at least 20 if lasts at least 5
Pool fire minutes minutes minutes

Table 2: Radiation threshold values for domino effect on assets

For overpressure due to explosion, the threshold values that can cause domino effects on on critical
equipment and on building are reported below.

Identification of domino effects on critical equipment (i.e. equipment whose failure can cause release of
significant amount of flammable substances or toxic material, or equipment whose function is required during
an emergency) will be defined according to the following criteria: domino effect and consequent damage to
the assets can occur at overpressure higher than 0.3 barg. At this overpressure, in fact, heavy damages to
process pressurized equipment are considered possible, while at a peak side-on overpressure equal to 0.10
barg repairable damages to process pressurized equipment and domino effect on atmospheric equipment
can occur.

The following threshold values will be used in order to evaluate the impact of potential explosion scenarios
on building:

- 0.015 barg: peak side-on overpressure at which windows glass breakage can occur;
- 0.03 barg: overpressure at which significant repairable cosmetic damage and reversible
injuries (due e.g. to the breakage of glass of the windows, or to the fall of light fixtures)
are considered possible;
- 0.07 barg: overpressure that can cause irreversible injuries (from debris); minor
structural damage to buildings and severe damage to trailer-type or unreinforced
masonry buildings are expected;
- 0.14 barg: overpressure at which serious injury or fatality of some occupants are
expected; local failure of isolated parts of buildings and collapse of trailer-type or
unreinforced masonry buildings can occur; this threshold value is assumed for domino
effect on existing buildings;
- 0.21 barg: overpressure at which serious injury or fatality of occupants due to the
collapse of buildings can occur; this threshold value is assumed for domino effect on new
buildings;
- 0.7 barg: overpressure at which total destruction of non-blast resistant buildings with a
100% probability of lethality can be associated.

The detailed description of the threshold values, the severity ranking and the methodology applied to
evaluate damages and domino effect derived from Fire and Explosion scenarios in Zubair plants are
reported in the Fire Safety Assessment, Explosion and Quantitative Risk Assessment Methodologies.

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8.0 DESIGN SPACES AND SAFETY LAYOUT

8.1 General
The layout of the facilities for the Zubair Field Project shall be complied with COMPANY standards. In
particular it shall take into account the followings:
- Relative location of each unit;
- Distance between process units and between equipment into the same process unit;
- Distances between plant and external infrastructure (where existing).

The General Plot Plan shall be defined in order to maintain the separation among process equipment and
from process equipment and manned areas (or areas that can be manned for emergency). The layout shall
be optimised in order to avoid the occurrence of undesired sequences of events that can lead to accidental
events (e. g. pipeline ruptures with consequent release of flammable material that may escalate, in presence
of source of ignition, into fire or explosion). If required, modification of the layout should be improved on the
basis of the results of Fire Safety Assessment and Explosion studies.

The layout of the equipment inside each Unit shall be defined so as to exploit main direction of the winds in
order to reduce the probability that a fire resulting from gas or smoke releases can involve manned areas
and the main escape ways.

The separation distances among Units (or Trains) shall be defined so as to avoid domino effect.
The separation distance of the equipment inside each Unit (or Train) shall be defined for maintenance
operation and if possible to minimize domino effect.

Products performing in different ways to fire or requiring, in case of fire, specific extinguishing agents (i.e.
flammable solids and liquids) are required to be separated.
The areas requiring the same type of fire protection shall be as far as possible placed side by side.

Furthermore, the following criteria shall be taken into account in the overall layout studies:
- The overall arrangement orientation will be such that the prevailing wind condition will tend to
disperse any hazardous release away from the safe area i.e. process equipment,
hydrocarbon storage, and flare and vent areas shall be located downwind of the safe areas.
In locating the flare the potential for dispersing flammables to be ignited shall be avoided
either by separation or orientation;
- Separation of process area containing hydrocarbons and non-process areas devoted to
offices, accommodations, personnel evacuation, etc. (i.e. the offices etc. will be located in a
safe area well separated from a source of flammables and/or toxic gas emission). The utility
areas, that are less hazardous area, shall be used as a “barrier” to segregate high risk
hydrocarbon areas from highly manned area;
- Segregation of the areas reserved to storage of large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids from
the hydrocarbon processing equipment in order to ensure the risks are as low as practicable;
- Segregation of flammables sources from sources of ignition;
- Limiting confinement and congestion in process areas;
- Containment of liquid leaks and spills; containment/drainage system shall be used around
equipment to avoid spreading of possible liquid leakage;
- air intakes of fired process equipment, combustion engines, air compressors and HVAC
systems shall be located so as to provide the greatest amount of isolation from sources of
flammable gas and considering the prevailing wind;
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- Ventilation systems shall derive their air intakes from uncontaminated sources to minimise
the probability of ingesting contaminated air during either normal or abnormal conditions;
- The exhaust shall be located in non-hazardous areas;
- Electrically driven pumps and compressors should as far as practical not be located under
pipe racks, however, the motors may be located under the edge of pipe racks to facilitate
maintenance;
- The grade area under vessels containing liquid hydrocarbons shall be sloped away from the
vessels to limit the potential impact of pool fires under the vessels.
- Accessibility for firefighting and maintenance;
- Provision of adequate escape routes ensuring that at least one of the escape or evacuation
ways is ready for use;
- Ensuring an easy operation of the evacuation means in case of emergency. In particular, for
process areas, fire and explosion evaluation and the development of the layout shall be
made to minimise the built in escalation potential.

These principles are aimed at limiting the effects of a hazardous event (hydrocarbon gas/liquid release or
fire) to the area of occurrence.
Flare shall be located and designed with due attention to all relevant flaring rates and wind conditions to
ensure that the heat radiation level (see section 16.0) will be within acceptance limits in all areas of the
installation, with due regard to exposure of operators, structures such as cranes and towers, electrical and
mechanical equipment and piping.

Piping shall be placed in accordance with the following principles:


- piping containing flammable fluids shall be placed in order that possible leakage does not
involve escape ways or ignition sources;
- routing of hydrocarbon piping to, or through, the utilities area shall be minimised and flanges
minimised;
- routing of hydrocarbon piping of any kind is not allowed through electrical, instrument and
control room;
- routing of hydrocarbon piping within emergency services areas shall be limited to diesel fuel
supply lines for emergency services;
- flange deflector plate shall be considered and a review shall identify suitable locations.

8.2 Relative location of each unit


Units have been divided into the following groups:
- Process and Utilities Units;
- Safety main Units;
- “Critical” plant Units

8.2.1 Process and Utilities Units


Grouping the process or utilities units has been realised according to the following requirements:
- to reduce areas containing toxic or corrosive products;
- to bring the export pumps as close as possible to the relevant storage tanks;
- to place all the air heat exchangers as close as possible to the process areas connected to
them and as far as possible from equipment with free burning flame (i.e. burning pit, etc.).

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The following Process and Utilities Units have been taken into account for Zubair Field Project. Indications
about their suitable location are stated in ANNEX 1:
- Unit 130: Manifold;
- Unit 120: Chemical injection for wellhead and plant;
- Unit 190: Launching and/or receiving traps;
- Unit 200: Oil separation (Heaters);
- Unit 200: Oil separation (Separators/ Oil column stabilisation);
- Unit 210: Oil treatment;
- Unit 220: Oil transport and storage (Oil removal pumps);
- Unit 430: Combustible gas oil.

The evacuation and access paths to the process and utilities areas shall have the following characteristics:
- two accesses to the installation areas shall always exist, one at least placed upwind;
- stairs to the installation areas shall be provided with handrail; sailor stairs shall be allowed as
escape and access ways only to out-of-the-way zones seldom visited by personnel (i.e. for
maintenance);
- the access stairs shall be placed on the side of plant or equipment more proofed against
hazardous events, in order that the equipment itself could be a shield for the personnel going
upstairs and downstairs.

8.3 Main Safety Units


The following Main Safety Units have been taken into account. Indications about their suitable location are
stated in ANNEX 3:
- Unit 230: Flares and vents;
- Unit 480: Electric power generation;
- Unit 560: Oily waters treatment;
- Unit 690: Civil buildings;
- Unit 730: Foam/water fire system.

Main Safety Units shall be allowed to work during the foreseeable hazardous events, thus they shall be
protected against any consequence of those events.

The evacuation and access paths from the areas with safety fundamental Units shall comply with the
following requirements:
- access to the Plant, adopted as the main escape way, shall allow a fast access to the car
parking;
- liquid effluents treatment plant shall be located in the centre of the area which is devoted to.
It shall not be located close to one of the external roads in order to avoid any possible
collision with incoming vehicles.

8.4 “Critical” Plant Units


“Critical” Plant Units have been taken into account. Indications about their suitable location are stated in
ANNEX 3:
- Unit 220: Oil transport and storage (Oil storage tank);
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- Unit 410: Heating;


- Unit 420: Combustible gas;
- Unit 460: Compressed air;
- Unit 910: Electric energy main supply >1000 V;
- Unit 920: Electric energy main supply <1000 V;
- Unit 970: Control system.

A plant unit has been considered as “critical” when it could be:


- highly hazardous for design or process reasons (plant into a confined environment with a
high toxic gas concentration, etc.);
- an important unit for profitability reasons (high content of hydrocarbons, high investment
cost, long supplying times);
- sensible or exposed to the consequences of incidents;
- a fundamental service;
- a source of ignition.

Areas with “critical” plant units are required to be protected against hazardous events that can be foreseen:
they shall not be placed downwind of plants which in anomalous situations could release flammable gas or
vapours.

A particular attention shall be paid at the positioning of plant equipment, in order to avoid too long connecting
piping.

8.5 Safety Distances


The safety distances, reported in ANNEX 4, are the minimum to be adopted for onshore installations. They
can be considered as a guideline for developing the layout.

The table states the relevant reference sources: Italian Legislation, Regional Legislation, Normative
References of National Organizations or other Organizations, computational model, extrapolation from
typical plant, etc.

The safety distances will be verified on the basis of the results of Fire Safety Assessments and Explosion
Studies.

8.6 Clearances
The equipment and piping layout shall be realised in order to minimise any hazard arising from collisions with
heavy transports.

One horizontal and vertical free area shall be left around the equipment in order to allow the removal for
maintenance, building and assembling. For these reasons, the pipes connecting plant areas shall be parallel
to access roads or zones.

Along the shoulder of every road a free clearances of 1.5 m shall be left, in order to ensure pedestrian
crossing.

Table 3 reports the minimal clearances.

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Horizontal Vertical clearance


Equipment
clearance [m] [m]
Pumps 1.5 4
Compressors 3 4
Columns 1.5 -
Horizontal vessels 2 1.5
Exchangers 1.5 1
Heaters and Heat Exchangers 3 -
Main pipes stands 4.5 5 (*)
Secondary pipes stands 3 4
Underground pipes 1 -
(*): 7 m on areas with crane admittance.

Table 3: Minimal clearance of the equipment

Moreover, the following criteria shall be taken into account in order to optimise equipment layout and
clearance spacing:
- The position and arrangement of valves, pumps, other equipment parts, including
flanges, controls and instrumentation shall allow safe and easy access (e.g. close to main
walkway) and sufficient space for the various users of the equipment (e.g. operations,
maintenance, inspection and test etc.) to perform their duties;
- There shall be sufficient space around pumps, valves, control panels, instruments and
parts, including flanges, to allow the use of tools of the correct dimensions required to
operate or maintain that part;
- There shall also be sufficient space for a temporary laydown area for parts during
maintenance;
- Where hoists, cranes, fork-lifts and other lifting equipment may be required to move plant
items, sufficient spatial volume shall be allowed around the machinery for the lifting
equipment to be positioned and operated correctly and safely. Sufficient space shall also
be allowed for any transport required for the removal of the equipment to the
workshop/stores etc (e.g. access for fork lift or pallet trucks). The equipment arrangement
allows space for personnel escape routes.

8.7 Bund/Kerb requirements


Kerbed paved areas should be foreseen in the area and under equipment where there is a reasonable risk
that there will be an accidental spillage from operations and maintenance of chemicals or hydrocarbons
which would be pose a hazard or detrimental to the environment.

The bund/kerb area shall be impermeable in order to avoid any possible soil and water contamination.

In particular drained kerbed paved areas shall be provided under vessels containing liquid hydrocarbons and
they shall be sloped away from the vessels toward catch basin to limit the potential impact of pool fires under
the vessels.

Liquid hydrocarbons storage tanks or spheres shall be equipped with kerb or bund in order to collect the
possible leaks.

In accordance with API 2610, API 2510, API 2510A and NFPA 30, the following requirements shall be
followed for dimensioning of the bund for liquid hydrocarbons storage tanks or spheres:
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- bund volume must be sized in order to contain the greatest amount of liquid that may be
released from the largest tank within the diked area, assuming a full tank and providing
sufficient allowance for precipitation after taking into account protection provided by remote
impoundment (Ref. [24] and [35]), from the COMPANY experience the bund volume must
have a capacity of 110% of that of the largest tank in any group of tanks sharing a common
bund, or 110% of the capacity of a tank in a bund if not shared. Products as propane and
butane (LPG), contained into no cryogenic tanks, make exceptions: in these cases it is
sufficient to consider a vessel capacity of 25% of the total volume of the tank or if the
material stored in the vessel has a vapour pressure that is less than 6.9 bar at 37.8°C the
hold up for the diked area shall be at least 50% of the volume of the vessel
- the minimum distance between the upper part of the external sides of the containment basin
of the storage tanks and the tank shell placed into the containment basin must be equal to
the tank height minus the side height. The height on the country side of the bund walls must
not exceed 2 m above the interior grade unless special provision are made for normal
access and necessary emergency access to tank, valves and other equipment with safe
egress from the diked area provided;
- the containment basin floor shall have a slope to keep leaks away from the tank, the slope
shall be at least 1% for 15 away from the tank(s) or to the basin base whichever is less;
- the stairs to the containment basin and possible firefighting installations should not be in that
part of the bund where slopes converge.

8.8 Roads
Site roads shall be provided a safe and reliable access to all locations of the site for emergency vehicles,
cars, trucks, cranes, mobile equipment and personnel which are required at those locations during the
lifetime of the plant.

According to ENI E&P Standard 03510.VON.CIV.FUN sec. 5.9:


- Roadside 1 m wide shall be provided each side;
- Where required by frequent pedestrian access, the roads shall also include curbs and
sidewalks;
- The roads shall be completed with signs, marking and lighting;
- Roads shall be drained by open channel or, alternatively, by underground pipes;
- The maximum longitudinal slope shall be 5% maximum, while transversal slope shall be 2%;
- Main road shall be from 8 m to 10 m wide, with double slope; secondary roads shall be 6 m
wide, with double slope;
- The minimum inside radius shall be defined considering the plant traffic requirements in
operation and maintenance, but it should not be less than 9 m.

Equipment should be located such that the site roads do not pass through areas classified as “hazardous”.
Any road that of necessity is classified as hazardous shall be subjected to restricted vehicular access and
the area shall be indicated accordingly. Secondary site roads shall not be in an area classified as zone 0 or 1
(see section 10.0).

Site access roads shall be provided with barriers and access control facilities to prevent
unauthorized entry.
All roads will be subject to appropriate speed restrictions indicated with safety signs, in order to
avoid a vehicle collision.

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Access ways shall be provided for escape and fire-fighting purposes, linking plant areas with the
site roads.
The layout shall also meet requirements for vehicle and personnel traffic, security, emergency
evacuation, firefighting and access for maintenance and operation.

8.9 Fired heater


A heater, or group of heaters, shall be located on the periphery of a plot and immediately adjacent to an
unrestricted road. It shall be ensured that the selected location is not downwind of any credible hydrocarbon
release event for the predominant wind condition.

There shall be adequate access for fire-fighting from all sides of a heater and, in the case of a group of
heaters; they shall be separated from the remainder of the unit(s) by vehicular access ways on the other
three sides of the group.

If process considerations should require the heaters to be located close to equipment containing flammable
material, the combustion air inlets shall be monitored for the presence of flammable vapours by means of
flammable gas detectors.

8.10 Fences
The Fences represent the boundary line between inner and outer elements of the plant.

The safety distances from the fences are reported in the ANNEX 4.

In particular, concerning passive protection the followings have been confirmed for the fence:
- external fence with concertina;
- paved patrol road;
- concrete T-wall (25 cm thick);
- Hesco-bastion (with discontinuities alongside the gate houses);
- internal fence with concertina;
- Hesco-bastion.

Figure 1: Fence

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8.11 Escape Routes


Escape routes shall be provided to enable all personnel to leave an area or a building and reach the
designated muster areas during emergency conditions.

For the escape route from the process area the following requirements shall be followed:
- At least two alternative main escape routes from each plant unit leading to the muster area
and/or temporary refuge shall be ensured;
- As good industry practice the outdoor escape routes shall be more than 1 m wide. However
escape routes which are seldom used and by a small number of persons can be 0.7 m wide;
- The muster area must be placed in a safety location: closeness to gates; avoiding the
prevalent wind direction, selected according to the results of Quantitative Risk Assessment
studies.

According to NFPA 101, the following requirements for the escape routes from buildings shall be complied
with:
- Not less than two means of egress (i.e. escape route) shall be provided from every floor or
section, and not less than one exit shall be reached without traversing another floor (section
40.2.4.1.1);
- A single means of egress (i.e. escape route) shall be permitted from any floor or section in
low and ordinary hazard industrial occupancies, provided that the exit can be reached within
the distance permitted as a common path of travel (section 40.2.4.1.2);
- the arrangements of the dead-end corridor and the common path of travel shall be in
accordance with Table 4 (section 40.2.5);
- the maximum travel distances to exit are reported on Table 5;
- the width of any means of egress shall be not less than 0.915 m (section 7.3.4), unless in
existing buildings where the width shall be not less than 0.71m.

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Length (m)
General and Special-
High Hazard Industrial
Purpose Industry
Occupancy
Occupancy
Dead-End Corridor
Protected throughout by an
15 Prohibited (*)
approved, supervised
automatic sprinkler system
Dead-End Corridor
Not Protected throughout by
15 Prohibited (*)
an approved, supervised
automatic sprinkler system
Common Path of Travel
Protected throughout by an
30 Prohibited (*)
approved, supervised
automatic sprinkler system
Common Path of Travel
Not Protected throughout by
15 Prohibited (*)
an approved, supervised
automatic sprinkler system
Notes:
(*): except for rooms or spaces do not exceed 18.6 m2; rooms or spaces have an occupant load not
exceeding three persons; rooms or spaces have a travel distance to the room door not exceeding
0.762 m;
(**):General industrial occupancies include:
• Industrial occupancies that conduct ordinary and low hazard industrial operations in
buildings of conventional design that are usable for various types of industrial processes;
• Industrial occupancies that include multistory buildings where floors are occupied by
different tenants, or buildings that are usable for such occupancy and, therefore, are subject
to possible use for types of industrial processes with a high density of employee population
Special-Purpose Industrial Occupancies include:
• Industrial occupancies that conduct ordinary and low hazard industrial operations in
buildings designed for, and that are usable only for, particular types of operations
• Industrial occupancies that are characterized by a relatively low density of employee
population, with much of the area occupied by machinery or equipment
High Hazard Industrial Occupancies include:
• Industrial occupancies that conduct industrial operations that use high hazard materials or
processes or house high hazard contents
• Industrial occupancies in which incidental high hazard operations in low or ordinary hazard
occupancies that are protected in accordance with Section 8.7 and 40.3.2 are not required
to be the basis for overall occupancy classification
Table 4: Arrangement of Means of Egress

Length (m)
General Special-Purpose High Hazard
Level of Protection Industry Industry Industrial
Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy
Protected throughout by an
approved, supervised 76 122 23
automatic sprinkler system
Not Protected throughout
by an approved, supervised 61 91 Not Permitted
automatic sprinkler system
Notes:
See note (**) of Table 4.
Table 5: Maximum travel distances to exit.

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Doors
Door openings in means of egress shall be not less than 0.81 m (section 7.2.1.2.3.2) in clear width, unless
one of the following conditions exists:
- Where a pair of door leaves is provided, one door leaf shall provide not less than a 0.81 m
clear width opening;
- Exit access door assemblies serving a room not exceeding 6.5 m2 and not required to be
accessible to persons with severe mobility impairments shall be not less than 0.61 m in door
leaf width;
- Door openings serving a building or portion thereof not required to be accessible to persons
with severe mobility impairments shall be permitted to be 0.71 m in door leaf width;
- In existing buildings, the existing door leaf width shall be not less than 0.710 m;
- Revolving door assemblies shall be exempt from the minimum 0.81 m width requirement;
- Where a single door opening is provided for discharge from a stairway required to be a
minimum of 1.42 m wide, and such door assembly serves as the sole means of exit
discharge from such stairway, the clear width of the door opening, shall be not less than two-
thirds the required width of the stairway;
- Escape doors will be fitted with anti-panic bars for quick release.

Stairs
Stairs used as a component in the means of egress shall be in accordance with Table 6 (Ref. [39] Section
7.2.2).

Feature Dimensional Criteria [m]


Minimum width clear of all obstructions, except projections not
0.915
more than 0.114 m at or below handrail height on each side
Maximum height of risers 0.18
Minimum height of risers 0.1
Minimum tread depth 0.28
Minimum headroom 2.03
Maximum height between landings 3.66

Table 6: New Stairs Dimensional criteria

New curved stairs shall be permitted as a component in a means of egress, provided that the depth of tread
is not less than 0.280 m at a point 0.305 m from the narrower end of the tread and the smallest radius is not
less than twice the stair width (section 7.2.2.2.2.1). Existing curved stairs shall be permitted as a component
in a means of egress, provided that the depth of tread is not less than 0.255 m at a point 0.305 m from the
narrower end of the tread and the smallest radius is not less than twice the stair width (section 7.2.2.2.2.2).

New winders shall have a tread depth of not less than 0.150 m and a tread depth of not less than 0.280 m at
a point 0.305 m from the narrowest edge (section 7.2.2.2.4.2). Existing winders shall be permitted to be
continued in use, provided that they have a tread depth of not less than 0.150 m and a tread depth of not
less than 0.23 mm) at a point 0.305 m from the narrowest edge (section 7.2.2.2.4.3).

Stairs and ramps shall have handrails on both sides (section 7.2.2.4), unless otherwise permitted as follow:
If a single step or a ramp is part of a curb that separates a sidewalk from a vehicular way, it shall not be
required to have a handrail;
- Existing stairs, existing ramps, stairs within dwelling units and within guest rooms, and ramps
within dwelling units and guest rooms shall be permitted to have a handrail on one side only.

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Handrails and Guard


New handrails on stairs shall be not less than 0.865 m, and not more than 0.965 m, above the surface of the
tread, measured vertically to the top of the rail from the leading edge of the tread. Existing required handrails
shall be not less than 0.760 m, and not more than 0.965 m, above the surface of the tread, measured
vertically to the top of the rail from the leading edge of the tread. The height of required handrails that form
part of a guard shall be permitted to exceed 0.965 m, but shall not exceed 1.065 m, measured vertically to
the top of the rail from the leading edge of the tread.

Guards shall be provided at the open sides of means of egress that exceed 0.760 m above the floor or the
finished ground level below. The height of guards shall be measured vertically to the top of the guard from
the surface adjacent thereto. Guards shall be not less than 1.065 m high, except as permitted by one of the
following:
- Existing guards within dwelling units shall be permitted to be not less than 0.915 m high;
- Existing guards on existing stairs shall be permitted to be not less than 0.760 m high.

Industrial equipment access doors, walkways, platforms, ramps, and stairs that serve as a component of the
means of egress from the involved equipment shall be permitted in accordance with the applicable
provisions of this paragraph, as modified by Table 7. Any means of egress component shall serve not more
than 20 people.

Feature Dimensional Criteria


Minimum horizontal dimension of any walkway,
0.56 clear
landing, or platform
Minimum stair or ramp width 0.56 clear between rails
Minimum tread width 0.56 clear
Minimum tread depth 0.255
Maximum riser height 0.23
Handrails are permitted to terminate, at the required height, at a point directly above
the top and bottom risers
Maximum height between landings 3.66
Minimum headroom 2.03
Minimum width of door openings 0.56 clear

Table 7: Industrial Equipment Access Dimensional Criteria

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9.0 FIRE & GAS DETECTION AND ALARM COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

9.1 General
The protection of personnel, plant and environment from the effects of fires and explosions is a primary
objective of the safety design. This objective can be achieved by application of safety criteria in the layout
design (see Section Errore. L'origine riferimento non è stata trovata.) and by providing early and efficient
detection of hydrocarbon releases or fires.

Furthermore, if toxic vapours are present, early and efficient detection of toxic shall be provided in order to
protect personnel.

To this purpose, a Fire and Gas Detection System shall be provided. The functions of the F&G detection
system are:
- To monitor all designated areas for fire;
- To monitor all areas where flammable/toxic vapours might be present;
- To monitor all air locks of pressurized buildings and HVAC air intakes of premises for toxic
and flammable gas;
- To monitor inside the LERs in plant area;
- To provide a facility for raising an alarm;
- To alert personnel of any fire, gas (toxic or flammable) emergency situation;
- To activate the automatic fire-fighting system (if foreseen) and ESD system;
- To close fire dampers to facilities where gas is detected;
- To alert personnel in Control Room of any fault detected by self-test facilities;
- To monitor state and availability (monitoring integrity) of the F&G and fire-fighting systems
according to NFPA72.

The Fire and Gas Detection System shall be configured to operate with high availability, its SIL shall comply
with the requirements that will be given by the SIL Assessment, and it shall fail to safety. Operating efficiency
of the detection system shall remain at a maximum at all times.
Each single loop shall be fully compliant with the technical standards IEC 61508 and IEC 61511.
F&G System (PLC Panel) shall be minimum SIL3 certified, with a dual or triple modular redundant
architecture. The Safety-related part of the PLCs shall be implemented with a “Fault Tolerant” configuration,
in such a way that any possible failure would not cause the loss of safety of the controlled plant or
machinery.

Adverse environmental conditions shall be taken into account to establish the locations of detectors. The
detectors shall be protected against accidental damage or tampering where necessary.

All the sensors outdoors and indoors into the classified areas must be in accordance to IEC standard codes
(i,e, IEC 60079 and IEC 60529) and must have a conformity certification, suitable for the installation area
and released by a certification bureau. All components shall be accessible for maintenance and testing
without -disruption to routine operation of the plant.

Since the process fluids do not contain concentrations of toxic substances sufficient to cause toxic hazard to
personnel, toxic gas detectors shall not be provided for Zubair Field.

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9.2 Fire and Gas devices


ANNEX 5 reports for the main areas to be protected the indications on possible suitable sensors to be apply,
considering the characteristic of the phenomenon to be detected. The ANNEX 5 shall be used as preliminary
guideline, an Engineering design evaluation is required case by case to consider the equipment present in
the area/enclosure to be protect, all the available sensors and the last international standards requirements.

The right choice, positioning and mounting of the detectors are important in order to guarantee a correct and
early detection.
The location and type of fire detectors for the detection of potential fire are critical elements and, as reported
in the F&G detection philosophy, they shall be defined according to Eni Standards for selection and
positioning of the sensors and on the basis of the results of Fire Safety Assessments and Explosion Studies.
Also the voting logic used in F&G detection shall be in accordance to the guidelines reported in Eni
Standards
A brief description of different type of detectors with their characteristics is reported in the following.

9.2.1 Fire detection


Fire detection systems shall be installed where a development of fire is supposed to be a possible threat to
the plant. The fire detection system shall be designed in order to:
- detect a fire as early as possible;
- initiate appropriate preventive/shutdown actions at an early stage in order to mitigate the
consequences;
- alert personnel of the danger;
- activate the ESD System;
- activate firefighting/protection systems (where applicable).

Fires give off one or more of the following phenomena: flame, smoke and heat. The following detectors are
available to respond to each of these phenomena:
- Flame detectors;
- Smoke detectors;
- Heat detector.

The selection of the fire detectors for an area shall reflect the anticipated prime indication of a fire. Heat,
smoke and flame detectors shall be considered, depending on the expected kind of fire to be detected and
therefore depending on which of the phenomena (flame, smoke or heat) is expected as initial and primary.
The material(s) involved will determine primary the characteristics of the fire and the rate of combustion.
However, other factors, such as the environment in which the fire develops and the detectors need to be
located shall be considered. The possibility to detect phenomena as smoke and heat is different in enclosure
and in open areas and inside an enclosure area this possibility is affected by room dimensions and the
ventilation degree.

The most suitable fire detector shall be selected for the location, environment, and the earliest reliable
indication of the fire type most likely to be encountered.

Fires involving hydrocarbons releases normally develop rapidly their full combustion temperature and are
characterised by flame and thermal radiation. Smoke may occur, but may not be a marked characteristic of
cleanly burning oil, gas or condensate.

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Fire involving electrical and instrumental equipment may develop slowly and are characterised by smoke
evolution. Such fires may produce smoke and fumes in their early stages with flaming combustion only later.

Fires involving paper, lubricating oils, paints and grease may produce flame, heat radiation and smoke.

Heat detectors generally have a slow response time. If a fast response time is required, then flame detectors
shall be used. Many solid materials can smoulder for a period before developing flames. In such cases a
smoke detector can give early indication of such incidents. A combination of detectors may often be
required.
If more than one type of fire can be expected in an area (e.g. chemical storage) and the detector selected for
the major risk is not suitable for one of the alternative fire scenarios, then additional and alternative means of
detection should be used (e.g. heat and flame detectors).

Two different alarm levels are foreseen for fire detection:

- PRE-ALARM level will be given in case of signal from one flame sensor, or from one heat or
smoke detector (voting 1ooN, with N≥3);
- ALARM level (confirmed fire), with ESD system automatic activation and firefighting system
starting (if foreseen), will be achieved in case of signal from at least 2ooN sensors (voting
2ooN, with N≥3).

In particular, the settings for smoke detectors and heat detectors in the premises are the following :

- PRE-ALARM level is achieved in case of activation of one smoke detector or heat detector
(voting 1ooN, with N≥2);
- ALARM level (confirmed fire) is achieved in case of activation of at least two smoke
detectors or ROR heat detectors (voting 2ooN, with N≥2) with ESD system automatic
activation and firefighting system starting (if foreseen).

The following types of fire detectors can be used.

9.2.1.1 Heat Sensors


Heat detectors are installed where probability of fire with a strong heat development is considerable and
where the reliability criteria suggest their use in order to get the plants shutdown.
Heat detectors are normally more reliable than other types of fire detectors because of the simple nature of
their operation and ease of maintenance. These factors tend to lead to fewer false alarms. The main
disadvantage of heat detectors is that they are unlikely to detect fires in the incipient stage, where little heat
is generated, but much smoke is likely. Since heat detectors are inherently slower in operation than other
types of detectors, they should be considered for installation in areas where high speed detection is not
required.

The heat detector may respond to:


- a fixed temperature;
- rate of temperature rise;
- a combination of the two.

Heat sensors generally require some structures (coverings) to address heat to the detection points and
thence they are not to be deployed in open spaces, in presence of ventilation or very high ceiling; in these
last cases heat sensors can be provided only when it is possible to install them close to the source fire.

The main types of heat detectors are summarized below:


- Fixed Temperature:
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 Fusible plugs (including sprinkler heads with pressurized tubing or pipe),


 Fusible links and quartzoid bulbs,
 Thermostats—bimetallic strip, snap-action disk, and thermostatic cable,
 Continuous discrete conductors,
 Thermistor sensors;
- Rate of temperature rise:
 Copper tubing heat-actuated devices (HADs),
 Thermoelectric,
 Combined rate of rise/fixed temperature,
 Rate compensation.

Fixed temperature sensors, like Fusible Plug detectors, respond when the temperature of the surrounding air
reaches a predetermined level, regardless of the rate of temperature rise.
Fixed temperature detectors (when applicable) are preferred because they require less calibration and
maintenance.

Rate of Rise (ROR) heat detectors respond when the rate of temperature increase exceeds a predetermined
value, typically around 7 to 8°C per minute. Rate-of-rise detectors are designed to compensate for the
normal changes in ambient temperature (less than 6.7°C per minute) which are expected under non-fire
conditions.

Rate Compensated (RC) heat detectors respond to either when the rate of temperature increase exceeds a
predetermined value or when a pre-set maximum temperature is reached.

Line-type heat detector, like Thermo-sensitive cable, is a device in which detection is continuous along a
path.
This type of sensor is a wire and it can be used where other types of detectors are difficult to install.
Generally, they are used incongested areas, rim area of floating roof tanks, on pumps, etc.

Thermo-Sensitive Cable is a line-type device in which the sensing element comprises, in one type, two
current-carrying wires separated by heat-sensitive insulation that softens at the rated temperature, thus
allowing the wires to make electrical contact. Linear type heat detecting (LTD) cable is used to monitor fire
(or overheat) conditions in confined or polluted areas or where there are adverse or unusually variable
environmental conditions.
The sensor cable is unaffected by dust, moisture or vibration and requires little maintenance.
LTD installation is to be preferred when the area to be protected is mainly rectilinear and has a considerable
extension and would require a large number of point detectors. It can used to monitor fire (or overheat)
conditions in confined or polluted areas or where there are adverse or unusually variable environmental
conditions. The sensor cable is unaffected by dust, moisture or vibration and requires little maintenance.

The types of heat sensors that will be mainly installed in Zubair Field will be the following:
- Rate of Rise heat detectors (ROR);
- Rated Compensated heat detectors (RC);
- Fusible Plug detectors (FP);
- Thermo-sensitive cable (LTD.

ROR heat detectors should be placed in the following areas:


- in the rooms where normal conditions preclude use of smoke detectors or where the earliest
and most probable sign of a potential fire is the sudden temperature rise;
- on resin transformers rooms.
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Fixed temperature or Rate Compensated (RC) heat detectors should be placed in areas where flammable
fluids are present, in particular:
- above the critical equipment;
- on the connections (flanges and threaded) and on the seal (gaskets);
- around the areas where a great number of connections and seals.

Where process equipment is provided with Fixed temperature or Rate Compensated (RC) heat detectors,
these should be located as near as possible to the potential fire source.

The Location and Spacing of point heat detectors in buildings shall be in compliance with NFPA 72-2010.

In general, thermo-sensitive cables should be typically installed close all the equipment located in process
areas, nearby transformers, generators, switchgear, oil storage tanks and in rooms where electrical cables
are laid.

9.2.1.2 Smoke Sensors


The smoke detectors must be installed in order to:
- Early detect fire presence into closed rooms;
- Detect fires with few development of flame and heat (electric fires);
- Deactivate circuits feeding the fire and start the (eventual) fire plants up except into the
engine rooms where the smoke isn’t a sure fire indication.

Smoke detectors are suitable to relive the smoke presence in the enclosure space (buildings) or in the ducts.
Smoke detectors are sensitive devices that cannot be used in dirty / contaminated areas or where high air
velocities are expected. They can also be affected by hydrocarbon condensation.

There are principally 2 types of smoke detection devices:


- Ionisation Smoke Detectors;
- Optical Smoke Detectors
 Photoelectric (Optical point type) Smoke Detectors;
 Infra Red (Optical linear type) Smoke Detectors

Point or linear Smoke Optical Detectors are generally used to enclosed spaces with possible slow
combustion and visible smoke development; the absorption type is suitable for “dark” or “black” smoke, the
diffusion type is suitable for “light” smoke.

Smoke Ionisation Detectors (SI) are generally used in enclosed spaces with invisible smoke development
(aerosol), such as in electrical/electronic panels.
This type of detectors is usually not used.

Infra Red Smoke detector (linear type) are in two parts and consist of an infrared transmitter unit and an
infrared sensitive receiver. Distances of up to 100 meters can be covered by this type of detectors and with
control and indicating equipment mounted at low level they are ideal for high level detection and / or for
covering large open areas such as warehouses, industrial plants and shopping centers etc. where access for
installation and maintenance of traditional 'point' detectors would prove difficult. It is, however, essential that
they be mounted to solid construction that is unlikely to “flex” as a result of changes in temperature or
imposed load, as this can cause mis-alignment of the optical beam and, hence, fault signals or false alarms.

In particular, optical type smoke detectors will be used in Zubair Field.

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The location and spacing of smoke detectors shall be in compliance with NFPA 72-2010.

9.2.1.3 Flame Sensors


Flame detectors are generally fast acting devices, which rely on cone of vision between the detector and a
flame. They are generally used in hydrocarbon processes where a flame may be the first sign of an incident.

Flame sensors can detect the presence of a 0.09 m2 (approx.) fire, within an angle of view 90° to 120°, at a
distance of about 15 m from the sensor.

Flame sensors are generally used in open spaces, in presence of non-localised fire sources, in environments
with very high ceilings (where heat and smoke detectors are not reliable) or where flame is present at an
early stage of fire.

The available types of detectors sensing to radiation of flame are:


- ultra-violet (UV);
- Single Frequency infrared (IR);
- UV/IR combination;
- Multi-Frequency Infrared detectors (IR3).

Ultraviolet flame detectors (UV), Infrared flame detectors (IR) and Ultraviolet and infrared detectors (UV/IR)
are suitable in case of quick combustion phenomena with clear flames at an early stage; generally UV are
not used in the presence of black smoke and UV/IR and IR3 are more reliable for spurious intervention.

UV/IR or IR3 flame detectors are usually installed in all areas where a significant liquid hydrocarbon
inventory and possible ignition sources are present.

In particular, the types of flame detectors that will installed in the Zubair Mishrif DGS Plant are the following:
- Ultra-Violet (UV);
- UV/IR combination;
- Multi-Frequency Infrared detectors (IR3).

9.2.2 Flammable gas sensors


Flammable gas detectors shall be able to detect the Lower Explosivity Limit (LEL) of the most critic gas.

Flammable gas detection shall be provided in order to:


- monitor flammable gas accumulation into the eventual release area;
- monitor flammable gas migration towards not dangerous areas;
- monitor ingress of flammable gas into closed areas not dangerous but face to dangerous
areas;
- reduce the gas quantity to the flammability limits by a shut down action.

The positioning of the detectors shall be made taking in consideration the following requirements:
- the detectors shall be located where the air velocity do not compromise the accuracy of the
measure (detection);
- the detectors shall not be positioned in places where the presence of structures and /or
equipment may create a dead zone;
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- in open areas, detectors shall be protected and installed so that interferences due to
environmental factors are reduced. Moreover, the detectors shall be located downwind the
most critical equipment;
- in buildings and enclosed areas, the location criteria shall be in accordance with the
requirements reported in NFPA 72.

Flammable gas detection will be required in those areas containing potential sources of flammable gas
emission. The location of detectors shall be based on the findings of the gas dispersion study and shall be
positioned such that they will detect hazardous gas accumulations and the migration of flammable gas
between process areas.

The gas detection system should not detect small fugitive emissions, which should naturally disperse safely.

Two different alarm levels are foreseen for flammable gas detection:
- PRE-ALARM level is achieved in case of one flammable gas detector (voting 1ooN, with
N≥3) reaches 20% of Lower Explosivity Limit (LEL);
- ALARM level (confirmed gas) with consequent activation of appropriate ESD actions is
achieved in case of at least two flammable gas detectors (voting 2ooN, with N≥3) reach 50%
of Lower Explosivity Limit (LEL).

Flammable gas sensors are normally catalytic combustion sensors or infrared sensors.

The catalytic detectors (pellistor) are characterised by good stability, low drift and good response time. They
are used for detecting flammable gases from 0-100% LEL. They are limited in use in environments having
high oxygen content (where gas concentration is much greater than LEL, the measurement signal can be
subject to error due to incomplete combustion). In presence of poisonous agents (such as H2S, SO2, silicon
compounds), sensors are subjects to a sensitivity reduction leading to underestimated measurements;
however, sensors with characteristics that fit all the most real situations are available on the market.

The Infrared (IR) detectors at point are characterised by high reliability, rapid response time, reduced
maintenance times, no poisoning and independence from oxygen presence. They are mainly used for
hydrocarbon vapours from 0-100% v/v; they cannot detect hydrogen and are inherently pressure-sensitive.

The Linear Infrared (IR) detectors (Open Path type), in addition to all the advantages listed for point IR
detectors, are able to detect gases/vapours along the optical path of their radiation beam which can be up to
200 m. The settings for Linear Infrared (IR) detectors will be defined during detailed engineering and will be
included between 0 LEL·meter and 5 LEL·meter for light hydrocarbons gas and between 0 LEL·meter and 2
LEL·meter for heavy hydrocarbons gas. PRE-ALARM and ALARM levels will be applied also for this type of
detector.

The thermal conductivity detectors can be used to complement catalytic detectors when they are used above
the LEL, they can used in the range 0.1-100% v/v. It only works well when differences in thermal conductivity
between the target gas and reference gas (air) are large, e.g. hydrogen or methane.

Flame ionisation detectors can be used for most hydrocarbon gases and vapours from ppm to % v/v levels. It
needs hydrogen to generate the flame and a clean air supply. It is fast and sensitive.

Flame Temperature detector is large and is used for flammable gases from 0-100% LEL. It has a fast
response but needs hydrogen to generate the flame and a clean air supply. Halons may cause false
readings.

Ultrasonic detector is a non-concentration based detector used to detect leaks from high pressure systems.
Theoretically, it provides 360º coverage and does not require transport of the gas to the sensor. Care is
needed in placement and false alarms may occur due to other ultrasonic emissions.
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Photo Ionisation detectors can be used for leak detection at very low levels The usage and range of this
detector are dependent on the energy of the UV lamp. Its range is from ppm to % v/v levels. The detector is
fast and sensitive but humidity may affect the readings. These detectors are small and can be handheld.

9.2.3 Toxic / Asphyxiating gas detection


Toxic gas detection system
The process fluids do not contain concentrations of toxic substances sufficient to present toxic hazard to
personnel which can be considered significant in relation to the hazard directly posed by the flammability of
the released material.
For above toxic gas detectors shall not be provided.

Asphyxiating gas detection system


Hydrogen gas detectors shall be provided for the battery rooms.
Hydrogen gas detectors, of catalytic type, shall be installed in the battery rooms of electrical substations,
telecommunication shelters and in the rooms where UPSs will be installed.

Two different alarm levels are foreseen for hydrogen gas detectors:
- PRE-ALARM level is achieved in case of one hydrogen gas detector (voting 1ooN, with N≥2)
reaches 15% of Lower Explosivity Limit (LEL);
- ALARM level (confirmed gas) with consequent activation of appropriate ESD actions is
achieved in case of at least two hydrogen gas detectors (voting 2ooN, with N≥2) reach 30%
of Lower Explosivity Limit (LEL).

9.3 Manual Alarm Call point


Manual alarm call points (MACs) shall be provided at strategic locations around the buildings and site areas
to alert control room operators in case of an accident occurs.

They shall be:


- mounted approximately 1.4 metres above floor height;
- easy to see;
- all the same colour and type;
- able to take minor knocks in exposed locations without initiating an alarm.

All manual alarm call points shall be wired individually to the F&G control system in order to identify exactly
where a pushbutton has been activated.

Manual alarm call points shall be located on exit routes and floor landings in buildings. In plant and utilities
areas, MACs shall be located at exit points and along escape routes. The Manual Call points shall be
provided with signs to enhance their visibility from access/escape routes.

The distance which a person must travel to reach a MAC should not exceed 30 m, in areas where personnel
are likely to be working, or present for long periods.

Manual alarm call points (MACs) shall be protected from accidental operation by a lift up flap and glass
cover.

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9.4 Alarms
The purpose of emergency alarm system is to raise the alarm in every part of the installation by means of
audible and status light and, where necessary, visual alarms located in areas of high ambient noise.
Fire detection and gas detection signals and alarms will be routed directly to the F&G system with repeats to
the ICSS.

Local optical acoustic alarms will be provided within the buildings and LERs, at the top of control building and
throughout the facilities.

In process areas, a horns shall be used for warning of either fire or gas detection. Audible alarms for Fire
and Gas system shall be distinguishable from audible alarms used for other purposes.

The selected colours of the transmitted light, power output and operation will be also clearly visible from all
area it covers and readily discernible against artificial lighting (for visual alarms installed inside buildings) or
sunlight (for visual alarms installed in open areas).
The visual alarms shall be located so that they will be accessible for maintenance.

The Fire & Gas system shall interface with the alarm system so that, in case of danger, an alarm signal will
be automatically broadcasted across the plant.

Detailed specifications about audible and visual alarm systems are reported in Fire & Gas Detection
Philosophies for each DGS and in the “Technical Specification for Fire & Gas Detection System”.

9.5 Public Address and General Alarm


The scope of the PA/GA (Public Address and General Alarm) System is to signal to the remote control centre
abnormal situations or malfunctions where the urgent intervention of qualified personnel is needed. The
purpose of this system is to inform field personnel during normal and also in emergency situation by verbal
announcement and alarms.

The PA/GA System consists of loudspeakers which must be strategically located through the plant area, in
order to enable personnel to listen to vocal messages or alarms from any point of the plant: the system shall
be audible at all plant points.

Answer-back facilities shall also be incorporated at strategic locations.

The system shall allow the application of an evacuation signal to one or more zones and, at the same time,
shall allow voice paging to the other zones selectively or in combination.

Detailed specifications about PA/GA system are reported in the “Technical Specification for Fire & Gas
Detection System”

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10.0 HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATION


In order to minimize the ignition probability of flammable gas cloud, the whole plant area shall be electrical
classified. The area classification shall be in accordance with the international standard API RP 505.

According to this standard the various areas of the installation shall be classified into zones defined as
follows:
- Class I, Zone 0 is a location in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or
vapours are present continuously or for long periods of time;
- Class I, Zone 1 is a location in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or
vapours are likely to exist under normal operating conditions or can exist frequently because
of repair, maintenance operations or leakage; or in which equipment breakdown or faulty
operations could result in the release of ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or
vapours and contemporaneously cause simultaneous failure of electrical equipment so that
the electrical equipment becomes a source of ignition; or that is adjacent to Class I, Zone 0
location from which ignitable concentrations of vapours could be communicated (unless
communication is prevented by adequate positive pressure ventilation from a source of clean
air and effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided);
- Class I, Zone 2 is a location in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or
vapours are not likely to occur in normal operation or, if they occur, exist only for a short
period (the used flammable liquids, gases, or vapours are normally confined within closed
containers from which they can escape, only as a result of accidental rupture of containers,
or as the result of the abnormal operation of the equipment with which they are processed);
or in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gases or vapours normally are preserved
by positive mechanical ventilation, but which may become hazardous as a result of failure or
abnormal operation of the ventilation equipment; or that is adjacent to Class I, Zone 1
location from which ignitable concentrations of vapours could be communicated, unless such
communication is prevented by adequate positive pressure ventilation from a source of clean
air and effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided.

In order to establish the hazardous zone types, the identification of the sources of release and the
determination of the grades of release shall be performed. The extent of classified locations is determined
only by the location of potential sources of release of flammable liquids, gases, and vapours, and not by the
location of sources of ignition.

The extent of the zone shall be mainly affected by the following chemical and physical parameters:
- Flammable Gas Release Rate (that depends itself on the physical characteristics/geometry
of the source of release, on the release velocity – related to process pressure – on the
concentration of flammable gas in the released mixture, and, in case of flammable liquid, on
its volatility and temperature);
- Lower Explosive Limit (the lower the LEL, the greater the extent of the classified zone);
- Ventilation (the greater the ventilation, the shorter the hazardous distances);
- Relative Density of Released Flammable Gas (the higher the relative density of the released
flammable gas, the longer the horizontal extent of the classified area at ground level; the
smaller the relative density, the wider the vertical hazardous area extent above the source);
- Climatic conditions;
- Topography.

For more detailed information on the Hazardous Area Classification see Doc. 00251030BFPU85070.

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11.0 ACTIVE & PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

11.1 General
Hydrocarbon fires are a principal concern in many processing facilities. There are many different types of
hydrocarbon fires. The mode of burning depends on characteristics of the material released, temperature
and pressure of release material, ambient condition, and time to ignition.

Types of hydrocarbon fires include:


- Jet Fire;
- Unconfined vapour cloud fires or flash fire;
- Pool fires;
- Running liquid fire (such as those involving elevated equipment, flowing fires, or pressure
leaks):
- Fire balls.

Other fires that can occur in specific areas within a process facility include:
- Solid material fires, e.g. fires involving wood, paper, dust, plastic, etc.
- Warehouse fires
- Electrical equipment fire, e.g. transformer fires.

Before the need of fire protection measures is defined, the type of hydrocarbon fire exposure should be
identified. By determining the type of fire expected, the adequacy of fire protection measures can be
evaluated.

The classes, in accordance with NFPA 1, of fire supposed to occur in the plant are the following:
- Class A: fires include those in which ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, and paper
are burning. Expected to occur in the buildings.
- Class B: fires are those in which flammable liquids, oils, and grease are burning. Expected to
occur within the production units, they could be produced by gases releases rather than
liquids spillages.
- Class C: fires are those involving live electrical equipment placed either outdoor or indoor.
- Class D: fires involve combustible metals such as magnesium, potassium, and sodium.
- Class K: fires in cooking appliances that involve combustible cooking media (vegetable or
animal oils and fats).

11.2 Active Fire Protection


The fire-fighting system design of oil and gas treating units shall be realised taking into account a lot of
factors such as environmental site installations conditions, area classification, plant capacity, the type of
installation (manned or unmanned, gas or oil plant), the type of fire etc.

All factors and reference normative that must be considered for a fire-fighting system proper design are
better described in NFPA standards, for onshore installations. In addition, it should be considered that local
laws and prescriptions could affect the fire-fighting system design.

Active fire protection shall be installed in order to:


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- extinguish/control fires and limit escalation;


- reduce the effects of a fire to allow personnel to undertake emergency response activities;
- limit damage to structures and equipment.

Active fire protection will be based on the use of fixed systems and/or portable extinguishers:
- hydrants, monitors and hoses water systems;
- fixed foam and foam/water systems;
- saturation fixed systems;
- Wheeled and portable firefighting extinguishers.

The HSE minimum requirements to be applied in the fixed firefighting systems design are the following:
- firefighting tanks, pumps, valves and main headers shall be segregated from potential fire
loads;
- firefighting rings shall ensure availability of water supply even in case of partial damage of
the main feeding lines;
- the firefighting systems capacity shall be in line with the “design case scenario” identified for
the new installations and fully dedicated to the firefighting service;
- the firewater storage shall be designed in order to provide twice the water demand of the
“design case scenario”;
- the design of the firefighting system shall allow for both automatic and manual initiation (from
both local and remote location). Stations for the manual initiation shall be located outside the
expected fire load areas, as defined by the design case scenario;
- the unavailability of firefighting system shall start the shutdown of the protected area.

A Fire Safety Assessment and Explosion Studies are developed during this Phase to evaluate if the active
fire protections are adequate to the plant.

Fire protection system should be designed to accomplish the following objectives:


- Exposure protection (cooling);
- Control of burning;
- Extinguishment of fire incident.

The active fire protection system provides the selection and application of most proper extinguishing agent
depending on the source of fire risk as well the need for control or protection against exposure, as
summarized below.

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Agent Equipment
To control / fight fires having origin at a selected
hazardous equipment.
Water (Fire Water)
To provide for exposure protection of selected fire
potential and hazardous equipment.
Low Expansion Foam
To fight unconfined pool fires originated by
Fluoroprotein (FP) 3%
flammable and combustible liquid release.
Solution
To provide fire extinguishing for the Gas turbine
CO2
enclosures and transformer enclosures.
To provide for fire extinguishing in all high and
Clean Agent (e.g.
medium voltage switchgear rooms, in unmanned
INERGEN)
substations and il LERs.
Wheeled / Portable fire
To provide first - aid fire extinguishing medium in
extinguishers using DCP
plant areas and buildings.
/ CO2 Media
Table 8: Firefighting agents

Exposure protection (cooling)


Fire protection systems achieve exposure by absorption of heat through application of extinguishing agents
removes or reduces the heat transferred to structures or equipment exposed to a fire.

Normally water is used for exposure protection.

Control of burning
Fire protection systems achieve control of burning by limiting the size of a fire by:
- Distribution of extinguishing agent to absorb heat released of decrease the heat release rate;
- Providing exposure protection to adjacent combustibles;
- Containment.

Extinguishment of fire incident


Fire protection systems achieve extinguishment of fire by:
- Reducing the heat release rate of a fire and preventing flashback by cooling;
- Separating fuel vapours from oxygen (smothering);
- Inhibiting chemical chain reaction.

The physical properties of the fuel involved in a fire will determine whether extinguishment by water spray or
foam/water spray is possible. In some scenarios extinguishment can be accomplished by surface cooling,
emulsification, or dilution (all of which reduce vapour release) or smothering by the steam produced.

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Some typical extinguishing agents are reported in the table below.

Fire
Mechanism
Protection
Agent of fire Advantages Limitations
System /
control
Equipment
Not for Class
C electrical Water Spray
fires Deluge
Freezing at System
0°C Sprinkler
Cooling System
Reactive with
Smothering Available some Water Fire
Water material, e.g. Monitor
Dilution Very low cost
sodium, Fire Hydrants
Exposure magnesium
Hose Reels
Cannot
extinguish Fire
low flash Extinguishers
point Water Curtain
materials
Not for
electrical fires Foam Deluge
Best for Foam blanket Systems
Foam Smothering Class B Pool may break-up
Fires Foam Fire
Not Monitors
applicable for
LPG
Reduces O2 Total
level Saturation
Smothering Non reactive Toxic to Extinguishing
Carbon people System
Reduction No residue
Dioxide (asphyxiant) Portable
Some cooling Class C Extinguishers
Not
applicable for Wheeled
oxidizers Extinguishers
Fire reflashes if Portable
Chain Class B and not completely Extinguishers
Dry Chemical breaking C extinguished or
Wheeled
hot surfaces
Extinguishers
are present
Total
Saturation
Chain Not for Extinguishing
Good for outdoor System
breaking class A, B
Clean Agent May produce
and C Portable
Inerting toxic gases Extinguishers
Wheeled
Extinguishers
Table 9: Advantages and limitations of extinguishing agents

The above described firefighting agents shall be applied to fire source and exposures by means of both fixed
and portable facilities as well as by means of fixed dedicated systems.
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Plant Area Summary


General Fire General
Utility
Unit Hazardous Building Substations
Area
Area Equipment Area
Double Headed
X X X X X
Hydrant
Automatic/Manual
Deluge Water - X - - -
Fixed Fire Fighting System

Spray System
Automatic/Manual
Deluge Foam/
- X - - -
Water Spray
System
Fire Fighting
X X X X X
Equip. Box
Fixed Water
X X - - -
Monitor
CO2 Fire
Extinguishing Note 2 X - - -
System
Automatic Clean
Note 1 - - - X
Agent System
Wheeled
Extinguishers (50 X X X - -
Fighting System

kg)
Mobile Fire

Hand Held
Extinguishers (9- X X X X X
12 kg)
Hand Held CO2
Extinguishers (5 - - X X X
kg)
Note 1: Automatic clean agent extinguishing system shall be supplied to protect all
Engineering rooms, Telecom and server rooms, Electrical rooms, Rack Rooms,
Technical rooms and LERs.
Note 2: The Co2 Extinguishing System shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 12/ 2001,
and shall be fully automatic in operation following a release signal form fire & gas
system. The system shall be provided with a 100% reserve bank of extinguishing
cylinders.

Table 10: Typical fire protection facilities for different plant area

11.3 Firefighting net


The firefighting network should be of the ring type (according to NFPA 24), designed to guarantee the
simultaneous feed of all systems to be utilised (during the Design Case Scenario). The pipe diameter of the
fire fighting ring net must be not less than 4". The firefighting network should be separated from the general
water service network and should always be pressurised; moreover, in emergency situations, it should be
fed by pumps able to satisfy the maximum water demand.

Considering the Eni standards and the specific requirements due to the Iraqi situations, the water reserve not
connected to inexhaustible source should be able to guarantee the feeding of the firefighting systems for at
least 6 hours plus 100% spare.

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The firefighting network will be equipped with fire hydrants sited at a maximum of 50 m apart and it should be
supplied with sectioning valves positioned to reduce at minimum the portion of network interested during
maintenance period, in accordance with Eni E&P experience.

11.3.1 Firefighting pumps


Firefighting net shall be constantly pressurized by at least two pressurising pumps (or jockey pumps), one
duty and one in standby to maintain the fire main pressure at 8-9 barg; each pump is designed to deliver 34
m3/h, which is sufficient to feed one fire hose without starting the main fire water pumps. An automatic device
will start the standby jockey pump in case of failure of duty jockey pump.

NFPA 20 section 9.3.2 and 9.3.3 state that for main firefighting pumps at least one alternate source of power
shall be provided where the normal source is not reliable except where a backup engine−driven or backup
steam turbine–driven fire pump is installed.
Furthermore, according to NFPA 20, main firefighting pumps having flowrate greater than 1135 m3/h should
be avoided.

Considering the above requirements the fire system shall be provided with main firefighting pumps as
follows:
- In case the water demand is less then 570 m3/h, it will be considered only one diesel engine
driven pump at 570 m3/h capacity plus one in order to guarantee the spare capacity.
- The number of electrically driven pumps is given by the ratio between the water demand (in
m3/h) and 1135 m3/h rounded up to the next integer. The percentage capacity of each pump
is the ratio between 100% and the number of electrically driven pumps.
- The number of diesel engine driven pumps is equal to the number of electrically driven
pumps plus one, and their capacity is equal to the capacity of electrically driven pumps

Therefore:
- if the required design flowrate is lower than 570 m3/h, one diesel engine driven pump at 570
m3/h capacity plus one diesel engine driven pump at same capacity;
- if the required design flowrate is lower than 1135 m3/h, one electrically driven pump at 100%
capacity plus two diesel engine driven pumps at 100% capacity;
- if the required design flowrate is greater than 1135 m3/h and lower than 2270 m3/h, two
electrically driven pump at 50% capacity plus three diesel engine driven pumps at 50%
capacity.
- if the required design flowrate is greater than 2270 m3/h and lower than 3405 m3/h , three
electrically driven pump at 33% capacity plus four diesel engine driven pumps at 33%
capacity, and so on.
NOTE – pump capacity higher than 1135 m3/h could be adopted only under the approval of
COMPANY, maintaining the full compliance to NFPA 20 (2010 edition) para 4.8.1 an
4.8.3.

11.3.2 Water system components


As regards to the manufacturing features of the water system equipment, please refer to NFPA standards.

Near each hydrant, a firefighting box must be positioned, having dimensions to contain a hose, a water
nozzle and the keys for the connection. In alternative to the full jet nozzles, the use of full and fog jet nozzles,
equipped with interception valve, is recommended.

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11.3.3 Fixed cooling system


The design, installation, operation and maintenance criteria of fixed water deluge systems and of their
components, should comply with NFPA 15 rules. Atmospheric tanks should be equipped with spraying fixed
cooling system.
The specific flowrate required for the cooling system shall be calculated from the heat radiation values on the
exposed surface of the tank, according to the following formula:
60 ⋅ I
Q=
4,186 ⋅ c p ⋅ ∆T
where:
Q= specific flowrate (l/(min·m2));
cp = 1 (water specific heat kcal/kg·°C);
I= radiation of the exposed surface (kW/ m2);
∆T = difference between water temperature at the output nozzle and the temperature
reached by water absorbing the radiation on the tank shell. To make sure that the
water temperature doesn't overcome the evaporation temperature, it is normally
used a ∆T value equal to 55°C.

In absence of heat radiation calculations it is recommended a minimum specific cooling flowrate of 36 l/min
for linear metre of circumference, both for floating roof tank and fixed roof tank, indifferently from the product
contained, and height of the tank.

The cooling water flowrate to the roof of fixed roof tank should be at least equal to 20% of the total water
flowrate on the tank shell. When the tank is among other tanks, it is necessary that the cooling distribution
ring can be sectioned at least in two sections.

On the distribution ring, opposite to the point where the mounting column is connected, a drain plug cock
must be foreseen. The vertical rod of ring feeding must be equipped with a drain valve and filter at the base.

On the cooling ring full cone nozzles with a dispersion angle of 120° with orifice not smaller than 5 mm must
be installed, in order to avoid clogging. The number of nozzles must be calculated in such a way that, the
overlap of jets, allows to wet evenly all the shell surface. The cooling ring must be mounted in such a way as
to allow an easy maintenance of nozzles from the walkway on the top of tank.

The deluge fixed cooling systems for equipment in process areas, must comply with the requirements of
NFPA 15 rules. A specific flowrate of 20.4 l/(min·m2) of the projected plan surface is recommended for the
protection of pumps, compressors and equipment containing liquids or flammable gas. On the contrary for
the protection of vessels, the specific flowrate indicated is of 10.2 l/(min·m2) of the surface to be protected.
Moreover between the operating machine (electric engine, gas turbine) and the compressor, a physical
separation must be foreseen through wall, plate or other, so that the cooling water strikes only the
compressor.

11.3.4 Fixed foam system

The design, installation, operating and maintenance criteria of fixed foam systems and of their components
must be in accordance with NFPA 11 rule. The foam concentrate will be stored in two tanks (100% capacity
for maximum anticipated demand +100% spare) and distributed directly diluted to the equipment to be
protected or alternatively pumped by two foam concentrate pumps, one duty and one spare, in a concentrate
foam network and then diluted to the equipment to be protected.

The choice of the type of foam depends on the type of the possible released material.

The foam delivery systems for protection of fixed roof tanks are made up of the following types:
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- foam chamber, which allows inlet of foam from the top of the tank through pourers;
- Sub Surface System (SSS), which allows inlet of foam from the bottom of the tank; in case of
only one foam delivery, the same product line can be used for inlet of foam from the bottom.

The specific flowrate of foam to be applied to the tanks both with foam chamber and with SSS must be of 4.1
l/(min·m2) of the liquid surface for an intervention time of 55 minutes.

The number of foam nozzles depends on the dimensions of the tank and on the type of system used, they
must be in accordance with NFPA 11.

The foam distributors from the top shall allow carrying out periodical tests on the system efficiency, through
the installation of a 3-way valve before the foam chamber. In the systems with foam chambers, the feeding
vertical rod of the water/foam mixture must be equipped with a drain valve at its bottom. In the systems
adopting inlet of foam from the bottom through the inlet line of the product, when calculating the inlet
manifold, the foam flowrate to be delivered must be kept into consideration.
The foam protection supply be via a dedicated deluge valve connection from the fire water ring main and
foam proportioning which shall induce the foam concentrate from the foam distribution ring main into the fire
water supply. Downstream of the proportioner the line shall be routed to the tank.

The foam delivery system for protection of floating roof tanks is made up of foam nozzles and pourers.

The minimal foam specific flowrate to be applied for protection of floating roof tanks is of 12.2 l/(min·m2) of
surface of the tank shell and foam dam ring and for an intervention time not lower than 20 min. The number
of foam pourers depends on the tank dimensions and on the foam containment bulkhead (foam dam) height
and in particular (NFPA 11):
- for round rings with foam dam having height of about 305 mm, n. 1 pourer each 12.2 meters;
- for round rings with foam dam having height of about 610 mm, n. 1 pourer each 24.4 meters.

The foam delivery time must not be lower than 20 minutes.

The minimal foam specific flowrate to be applied for protection of containment basins must be:
- with foam pourers: 4.1 l/(min·m2).

For process areas foam/water spray system shall be installed for primary protection, while fixed monitors
shall be installed for secondary protection of equipment like vessels, columns, and pumps handling
flammable or combustible liquid. The monitors shall be provided in sufficient numbers to ensure that all
equipment can be reached by at least one monitor. Monitors shall be located at a distance from expected fire
hazards to allow for safe operation. Water/Foam monitors shall also be provided where large flammable
liquid pool fires are likely to occur in the process area.

For process area the minimal flowrate of water/foam monitors shall be 2000 l/min. The foam solution shall be
designed to discharge for a period of 15 min (NFPA 11).

For electric transformers with oil, the fire fighting protection will be realised with a fixed system equipped with
an automatic deluge high velocity water spray system. This system shall be designed and installed in
accordance with NFPA 15 using an application rate of 10.2 l/min m2 on all exposed surface. Near each
transformer the positioning of a 50 kg wheeled chemical powder fire extinguisher will be foreseen.

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11.3.5 Oil separation decantation basins and plant basins surrounded by rise border

The protection of basins and plant basins surrounded by rise border must be in accordance with the
requirements of NFPA 11 rule and in particular:
- with fixed systems installed at basin edge level: 6.5 l/(min·m2) for an intervention time of 15
minutes with proteinic or fluorproteinic foams or 4.1 l/(min·m2) using AFFF, FFFP, AR-AFFF,
AR-FFFP foam types independently from the type of activation, manual and/or automatic;
- with monitors: 6.5 l/(min·m2) for an intervention time of 15 minutes independently from the
type of foam used.

If oil separation/decantation basins are divided into different sectors, it is necessary to foresee for those
sectors where the possibility of fire is most probable because of hydrocarbons stagnation a suitable number
of nozzles for delivery of the required specific flowrate.

11.3.6 Saturation fixed system


Saturation fixed systems must be realised in accordance with NFPA 12 and NFPA 2001. When choosing the
saturation fixed systems it must be kept into consideration that the level of protection and the obtained safety
level do not depend on the type of extinguisher adopted, but on the design accuracy, on the exactness of
dimensioning and on the quality of realisation.

11.3.7 Mobile and portable firefighting equipment


Fixed firefighting systems are normally integrated with portable and wheeled extinguishers. The provision of
on site portable and mobile fire fighting equipment shall allow for intervention by personnel. Mobile wheeled
equipment (water/foam monitors) must be positioned in a safe area, near the process areas, whose technical
and operating features must be as per NFPA 10.

The tables on ANNEX 6 give the criteria for the selection of the Firefighting System for each plant unit to be
protected.

11.3.8 Water storage replenishment system


This system shall be sized adequately to allow the replenishment of the water storage in a time sufficiently
short to limit disruption after usage of the fire water for fire-fighting.

The replenishment system shall include easy-to-clean suction strainer facilities. Provisions for possible
injection of chemicals against algae growth and/or corrosion inhibition in the replenishment and storage
system shall be made.

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11.4 Fireproofing
The fireproofing is applied to prevent escalation, to avoid damage to the adjacent equipment, to allow safe
evacuation of personnel and to ensure minimal delay in the restart of the plant following a fire.

The principal value of fireproofing is realized during the early stages of a fire when efforts are primarily
directed at shutting down units, isolating fuel flow to the fire, actuating fixed suppression system, and setting
up cooling water streams.
During this critical period, if non fireproofed pipe and equipment supports lose their strength due to fire-
related heat exposure, they could collapse and cause gasket failures, line breaks, and hydrocarbon leaks. In
addition, if control or power wiring is incapacitated, it may become impossible to operate emergency isolation
valves, vent vessels, or actuate fire-damaged automatic or manually activated water spray systems.
Fireproofing does not extinguish fires and may have no significant effect on the final extent of property
damage if intense fire exposure persists significantly longer than designed into the fireproofing system.
Cooling from fixed firewater, if activated while fireproofing is still protective, can extend the effective time of
passive fire protection beyond its nominal fire resistance rating, provided that the force of the firewater
application does not damage or dislodge the fireproofing material.

The criteria for the application of fireproofing will be based on API 2218. The Fire Envelopes, defined by API
2218 as the area subjected to a radiant heat higher than 12.5 kW/m2, will be identified on the basis of the
consequences evaluation.

In “Fire Safety Assessment Methodology” (Ref. [2]) is reported the detailed methodology to identify the
fireproofing zones and the threshold values for domino effect (see Errore. L'origine riferimento non è stata
trovata. of this document) used to define the equipment and structures that shall be fireproofed.

The extensions of fire scenario envelope shall be used to:


- review the position and the fireproofing requirements for multilevel equipment structures, air
coolers, vertical and horizontal vessels and exchangers located within a Fireproofing Zone
(FPZ);
- review the position and the fireproofing requirements for SDVs, BDVs and deluge valves;
- identify sections of piperacks that shall be passively fire protected.

11.5 Fire brigade, facilities and equipment


The Fire Station, provided in a strategic and safe location, shall include as a minimum:
- A fire engine suction riser pipe positioned adjacent to fire water tank
- A control room complete with all necessary facilities for the management of the emergency
situations.
- Facilities for the Fire Brigade staff, such as offices, dressing room, etc.
- Operations and washing facilities
- In wharehouse shall be stored types of equipment as: fire man’s helmet, fire man’s boot, fire
man’s gloves, SCBA, air compressor for cylinders, etc.

The fire brigade shall be provided with facilities to tackle all anticipated fire and explosion hazards. The fire
fighting facilities to be provided should include the following vehicles:

- Fire trucks
- Rapid intervention Vehicle (Jeep)
- Crash rescue tender
- Ambulance

And following equipments:


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- Trailer mounted Fire Pump


- Mobile diesel generator
- Lighting set

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12.0 HVAC SYSTEM


HVAC System shall minimise the amount of flammable or toxic gases inside closed room where process
equipment are present. HVAC System has to be designed according to 07636.MOD.SAF.PRG Specification.

A Forced Ventilation System will be required:

1. enclosed hazardous areas (where flammable/toxic gas accumulation may occur);


2. enclosed non-hazardous areas adjacent to open hazardous areas;
3. areas/rooms which are required to be in operation during an emergency;
4. accommodation and temporary refuge where comfortable environment for personnel shall be
ensured.

The HSE minimum requirements to be applied in the Forced Ventilations Systems (FVS) design are:
- air intakes shall be free from hazardous pollutants, monitored for smoke presence or
concentrations of hazardous/toxic gas and provided with automatic shutdown systems;
- positive pressure shall be ensured inside areas 2, 3 and 4 of the list above;
- air outlets from hazardous areas shall be collected/diverted in order to prevent manned
areas, EER systems and non-hazardous areas to be adversely affected;
- FVS shall be operative in emergency;
- for enclosed hazardous areas where vapours heavier than air can be present (i.e.
enclosures in which LP, flammable refrigerants, and flammable vapours are handled), a
portion of the ventilation shall be supplied in proximity of the lowest level exposed to such
vapours.

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13.0 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS


Drainage systems are an important part of both fire and environment protection but their design demands
careful consideration because they have been involved in a large proportion of accidents within oil and gas
processing facilities.

The objectives of a drainage system are:


- to convey accidentally spilled flammable liquids;
- to supply a way for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of liquid inventory;
- to handle surface water (i.e. rain water).

The capacity of drainage system should be such that it can handle both the worst credible spill coincident
with any deluge and/or fire fighting activities, and surface water (i.e. rain water).

The system should be such that transmission of spilled flammable materials from one area to another is
precluded. Open drains are essentially collected from open drip-pans and floors. Closed drainage systems
are hard piped from process vessels and equipment.

The drainage system shall consider the following basic criteria:


- a “zero discharge policy” shall be adopted in order to avoid discharges of produced waters to
surface waters or land before a suitable treatment;
- hazardous and non-hazardous open drains shall be separate with no interconnections;
- hazardous closed drains shall be separate from all open drainage systems;
- the probability of blockage shall be minimised, inspection and clearance of sediment shall be
enabled;
- the degree of contamination of individual drainage stream shall be taken into consideration in
order to optimise the waste treatment facilities;
- the possibility to spread fire or flammable liquids shall be avoided;
- the pollution of the sea, watercourses, ground water and soil shall be minimized;
- the release of toxic materials to the atmosphere shall be reduced;
- the pressure of the disposal stream shall be analysed;
- the degree of contamination (continuous or accidental) shall be studied;
- the area around the collection point, where flammable atmosphere can be present, shall be
classified (see section 8);
- kerbs or drip pans should be provided around new flow tanks and gas boots to limit the
spread of small spills.

The design of the drainage system should take into account the characteristics of the individual stream in
order to optimise the disposal. The following types of effluent categories can be recognised:

- White drainages: they are normally discharged without any treatment, anyway they must
always have a collecting basin at the plant outlet;
- accidentally oil drainages: they are normally clean but the possibility of pollution cannot be
excluded a priori;
- oily drainages: they contain surely polluting substances;
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- glycol drainages: they contain surely glycol concentrated over 160 COD.

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14.0 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN SYSTEM


The Emergency Shutdown (ESD) shall be designed to provide safe shutdown of the plant in order to prevent
the development of hazardous conditions that may be caused by a process upset or an external event such
as a fire or a gas release. The purpose of shutdown is to make the elements of the Facility safe by isolating a
risk (hydrocarbon inventory).

The ESD system shall operate completely independently from the DCS. Since any shutdown shall result in
potential production losses, consideration shall also be given to minimising spurious trips.

ESD is mainly initiated automatically, via process devices, and/or manually via pushbuttons positioned both
locally and in control room.

ESD shall be operable also in case of loss of power, and shall be fed by UPS able to provide power for at
least the time necessary to achieve a safe plant shutdown.
Emergency Response equipment shall remain functional for the time necessary to effect the evacuation
(protection of personnel).

The Safety Requirements for Shut Down Valves are as follows:


- all SDVs and BDVs shall be fail-safe;
- the need for passive fire protection of SDVs and BDVs shall be assessed on the basis of the
criteria given in Section 9.2;
- by-passing of SDVs shall be normally not permitted;
- shall be survive the Hazardous events occurring in the protected area and shall be
accessible in emergency;
- all BDVs shall have the local air accumulator.

Emergency shutdown sequence can be activated manually by the operator from the ESD panel in control
room or automatically by ESD system. The effects of ESD upon project facilities, based on emergency level,
shall be in accordance to the specific ESD levels defined in “Control and Shutdown Philosophies” for DGSs,
and they shall assure the following actions:
- automatic activation of firefighting system (when foreseen);
- alert of operator by means of audible and visual alarms;
- facilities/plant shutdown;
- system/plant depressurization (when foreseen).

14.1 Shut Down Levels description


The Shut Down system shall be designed considering four ESD levels, two PSD levels and one LSD level

• ESD Level 0: Manual Activation – Total plant shut down and depressurization
according to a defined sequence;
• ESD Level 1: Manual Activation – Total plant shut down and depressurization of
specific area;
• ESD Level 2: Automatic Activation – Total plant shut down and depressurization of
impacted fire area;
• ESD Level 3: Automatic and Manual Activation – Total plant shut down without
depressurization in case of confirmed gas detection activation;

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• PSD Level 0: Automatic and Manual Activation – Total plant shut down without
depressurisation;
• PSD Level 1: Automatic and Manual Activation – Single oil treatment train shut
down without depressurization;
• LSD: Automatic and Manual Activation – Equipment shut down. The equipment
level of shut down refers to automatic equipment shut down resulting from
protection of individual equipment items or process trips.

The “Total Plant Shutdown” mentioned in all Level of ESD and in PSD Level 0, is referred to the total
shutdown for only New DGS (not for the overall DGS Plant at the same time).

The ESD/PSD Levels for the project shall be described in detail in Control and Shutdown Philosophy for
DGSs.

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15.0 BLOWDOWN (DEPRESSURIZATION) SYSTEM


A fundamental policy of the Zubair Project is for “zero emissions” during normal operation of the plant.

This document shall therefore be intended to provide a reliable method for the controlled and safe disposal
of hydrocarbon/toxic gas and the containment of associated liquid during pressure relief or depressurisation
of the process facilities during an emergency condition.

However, depressurisation may be required for both operational/maintenance reasons and emergency
situations. During an emergency, it shall be used as a means of rapidly reducing the pressure in the process
plant to significantly below the operating pressure and reducing the inventory available that could exacerbate
any fire and/or release.

The hydrocarbon containing systems will be depressurised in the safest possible manner. Each isolable
section will be depressurised in an emergency blowdown situation based on an evaluation of the perceived
risks.

Process equipment shall be provided with actuated isolation valves to allow remote isolation of different
production facility sections in case of emergency (i.e. fire), in order to minimise hydrocarbons and/or toxic
gas release.
Each section shall be equipped with actuated depressurisation valves to allow remote depressurisation of
different production facility sections in case of emergency.

The Emergency Flare & Blowdown System shall be sized for the worst credible blowdown case. The Flare
shall be design in accordance with API 521 while the Blowdown System with API 520.

The overall peak blowdown loads shall be calculated on the basis that the whole facility is depressurised
simultaneously. If the overall peak blowdown loads exceed the design of the flare systems then
consideration shall be given to sequential depressurization (according to HSE minimum design requirements
sequentially depressurization is generally not allowed, unless it is demonstrated to be acceptable through a
dedicated risk analysis)

In emergency conditions, depressurisation system will be able to remove gas in order to reduce the
equipment internal pressure.
In general all sections requiring blowdown must be isolated and depressurised to half their design pressure
or 6.9 barg, whichever is lower in 15 minutes under external fire conditions (according to API RP 521).

The typical blowdown arrangement shall include an automatic depressurisation line with a Blowdown Valve
(EDV) followed by a Restriction Orifice and a manual depressurisation line; both lines shall be connected to
the blowdown header.

The cooling effect during depressurisation shall be carefully evaluated, both for automatic emergency
depressurisation and for manual depressurisation, taking into consideration the normal operating
temperature of the fluids. Equipment and blowdown headers materials shall be selected according to the
minimum temperature expected in these conditions.

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16.0 FLARE AND VENT SYSTEMS


The primary function of the flare system is to use combustion to convert flammable, toxic, or corrosive
vapours to less offensive compounds.

The design of the venting/flaring system shall be in accordance with API 521 and shall consider the following
points:
- a locally/remotely controlled knock out system shall be provided when liquids are foreseen
during the plant life cycle in the flared/vented gas stream; the knock out vessel shall be
located at the lowest point of the blowdown system;
- the knock out system shall be sized for the maximum amount of liquid that is expected to be
relieved during emergency situations;
- a high/very high level control system shall be included in the flare/vent system to guarantee
prompt removal of excess liquids by means of a dedicated system fed by an emergency
power source;
- flare/vent system shall be protected against flame back (e.g. water seal, flame arrestor,
purging).

The flare system shall be design including a spare for each flare.

Heat radiation will be the controlling factor in the spacing of the flares. Table 11 presents recommended
design total radiation levels for personnel. The extent and the use of personal protective equipment can
allow exposure times greater than those listed in the following table.

Table 11: Recommended design thermal radiation for personnel.

A sun-radiation-contribution adjustment to the values given in Table 11 shall be evaluated on a case-by-case


basis: in fact, while an adjustment of 0.79 kW/m2 - 1.04 kW/m2 (250 Btu/h·ft2 - 330 Btu/h·ft2) to a 6.31 kW/m2
(2000 Btu/h·ft2) level will have a relatively small impact on flare cost, the same adjustment to a 1.58 kW/m2
(500 Btu/h·ft2) level could result in a too significant increase in cost.
It is suggested to consider the solar contribution only for the radiation greater than 1.58 kW/m2.

The DGSs of Zubair Oil Field will be characterised only by the Emergency Flaring Mode, during this period
the gas produced in the DGSs will sent to battery limit; the flares will be used only in case of emergency.

Table 12 summarizes the maximum permissible radiation levels for the flare system at the DGSs.
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Heat radiation
Description Note
limits

The flare base is considered as the


location where emergency action by
personnel (with special protective
Radiation Limit at apparel) is allowed.
8.51 kW/m2
the flare base
Therefore the heat radiation limit at the
flare base shall be (9.46 - 0.95) 8.51
kW/m²
At the boundary of the sterile area the
heat radiation area shall be as maximum
Radiation Limit at 6.31 kW/m² including the effect of solar
5.36 kW/m2 Perimeter of Sterile radiation.
Area Therefore the heat radiation limit at the
boundary of the sterile area shall be (6.31
- 0.95) = 5.36 kW/m²
At maintenance points the heat radiation
shall be as maximum 4.73 kW/m²
including the effect of solar radiation.
Radiation level at Therefore the Heat radiation limit at
3.78 kW/m2
maintenance point maintenance points shall be (4.73 - 0.95)
= 3.78 kW/m²
This value has been used to spacing the
flares of a group, the access road.
At points where personnel could be
Radiation Limit for present for long time the heat radiation
points where shall be as maximum 1.58 kW/m²
1.58 kW/m2 personnel could be excluding the effect of solar radiation.
present for long
time This value has been used to spacing a
group of flares from an other.

Table 12 Maximum permissible heat radiation levels at the DGSs

In the document “Flare/Vent Thermal Radiation and Gas Dispersion Study Methodology” it is reported the
detailed description of methodology to design the flare system, in order to comply with the criteria and
threshold values reported above.

According to HSE Minimum Design Requirement the fence of the flare area will be located to be such that no
more than 3 kW/m2 radiation (including solar radiation) from flares in emergency situation is experienced
outside the fence.

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17.0 EMERGENCY ESCAPE, EVACUATION AND RESCUE SYSTEM

17.1 Safety Signs and Notices


Safety signs shall be positioned in the plant in way to quickly and clearly attract attention only to situations
which can cause safety hazards.

Whenever risks cannot be avoided or sufficiently limited with measures, methods, work organization systems
or technical means of collective protection, safety signs can be employed to:
- warn people that could be exposed to a risk hazard;
- prohibit behaviours which could cause hazard;
- specify particular behaviour necessary to safeguard health;
- supply information about safety exits or means of aid or rescue;
- give information useful to avoid the occurrence of incidents/accidents.

The main categories of safety signals are


- prohibition;
- warning;
- obligation;
- indication of location of means of rescue, first aid, firefighting materials and equipment;
- escape routes and emergency exits.

Permanent signboards shall be used for signs relating to prohibitions, warning, mandatory requirements and
the location of emergency escape routes and first-aid facilities.

Signboards and/or a safety colour shall be used to mark permanently the location and identification of fire-
fighting equipment.

Places where there is a risk of colliding with obstacles or of failing or where personnel are exposed to a
special hazard shall be permanently marked with a safety colour and/or with signboards.

Signs and/or acoustic signals shall be used where it will be required to alert personnel for danger, to advise
personnel to take specific actions and in case of emergency evacuation.

The safety colours to be used on signs are indicated in Table 13.

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Meaning or
Colour Instruction and information
purpose
Dangerous behaviour/ Danger alarm/ Stop
Prohibition sign, Shutdown/ Emergency cut out devices/
RED
Fire safety Evacuate/ Fire-fighting equipment
identification and location
YELLOW Warning sign Be careful/ Take precaution / Examine
Specific behaviour or action/ Wear personnel
BLUE Mandatory sign
protective equipment
Emergency
escape, Doors/ Exits/ Equipment/ Facilities/ No
GREEN
danger/ Return to normal
First Aid
Supplementary
WHITE
information
Table 13: Safety colours

Contrast colours can complement the safety colours and can be useful to improve the visibility of the signs
and to highlight their content. The contrast colours corresponding to the various safety colours are indicated
in Table 14.

Safety colour Contrast colour


Red White
Yellow Black
Green White
White Black
Blue White
Table 14: Contrast colours

The shapes of safety signs are shown in Table 15.

SHAPE
Safety
colour Triangular
Circle Rectangle or Square
(Horizontal Base)
Red Prohibition Firefighting equipment
Yellow Warning
Emergency escape
Green
First Aid
Blue Obligation
White Information
Table 15: Shape of safety signs

The symbol shall be simple and essential; its size shall be proportional to the size of the sign in order to
facilitate its perception and comprehension. The symbol or text shall be located at the centre of the sign. The
text shall not be inserted inside symbol (only for restriction signs this is permissible). The language that shall
be used for text of signal is the local one (Arabic) and English.
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Text may be used to supplement or clarify the meaning of the graphical symbols: in this case the size of the
table containing the text shall be proportional to the area of the sign. An additional or auxiliary sign must be
rectangular in shape, with the same maximum dimension as the safety sign it accompanies, and it must be
placed underneath the safety sign.

Borders are recommended to achieve contrast between the safety and/or supplementary sign and the
surrounding. The value of the border is 0.025 to 0.05 of the geometric shape.

The relationship between the greatest distance from which the safety sign is legible and conspicuous in
shape and colour and the height of the safety sign together with the distance factor Z is given by the
following equation:

h=l/Z

where:

- l is the distance of observation;


- h is the height of the sign;
- Z is the factor of distance = 1 / tan α (see Figure 2);
- h and l have the same units.

Figure 2: Example for the angular extension of a safety sign.

The factor Z depends on the height of the sign, on the size of the critical details, on the luminance of the sign
and on its contrast against the surrounding. The ratio r as a quotient of the height of the sign to that of the
size of the critical detail shall be 15 or less. Where r is greater than 15, the value of Z shall be corrected by a
multiplication factor of 15/r. Under this geometric condition, the uncorrected factor of distance Z valid for
illuminated signs shall be 100 if the incident luminance of the signs surface is more than 50 lx and preferably
more than 80 lx. Transilluminated exit signs and directional escape route signs with average luminance of
the contrast colour greater than 500 cd/m2 shall double the factor of distance and therefore the observation
distance. They also shall be sufficiently conspicuous in bright surroundings. In dark surroundings, the
luminance shall be reduced to avoid glare or disturbance.

Safety signs shall not be made of radioactive material, glass or materials which can be subject to rust. If hard
material will be used the edges of signs shall be rounded. Sticky labels signs could be used on protective
panel of electrical equipment.

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The presence of another emission source of the same type which interferes with visibility or audibility would
impair effectiveness of the signs and shall be avoided, in particular:
- the placing of too many signs too close together should be avoided;
- two illuminated signs which are likely to be confused shall not be used at the same time;
- two acoustic signals are not to be used at the same time;
- an acoustic signal is not to be used, or shall be supplemented by, if there is too much
ambient noise.

Also poor design, insufficient number, incorrect positioning, poor state of repair or incorrect functioning of the
signs shall be avoided.

Depending on requirements, signs and signalling devices shall be cleaned, maintained, checked, repaired
and if necessary replaced on a regular basis to ensure that they will retain their functional qualities.

The number and positioning of sign or signalling devices to be installed will depend on the extent of the
hazards or dangers and on the zone to be covered.

Signs requiring some form of power shall be provided with a guaranteed emergency supply in the event of
power cut, unless the hazard will thereby be eliminated.

The sign or signal shall be activated for as long as the action requires. Illuminated signs and acoustic signals
shall be reactivated immediately after use and checked to ensure that they function correctly (both before
they are put again into service and at fixed, sufficiently frequent intervals).

If the hearing and the sight of the concerned workers are impaired, including the impairment caused by the
wearing of personal protective equipment, specific measures shall be adopted to supplement or replace the
signs.

Areas, rooms or enclosures used for the storage of significant quantities of dangerous substances or
preparations shall be indicated by a suitable warning sign, unless the labelling of the individual package or
container is adequate for this purpose.

For more detailed information on the safety signs see ISO 3864-1, 3864-2, 3864-3.

17.2 Escape and evacuation


The safe routes to emergency exits and the location of safe areas or emergency equipment shall be
indicated by Emergency and/or Evacuation signs. The safety colour shall be green and the shape shall be
rectangular; the contrast colour could be used in the symbol and for a narrow border of 1/20th of the longest
side in width.

Emergency lighting shall be provided along the escape routes.

In accordance with NFPA 101, section 7.8, emergency illumination shall be provided for a minimum of 1.5
hours in the event of failure of normal lighting. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial
illumination that is not less than an average of 10.8 lux and, at any point, not less than 1.1 lux, measured
along the main of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to not less than an
average of 6.5 lux and, at any point, not less than 0.65 lux at the end of 1.5 hours. A maximum-to-minimum
illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded.

The emergency lighting system shall be arranged to provide the required illumination automatically in the
event of any interruption of normal lighting due to any of the following:
- Failure of a public utility or other outside electrical power Supply;
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- Opening of a circuit breaker or fuse;


- Manual act(s), including accidental opening of a switch controlling normal lighting facilities.

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18.0 SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND EMERGENCY FACILITIES

18.1 Emergency showers and eyewash facilities


The emergency shower and eyewashes shall be manufactured in accordance with the internationally
recognised requirements of ANSI Z358.1.

The emergency showers shall be designed to flush the user’s head and body. They should not be used to
flush the user’s eyes because the high rate or pressure of water flow could damage the eyes in some
instances.
The eyewashes shall be designed to flush the eye and face only.
The safety stations will be constituted by an eyewash and emergency shower combination.

Each emergency shower, eyewash and safety station shall be positioned considering the following
requirements:
- to be located as close to the hazard as possible;
- to be positioned in unobstructed and accessible locations that require no more than 10
seconds for the injured person to reach along an unobstructed pathway;
- to be identified with a highly visible sign;
- to be not obscured from view in all directions and, where visual obstructions cannot be
avoided, means shall be provided to indicate their locations;
- to be located on the same floor as the hazard;
- to be located, where feasible, near an emergency exit so that the victim can be reached
easily by emergency responsible personnel;
- to be located in an area where further contamination will not occur.

The areas where the emergency shower, eyewash or safety stations are located shall be suitably lighted.
The emergency shower and eyewash shall be supplied by potable water and shall be provided with drainage
system for the excess water (the water may be considered a hazardous waste and special regulations may
apply).

The bio-purity of the water shall be guaranteed and the water quality in the circulating water system shall not
be altered. Adequate treatment and possibility of draw-off shall be provided to limit the development of
bacteria as Legionella.
In particular, the eyewashes shall have the spray heads protected from airborne contaminants.

The design and material selection for the emergency showers and eyewashes located externally shall take
into account the atmospheric conditions (i.e. high ambient temperature that may occur), considering that the
maximum temperature allowed shall be 36°C. Therefore adequate system to avoid high temperature water
shall be provided.

The safety showers shall be supplied with dedicated water tanks. Water tanks shall be provided with sun
shades and painted white.

The emergency showers and eyewashes shall be capable to operate for a minimum of 15 minutes.
The emergency shower and eyewash of the safety stations shall be able to be used simultaneously by the
same individual.

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18.2 Safety station location


The safety stations, which will be an eyewash and emergency shower combination, shall be provided in all
areas where operators could come in contact with harmful substances to people (i.e. caustic, acid or
eye/skin irritants).

Safety stations shall be provided in the following area:


- Chemicals pump and injection areas;
- Chemical storage;
- Process utility areas (if necessary);
- Strategic location within the process areas;
- Laboratory.

18.2.1 Wind indicators


Windsocks shall be provided inside plant area and flare area at conspicuous location and in an upwind
direction. Windsocks will be used to verify wind blowing direction to allow safe escape of plant personnel in
case of accident.

18.3 Fire blanket


A fire blanket is designed to smother a small incipient fire by cutting off its oxygen supply.
The fire blankets shall be provided inside the plant control building, the laboratory and in the workplace
where sparks and fire are a major risk (e.g. welding workplace).

18.4 Personnel safety

18.4.1 Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE)


Suitable safety helmets and safety boots shall be provided for use on the plant.
Sufficient protective clothing (eye protectors, ear protectors, goggles, gloves, and overalls) must be provided
for all personnel engaged in operations where they are exposed to risk of injury.
Portable flammable gas detectors shall be provided, together with oxygen depletion monitors for tank entry.
All equipment provided must be kept clean and in a good state of repair and condition and be readily
available for use when required by a responsible person.

18.4.2 Lifting appliances


All lifting appliances and every item of lifting equipment shall be examined and tested. Each item shall be
legibly marked with its safe working load and identification number.

18.4.3 Machinery guarding


All exposed moving parts on all machinery will be suitably guarded to protect personnel from injury. Guards
and safety devices provided will be well maintained and kept in position whilst machinery is running. They
should only be removed under a work permit.

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18.4.4 Personnel protection against hot and cold surfaces


Reasonable safeguards will be adopted to eliminate the possibility of accidents caused by personnel coming
into contact with either hot or cold surfaces which will can cause partial shock or injury.

Where surfaces will be deliberately exposed to emit heat or perform cooling functions, suitable identification
shall be provided to give adequate warning to personnel.

On the contrary, where surfaces will not be necessarily exposed (e.g. pipework or process vessel surfaces),
suitable insulation to personnel protection shall be applied to the surface in case of one of the following
criteria is met:
- Temperature higher than 70°C for metallic and non-metallic surfaces accessible by
personnel (e.g. installed on permanent working floor level or at high levels but reachable
through ladders or any portable access equipment);
- Temperature equal or lower than -10°C for surfaces accessible by personnel.

Where the application of insulation will not practicable/feasible, a suitable guard placed at adequate distance
from the surface or warning signs shall be installed.

The design should not rely on personnel wearing gloves or other PPE, except for items such as handrails,
which may exceed 70°C due to solar heating and where the use of insulation would be impractical.

18.4.5 First aid kits


First aid medical kits shall be available on the plant in strategic positions.
The first aid kits shall be supplied in accordance with a recognised standard and as a minimum it shall
contain the following items:
- Bandages;
- Absorbent cotton wool;
- Dressings (various sizes);
- Absorbent ribbon gauze;
- Scissors;
- Safety pins.

18.5 Breathing apparatus


The following types of breathing apparatus shall be provided:
- Portable breathing apparatus air supply shall be available in areas where not negligible
quantities of process fluids containing toxic substances are normally handled;
- Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) shall be provided and used by fire brigade
personnel during emergency operation, in case of the judgment of the person in charge (i.e.,
Fire Chief, Incident Commander, Safety Officer, etc.) deems hazardous, suspected of being
hazardous, or could rapidly become hazardous the atmosphere.

18.6 Emergency Safety Cabinet


Emergency Safety Cabinet (ESC) is storage cabinet for First aid medical kits, Fire Blanket and/or other
Safety Equipment. They shall be available on the plant in strategic positions.

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19.0 EMERGENCY ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS


An Emergency Power Generation System (EPG) shall be located in a dedicated safe area, separated from
the Main Power Generation system and protected against fire and explosion events. The EPG shall supply,
at least, the following utilities (Ref. [6]):
- External Communications;
- Internal Communications;
- Emergency Lightings;
- Electrical Firewater Pumps;
- Safety Controls (including F&G and ESD Systems) and Critical Monitoring Equipment.

An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system shall be provided, located in a dedicated safe area and shall
supply, at least, the following utilities:
- Fire & Gas Detection system;
- Emergency Shutdown (ESD) system;
- Process Control System (PCS) and Control Panels;
- Public Address/General Alarm (PA/GA) system;
- Internal and External Telecommunication systems.

All Safety Critical Elements (SCEs) shall be either ‘Fail Safe’ or provided with an alternative energy supply
system intended to survive and be active in emergency.

The SCEs are defined as any part of an installation or plant (including computer software):
- the failure of which could cause or contribute to a major incident, or
- a purpose of which is to prevent, or limit the effect of, a major incident.

All safety and emergency systems are Safety Critical Elements. However, other systems that provide a
preventive or protective barrier against the hazardous events or could result in a major incident in case of
failure are to be considered as SCEs.

The availability of the Emergency Energy Supply Systems shall be in compliance with the EER (Escape
Evacuation and Rescue) Plan.

The electrical plant at the new facilities shall be arranged in different voltage levels and systems to supply all
the users according to their classification and characteristics.

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Normal users Users needed for the normal activities of


production and permanently extended activities,
the lack of which doesn’t cause hazardous
situations or grave disruptions.
Emergency (or preferential) Alternative power supply of these users is
users needed to provide continuity to the service to
prevent the instrumentation devices and the plant
from being damaged and to provide, in general,
for the restoration of normal operating conditions
(e.g. Emergency Lighting).
Vital (or essential) users Users needed for life safeguarding, security
throughout the plant and for the proper
functioning of fundamental services (e.g. ESD
and F&G Systems)

Classification and description of power sources and operating conditions:

Normal power source Power source derived from external 400kV power
distribution network through a dedicated 400kV
substation.
When the normal power source is available and
all the users (normal, emergency and vital
classified) are supplied by it through their
relevant power distribution systems, the DGS’s
electrical plant is in normal operating conditions.
Emergency power sources Alternative power supply to the normal power
source, installed inside the DGS. The emergency
power source is provided by low voltage
emergency diesel generators (EDGs). In case of
lack of normal power source, the emergency
power source supplies the emergency and vital
classified users through their relevant power
distribution systems. In this case, the part or the
whole DGS’s electrical plant affected by the lack
of normal power supplies is in emergency
operating conditions.
Vital power source The vital power source supplies the vital
classified users through the vital power
distribution system. In case of lack of both normal
and emergency power supplies to these users,
battery sets feed the vital classified users in an
uninterruptible way for a certain time frame
deemed necessary to restore at least the
emergency power supply.

The emergency classified loads shall be directly supplied by the Emergency Panels (EPs), which have a
supply from the normal power source and from a dedicated EDG.
The vital classified users shall be supplied through separated AC and DC UPSs.

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20.0 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS


In this paragraph are described all the environmental requirements that should be satisfied during plant
design and operation, in compliance with air, water and noise Iraqi reference laws/regulations and/or
international guidelines. Construction phase and exceptional, non-regular, abnormal situations are excluded.

All the Iraqi legislation quoted in the next sub-section and listed in Appendices ANNEX 7 – Iraqi
environmental regulations, in Arabic and English, has been provided by ENI in June 2010.

20.1 Air Quality

20.1.1 Emission limits


Iraq Law (2009) - "Emission Limits of Air Pollutants" - contains the maximum allowable emission limits of
gaseous pollutants that can be emitted from stationary sources, hydrocarbon fuel combustion sources, solid
waste incinerators, hazardous and medical wastes incinerators.

The following tables list the emission limits. Consider that the term “Annex (x)” that appear in the tables is the
term used in Law (2009) above mentioned to recall the different tables, i.e. no reference to other section of
this document is meant.

Annex (1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION LIMITSOF AIR POLLUTANTS EMITTED FROM
STATIONARY SOURCES
Substance Source Max. Allowable
Emission
Limits(mg/Nm3)
Visible emission Combustion Sources 250
Other Sources none
Opacity All sources 20%
Carbon monoxide/CO All Sources 500
Nitrogen Oxide NOx (as NO2) Combustion sources See Annex (2)
material producing industries 1000
other sources 1000
Sulphur dioxide SO2 Combustion sources 500
material producing industries 2000
other sources 1000
Sulphur trioxide Including material producing industries 150
Sulphuric Acid Mist (expressed other sources 50
as sulphur Trioxide) SO3
Total Suspended Combustion sources 250
particles,TSP Cement industry:
-Exist 150
-New 100
other sources 150
Ammonia and Ammonium material producing industries 50
compounds (expressed as other sources 100
ammonia),NH3
Benzene C6H6 All sources 5
Iron Fe Iron & Steel foundries 100
Lead and its Compounds All sources 5
(expressed as lead), Pb
Antimony and its Compounds material producing industries 5
(expressed as Antimony), Sb other sources 1
Arsenic and its Compounds All sources 1
(expressed as arsenic), As
Cadmium and its Compounds All sources 1
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Annex (1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION LIMITSOF AIR POLLUTANTS EMITTED FROM
STATIONARY SOURCES
Substance Source Max. Allowable
Emission
Limits(mg/Nm3)
(expressed as cadmium), Cd
Mercury and its Compounds All sources 0.5
(expressed as mercury), Hg
Chrome, Cr All sources 5
Vanadium, V All sources 5
Nickel and its compounds All sources 1
(expressed as nickel)
Copper and its compounds All sources 5
(expressed as copper) , Cu
Hydrogen sulphide, H2S All sources 5
Material producing industries 10
Chloride, Cl - Chlorine works 200
other sources 20
Hydrogen chloride, HCl Chlorine works 200
other sources 20
Hydrogen Fluoride, HF All sources 12
Silicon fluoride, SiF4 All sources 10
Fluoride and its compounds Aluminum smelters 20
including HF & SiF4 other sources 50
(expressed as fluoride), F-
Formaldehyde, CH2O Material producing industries 20
other sources 2
Carbon, C Material producing industries 250
Waste incineration 50
Total Volatile Organic All sources 20
Compounds VOC (expressed
as total organic carbon (TOC))
Dioxins & Furans All sources 1 (ng TEQ/m3)
Note:
1- Combustion source are intended to ovens and incinerators and boilers oil and
petrochemical industries , power plants and other industries, either include the
production of construction materials production plants and laboratories and chemical
plants and other dyes.
2- The concentration of any substance specified in the first column emitted from any
source specified in the third column shall not at any point before admixture with air
smoke or other gases exceed the limits specified in the fourth column.
3- “mg” means milligram. “ng” means nanogram
4- “Nm3”means normal cubic meter being that amount of gas which when dry occupies
a cubic meter at a temperature of 25 degree centigrade and at an absolute pressure of
760 millimeters of mercury (1 atm).
5- The limit of “Visible Emission” does not apply to emission of water vapor and a
reasonable period for cold start-up, shutdown or emergency operation.
6- The measurement for “Total Suspended Particles (TSP)” emitted from combustion
sources should be @ 12% reference CO2.
7- The total concentration of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, Cu, As & Sb) must
not exceed 5 mg/Nm3.
8- Voc limits is for unburned hydrocarbons (uncontrolled).
9- The emission limits for all the substances exclude “Dioxins and Furans” are
conducted as a daily average value.
10- “Dioxins and Furans” Average values shall be measured over a sample period of a
minimum of 6 hours and a maximum of 8 hours.
11- Adopted in measuring the concentration of any substance the first column the
method adopted by EPA as a way of measuring a reference or equivalent methods of
measurement of the global reference.
Table 16: Maximum allowable emission limits of air pollutants emitted from stationary sources
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Annex (2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION LIMITS OF AIR POLLUTANTS EMITTED FROM
HYDROCARBON FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES
Substance Source Max. Allowable
Emission
Limits(mg/Nm3)
Visible emissions All sources 250
Nitrogen Oxides (expressed as nitrogen Fuel combustion units:
dioxide (NO2)) Gas fuel 350
NOx Liquid fuel 500
Turbine units:
Gas fuel 70
Liquid fuel 150
Sulphur Dioxide, SO2 All sources 500
Total Suspended Particles, TSP All sources 250
Carbon Monoxide, CO All sources 500
Notes:
1- The concentration of any substance specified in the first column emitted from any
source specified in the third column shall not at any point before admixture with air,
smoke or other gases, exceed the limits specified in the fourth column.
2- "Nm3" means normal cubic meter, being that amount of gas which when dry,
occupies a cubic meter at a temperature of 25 degree centigrade and at an absolute
pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury (1 atm).
3- The limit of “Visible Emission” does not apply to emission of water vapor and a
reasonable period for cold start- up, shutdown or emergency operation.
4- The “NOx” emission limit of any existing turbine units operated by gas fuel, prior to
the issuance and adoption of this regulation will be 125 mg/Nm3.
5-The measurement for “Total Suspended Particles (TSP)” emitted from combustion
sources should be @ 12% reference CO2.
6- Adopted in measuring the concentration of any substance the first column the
method adopted by EPA as a way of measuring a reference or equivalent methods of
measurement of the global reference.
Table 17: Maximum allowable emission limits of air pollutants emitted from hydrocarbon fuel
combustion sources

Annex (3)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION LIMITS OF AIR POLLUTANTS
EMITTED FROM SOLID WASTE INCINERATORS
MAX. ALLOWBLE EMISSION LIMITS (mg/Nm3)
SUBSTANCE (symbol) Incinerator capacity Incinerator capacity 3
less than 3 ton/hour ton/hour or more
Total suspended particles (TSP) 100(daily average) 30(daily average)
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 100(daily average) 100(daily average)
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 350(daily average) 300(daily average)
(expressed as nitrogen dioxide
(NO2))
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 500(daily average) 300(daily average)
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) 30(daily average) 20(daily average)
Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) 4(daily average) 2(daily average)
Total Volatile Organic Compounds 20(daily average) 20(daily average)
(VOC) (expressed as total organic
carbon (TOC))
Nickel (Ni) and its Compounds Total (1) Total (1)
(expressed as Ni)
Arsenic (As) and its Compounds Total (1) Total (1)
(expressed as As)
Cadmium (Cd) and its Total (0.2) Total (0.1)
Compounds (expressed as Cd)
Mercury (Hg) and its Compounds Total (0.2) Total (0.1)
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Annex (3)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION LIMITS OF AIR POLLUTANTS
EMITTED FROM SOLID WASTE INCINERATORS
MAX. ALLOWBLE EMISSION LIMITS (mg/Nm3)
SUBSTANCE (symbol) Incinerator capacity Incinerator capacity 3
less than 3 ton/hour ton/hour or more
(expressed as Hg)
Lead (Pb) and its Compounds Total (5) Total (1)
(expressed as Pb)
Chrome (Cr) and its Compounds Total (5) Total (1)
(expressed as Cr)
Copper (Cu) and its Compounds Total (5) Total (1)
(expressed as Cu)
Manganese (Mn) and its Total (5) Total (1)
Compounds (expressed as Mn)
Dioxins and Furans 0.1 (ng TEQ/m3) 0.1 (ng TEQ/m3)
Notes:
1- The concentration of any substance specified in the first column emitted from the
incinerator shall not at any point before admixture with air, smoke or other gases,
exceed the specified limits.
2- "Nm3" means normal cubic meter being that amount of gas which when dry,
occupies a cubic meter at a temperature of 25 degree centigrade and at an absolute
pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury (1 atm)
3- The Total concentration of the heavy metals ( Cd,Hg,As,Cr,Cu,Pb,Mn,Ni,V) shall be
measured over as ample period of minimum of 30 min and a maximum of 8 hours.
4- "Dioxins and Furans" Average value shall be measured over sample period of a
minimum of 6 hours and a maximum of 8 hours. The emission limit value refers to the
total concentration of dioxins and furans are calculated using the concept of toxic
equivalence in accordance with Annex 5.
5- Adopted in measuring the concentration of any substance the first column the
method adopted by EPA as a way of measuring a reference or equivalent methods of
measurement of the global reference.
Table 18: Maximum allowable emission limits of air pollutants emitted from solid waste incinerators

Annex (4)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION LIMITS OF AIR POLLUTANTS EMITTED
FROM HAZARDOUS AND MEDICAL WASTES INCINERATORS
SUBSTANCE (Symbol) Max. ALLOWABLE
EMISSION LIMITS mg/Nm3
Total suspended particles(TSP) 10(daily average)
30 (half-hourly average)
Carbon Monoxide(CO) 50 (daily average)
100 (half-hourly average)
Nitrogen oxides(NOX) 200 (daily average)
(expressed as nitrogen dioxide NO2 ) 400 (half-hourly average)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 50(daily average)
200 (half-hourly average)
Hydrogen Chloride (HCL) 10(daily average)
60 (half-hourly average)
Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) 1 (daily average)
4 (half-hourly average)
Total Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) 10(daily average)
(expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) 20(half-hourly average)
Cadmium (cd) and Its Compounds (expressed as cd) Total (0.1)
Thallium (TI) and Its Compounds (expressed as TI) Total (0.1)
Mercury (Hg) and Its Compounds (expressed as Hg) 0.1
Antimony (Sb) and Its Compounds (expressed as Sb) Total (1)
Arsenic(As) and Its Compounds (expressed as As) Total (1)
Chrome(Cr) and Its Compounds (expressed as Cr) Total (1)
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Annex (4)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION LIMITS OF AIR POLLUTANTS EMITTED
FROM HAZARDOUS AND MEDICAL WASTES INCINERATORS
SUBSTANCE (Symbol) Max. ALLOWABLE
EMISSION LIMITS mg/Nm3
Cobalt (Co) and Its Compounds (expressed as Co) Total (1)
Copper (Cu) and Its Compounds (expressed as Cu) Total (1)
Lead (Pb) and Its Compounds (expressed as Pb) Total (1)
Manganese (Mn) and Its Compounds (expressed as Total (1)
Mn)
Nickel (Ni) and Its Compounds (expressed as Ni) Total (1)
Tin ( Sn) and Its Compounds (expressed as Sn) Total (1)
Vanadium (V) and Its Compounds (expressed as V) Total (1)
Dioxins and Furans 0.1 (ng TEQ/m3)
Note:
1- The concentration of any substance specified in the first column emitted from the
incinerator shall not at any point before admixture with air, smoke or other gases,
exceed the specified limits.
2- "Nm3" means normal cubic meter being that amount of gas which when dry,
occupies a cubic meter at a temperature of 25 degree centigrade and at an absolute
pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury (1 atm)
3- The Total concentration of the heavy metals ( Cd,Hg,As,Cr,Cu,Pb,Mn,Ni,V) shall be
measured over asample period of aminimum of 30 min and amaximum of 8 hours.
4- "Dioxins and Furans" Average value shall be measured over asample period of
aminimum of 6 hours and amaximum of 8 hours. The emission limit value refers to the
total concentration of dioxins and furans are calculated using the concept of toxic
equivalence in accordance with Annex 5.
5- Adopted in measuring the concentration of any substance the first column the
method adopted by EPA as a way of measuring a reference or equivalent methods of
measurement of the global reference.
Table 19: Maximum allowable emission limits of air pollutants emitted from hazardous and medical
wastes incinerators

Annex (5)
DIOXINES AND FURANS
Dioxin / Furan TEF
2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 1
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (peCDD) 0.5
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlrodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD) 0.1
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD) 0.1
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD) 0.1
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) 0.01
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) 0.001
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) 0.1
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) 0.05
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) 0.5
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF) 0.1
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF) 0.1
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF) 0.1
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF) 0.1
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF) 0.01
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF) 0.01
Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) 0.001
Notes:
1- “dioxins and furans” means polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (peCDD) and
polychlorinated dibenzofurans (peCDF), being tricyclic and aromatic compounds formed
by 2 benzene rings which are connected by 2 oxygen atoms in peCDD and by one
oxygen atom in peCDF and the hydrogen atoms of which may be replaced by up to 8
chlorine atoms.
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Annex (5)
DIOXINES AND FURANS
Dioxin / Furan TEF
2-“TEF” means Toxic Equivalency Factor (Toxicology).
3- “TEQ” means Total Equivalent Quantity (Toxic Equivalent), being the sum total of
the concentration of each of the dioxin and furan compounds specified in the first
column of the table below multiplied by their corresponding TEF specified in the second
column thereof:
TEQ= Σ (TEF X Concentration)for each type of Dioxin or Furan
Table 20: Dioxines and furans

20.1.2 Monitoring Requirement


Periodic monitoring of any atmospheric gas discharge shall be done in order to check that the pollutants
contained in the exhaust gases comply with Iraqi regulation.

20.1.3 Fugitive Emissions


In order to minimize fugitive emissions such as smoke, dust, fumes, toxic gases and odours the following
provisions should be made:
- the discharge of safety relief devices in hazardous services shall be routed to a closed flare
system;
- plugged or capped ends shall be used on drain valves, sample valves and test connections
to minimize emissions from open ended connections;
- compressor seals shall minimize gas release.

20.2 Waste water discharges


Iraqi regulation for the “Preservation of water sources”, act No B(2)-2001 amendment (Ref.[10]), includes the
physical, chemical and biological restrictions required for the residual water drained to the water resources.

The following tables list the emission limits.

Four classes of wastewater are defined:


B1 - discharged to the water resources.
B2 - discharged to public sewerage system.
B3 - discharged to a ditch and then to the water resources (comply with B1).
B4 - discharged to the marshes (comply with B1).

IRAQ Preservation of Water Resources Law 2 (2001)


B3
discharge
No. B4
B1 B2 d to a
discharge
discharge discharge ditch and
d to the
Materials d to the d to public then to
marshes
water sewerage the water
(comply
resources system resources
with B1)
(comply
with B1)
1 Color - - -
under 35
2 Temperature degrees 45 C ْ
Celsius
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IRAQ Preservation of Water Resources Law 2 (2001)


B3
discharge
No. B4
B1 B2 d to a
discharge
discharge discharge ditch and
d to the
Materials d to the d to public then to
marshes
water sewerage the water
(comply
resources system resources
with B1)
(comply
with B1)
3 Suspended solid (S.S) 60 mg/l 750 mg/l
Ion concentration of
4 6-9.5 mg/l 6-9.5 mg/l
hydrogen
5 Dissolved oxygen - -
less than
6 BOD5 1000 mg/l
40 mg/l
Less than
7 COD. (Cr2O7 method) -
100 mg/l
8 Cyanide(CN-) 0.05 mg/l 0.5 mg/l
9 Fluorine (F-) 5.0* mg/l 10 mg/l
10 Free Chlorine (Cl2) Trace 100 mg/l
A. If the percentage of the drained water amount to
the source water amount is 1:1000 or less than that it
is allowed to increase concentration in the source by
1% of the normal concentration in the source before
drained .
B. If the percentage of the drained water amount to
11 The chlorides (Cl-)
the source water amount is more than 1:1000, the
chlorides concentration in the drained water should
not exceed 600 mg/l.
C. If the chloride concentration in the source water is
less than 200 mg/l each case shall be studied apart
by entity responsible for carrying out the regulation
0.01-0.05
12 Phenol 5-10 mg/l
mg/l
A. If the percentage of the drained water amount to
the source water amount is 1:1000 or less than that it
is allowed to drain water to the source with a
concentration and in amount lead to the increase in
sulfate concentration in the source by 1% of the
normal concentration in the source before drained.
13 Sulphate(SO4=) B. If the percentage of the drained water amount to
the source water amount is more than 1:1000, the
sulfate concentration in the drained water should not
exceed 400 mg/l.
C. If the sulfate concentration in the source water is
less than 200 mg/l each case shall be studied apart
by entity responsible for carrying out the regulation.
14 Nitrate (NO3-) 50 mg/l -
15 Phosphate (PO4 3-) 3.0 mg/l -
16 Ammonium (NH4+) - -
17 The pesticide of DDT zero -
18 Lead (Pb) 0.1 mg/l 0.1 mg/l
19 Arsenic (As) 0.05 mg/l 0.05 mg/l
20 Copper (Cu) 0.2 mg/l -
21 Nickel (Ni) 0.2 mg/l 0.1 mg/l
22 Selenium (Se) 0.05 mg/l -
23 Mercury (Hg) 0.005 mg/l 0.001 mg/l
24 Cadmium (Cd) 0.01 mg/l 0.1 mg/l
25 Zinc (Zn) 0.2 mg/l 0.1 mg/l
26 Chrome (Cr) 0.1 mg/l 0.1 mg/l
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IRAQ Preservation of Water Resources Law 2 (2001)


B3
discharge
No. B4
B1 B2 d to a
discharge
discharge discharge ditch and
d to the
Materials d to the d to public then to
marshes
water sewerage the water
(comply
resources system resources
with B1)
(comply
with B1)
27 Aluminum (Al) 5.0 mg/l 20 mg/l
28 Barium (Ba) 4.0 mg/l 0.1 mg/l
29 Boron (B) 1.0 mg/l 1.0 mg/l
30 Cobalt (Co) 0.5 mg/l 0.5 mg/l
31 Iron (Fe) 2.0 mg/l 15 mg/l
32 Manganese (Mn) 0.5 mg/l -
33 Silver (Ag) 0.05 mg/l 0.1 mg/l
It is allowed to drain hydrocarbons to the water.
Sources A-1 &A-2 according to the concentration &
limitations listed in the tables here under provided that
these concentration are to be calculated before
getting mixed with the waters of the water source. it is
not allowable to drain any hydrocarbons to the water
sources A-3 & A-4.
First:
10 mg/l according to the following limitations:
A; the percentage of the drained water amount to the
Total hydrocarbons and source water amount is not less than 1:1000 or less.
34
their derivatives B: the river shall be streaming.
Second:
5 mg/l according to the following limitations:
A; the percentage of the drained water amount to the
source water amount is not less than 1:500 or less.
B: the river shall be streaming.
Third:
3 mg/l according to the following limitations:
A; the percentage of the drained water amount to the
source water amount is not less than 1:300 or less.
B: the river shall be streaming.
35 Sulphide (S=) - 3.0 mg/l
36 Ammonia - 10.0 mg/l
Ammonia gas (Free
37 - 6.0 mg/l
NH3)
38 Sulfur dioxide SO2 - 7.0 mg/l
39 Alcohol-oil Nil unallowable
40 calcium carbide CaC Nil unallowable
41 Organic solvents Nil unallowable
42 Benzene - 0.5 mg/l
43 Chlorobenzene - 0.1 mg/l
44 TNT Nil 0.5 mg/l
45 Bromine (Br2) - 1 mg/l
Table 21: IRAQ preservation of water resources Law 2 (2001)

20.3 Noise
The ambient noise levels imposed in the country refers to World Bank Guidelines (Ref. [42] and [43]): no
Iraqi legislation dealing with equipment/plant emission limits noise is available.

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20.3.1 Noise limits for equipment


In order to meet the overall plant noise requirements the noise generated by any equipment shall not exceed
the noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) given in Table 22. Neither the A-weighted SPL nor any of the octave
band levels shall be exceeded.

The noise level shall be measured at 1 m from the equipment surface under rated operating conditions. If the
noise test will be performed under no-load conditions the permissible SPL shall be reduced by 3 dB(A) or by
3 dB for any of the octave band levels.

If the noise will be concentrated in a narrow band the permissible SPL shall be reduced by 5 dB(A) or 5 dB
for any of the octave band levels.

SPL [dB]

SPL Octave Band center Frequency [Hz]


Grade
dB(A) 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000

A 82 95,6 88,5 83,3 79,6 77 74,6 72,8 71,3

B 85 98,7 91,6 86,4 82,7 80 77,7 75,9 74,4

C 87 100,5 93,5 88,4 84,9 82 80,1 78,2 76,5

D 90 102,6 95,9 91 87,6 85 82,8 81 79,5

Table 22: Permissible Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) for Equipment

GRADE A: Electric motors (at no load), Air Cooled Exchangers, Mixers, Steam Turbine <50 HP,
Heaters, Gas Turbine Generator.
GRADE B: Pumps, Gas Turbine driven Centrifugal Compressors, Reciprocating Compressors,
Fans and Blowers, Steam Turbine >50 HP, Control valves, Piping, Miscellaneous
noisy equipment, Diesel Generator (continuous duty).
GRADE C: Pumps, Gas Turbine driven Centrifugal Compressors, Reciprocating Compressors,
Fans and Blowers, Steam Turbine >50 HP, Control valves, Piping, Miscellaneous
noisy equipment
GRADE D: Diesel Generator (discontinuous duty).

20.3.2 In-plant noise limits


The maximum allowable noise limits that should be respected in the work area shall be those summarized in
Table 23, depending on exposure time (as per American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,
Ref. [44]).

Exposure Time LAeq [dB(A)]


24 hours 80
16 hours 82
8 hours 85
4 hours 88
2 hours 91
1 hour 94
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30 minutes 97
15 minutes 100
Table 23: Work area maximum allowable noise exposure

In Table 24 the 24 hours\day Interior Building acceptable noise levels during rated plant operations are
shown.

Area Description LAeq [dB(A)]


Control Room/ Radio Room 50
First Aid/ Infirmare Areas 45
Offices 50
Workshops/garages 70
Messing facilities 55
Recreation Rooms 50
Kitchens and Food preparation Area 60
Table 24: Interior Building Area noise permissible levels

20.3.3 Environmental noise limits


The international reference concerning Environmental Noise Limits is the World Bank “Pollution Prevention
and Abatement Handbook” (Ref. [42]). This document suggest noise abatement measures to be always
applied in order to achieve either the levels given in Table 25 or a maximum increase in background SPL of
3 dB(A) at the nearest receptor.

LAeq [dB(A)]
Receptor Daytime Night time
07:00 – 22:00 22:00 – 07:00
Residential, institutional, educational 55 45
Industrial, commercial 70 70
Increase above background +3 +3
Notes:
1. Guidelines values are for noise levels measured out of doors.

 1 r  p (t )  2 
2. LAeq (Equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level)= 10 log 
∫  A  dt 
 T 0  p0  

Table 25: Environmental absolute noise limits

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ANNEX 1 – PROCESS AND UTILITIES UNITS LAYOUT

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ANNEX 2 – SAFETY MAIN UNITS LAYOUT

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ANNEX 3 – “CRITICAL” PLANT UNITS LAYOUT

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ANNEX 4 – SAFETY DISTANCES

LEGEND
D = main tank diameter (distance from the tank side)
G = total flowrate in kg/h of the compressors station
h = drilling/workover tower height
H = tank height
Q = gas flowrate in m3/g
a.c. = classified area according to CEI 64-2 code
d.s. = this safety distance is depending from the electric line voltage, and it must be
calculated according to the reference normative (DM 13.10.1994)
e.i. = extrapolation from typical plant
l.i. = Italian legislation
l.r. = regional legislation (DPRG n°7 Regione Sicilia)
m.c. = computational models
n.i. = interior normative reference
n.n = normative references of national organizations or other foreign organizations
n.v. = no obligations
z.p. = protection zone according to Italian legislation about tanks

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LIQU. HYDROC.

COMPRESSION
LOADING BAYS
TANKS > 5 m3

TREATMENT

TREATMENT
HYDROCAR
BON TANK

STATIONS
STORAGE

LOADING
FENCES

PLANTS

PLANTS
WELLS
LIQUID

BAYS

GAS
LPG

LPG

OIL
h (l.i.)
FENCES n.v. <H (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 15 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 15 (e.i.) 15 (e.i.) 10 (l.i.)
50 (l.r.)
LIQUID
30
HYDROCARBON <H (l.i.) D (m.c.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 20 (e.i.) 30 (l.r.)
(l.i./l.r.)
TANK
LPG STORAGE ΣiDi/2 15 (l.i.) 30
40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.)
TANKS > 5 m3 (3) (4) (l.i./l.r.)
LIQU. HYDROC.
15 (n.n.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) n.v. 40 (l.i.) 50 (l.r.) 60 (n.n.) 60 (n.n.) 60 (n.n.)
LOADING BAYS
LPG LOADING 15 (l.i.)
40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) n.v. 50 (l.r.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 60 (n.n.)
BAYS (4)
h (l.i.) 30
WELLS 40 (l.i.) 50 (l.r.) 50 (l.r.) n.v. 30 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 30 (l.r.)
50 (l.r.) (l.i./l.r.)
OIL
10 20 0.27G0.3
TREATMENT 15 (e.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (5) 60 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 3
(m.c.) (m.c.)
PLANTS
GAS
0.27G0.3
HAZARDOUS EQUIPMENT

TREATMENT 15 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 40 (5) 60 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 3 (m.c.) 3


PLANTS
COMPRESSION
10 (l.i.) 30 (l.r.) 40 (l.i.) 60 (n.n.) 60 (n.n.) 30 (l.r.) 15 (e.i.) 3 (m.c.) 3 (m.c.)
STATIONS
GLYCOL
30
HEATING AND 30 (n.n.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 50 (l.r.) 30 (n.n.) 30 (l.r.)
(m.c.)
RECOND.
GLYCOL TANKS D (m.c.) D (m.c.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 15 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 0.27G0.3
3

GLYCOL PUMPS 30 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 30 (n.n.) 15 (e.i.)
OILY WATERS
10 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 50 (l.r.) 20 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 30 (n.n.)
TREAT. BASINS
OIL/GAS 50 (l.i.) 0.27G0.3
30 (n.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 3
PIPELINES 100 (l.r.)
PROCESS
SAFETY 15 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 15 (e.i.) 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.)
VALVES
DRY GAS
30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 30 (n.i.) 30 (n.i.)
FLARES
WET GAS
60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (l.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (l.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
FLARES
PRESSURE 10 (l.i.) 0.27G0.3
15 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (e.i.) 3 (m.c.) 3
REDUCER (1)
FREE FLAME 30 30
30 (n.n) 30 (n.n) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 30 (l.r.)
EQUIPMENT (l.i./l.r.) (m.c.)
40
MANUAL SOV n.v. 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 30 (e.i.) 30 (v.e.)
(m.c.)
OFFICES,
40
CONTROL n.v. (*) (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 50 (l.i.) 60 (e.i.) 30 (n.n.)
FITTINGS INSIDE

(m.c.)
ROOM
THE PLANT

FIRE FIGHTING 40
n.v. 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.)
PUMPS (m.c.)
FIRE FIGHTING 40
n.v. 30 (e.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 30 (e.i.) 15 (n.n.)
VALVES (m.c.)
AERIAL POWER 50 (l.i.) 30
3 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) d.s. (l.i.) 30 (a.c.) d.s. (l.i.) 30 (n.n.) 20 (l.i.)
LINES 100 (l.r.) (m.c.)
CARRIAGE 3 (l.i.) (*) (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (a.c.) 40 (l.i.) 50 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 40 20 (l.i.)
ROADS 100 (l.r.) (m.c.)
FITTINGS OUTSIDE

NON-CARRIAGE 40
3 (e.i.) (*) (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (a.c.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 20 (l.i.)
THE PLANT

ROADS (m.c.)
RAILWAYS AND 50 (l.i.) 100
3 (e.i.) (*) (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (a.c.) 40 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 100 (l.i.)
TRAMWAYS 100 (l.r.) (m.c.)
PUBLIC 50 (l.i.) 100
3 (e.i.) (*) (l.i.) 60 (l.i.) 30 (e.i.) 60 (l.i.) 60 (e.i.) 100 (l.i.)
PREMISES 100 (l.r.) (m.c.)
50 (l.i.) 100
STATIONS 3 (e.i.) (*) (l.i.) 60 (l.i.) 30 (a.c.) 60 (l.i.) 60 (e.i.) 100 (l.i.)
100 (l.r.) (m.c.)

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GLYCOL TANKS
HEATING AND

PIPELINES

PROCESS

WET GAS
RECOND.

DRY GAS
WATERS

OIL /GAS
GLYCOL

SAFETY
VALVES

FLARES

FLARES
BASINS
TREAT.
OILY
FENCES 30 (n.n.) D (m.c.) 10 (e.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (e.i.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
LIQUID
HYDROCARBON 30 (n.n.) D (m.c.) 20 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
TANK
LPG STORAGE
40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
TANKS > 5 m3
LIQU. HYDROC. 30 (n.n.) 30 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.)
30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
LOADING BAYS
LPG LOADING
40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 40 (l.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
BAYS
50 (l.i.)
WELLS 50 (l.r.) 15 (e.i.) 50 (l.r.) 15 (e.i.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
100 (l.r.)
OIL
TREATMENT 30 (n.n.) 30 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 30 (e.i.) 15 (n.n.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
PLANTS
GAS 30
TREATMENT (m.c.) 20 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
PLANTS
HAZARDOUS EQUIPMENT

COMPRESSION 0.27G0.3 30 (n.n.) 0.27G0.3


30 (l.r.) 3 3 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
STATIONS
GLYCOL
HEATING AND n.v. 10 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
RECOND.
15
GLYCOL TANKS 10 (e.i.) 7.5 (l.i.) 20 (e.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
(m.c.)
GLYCOL PUMPS 15 (n.n.) 6 (l.i.) 15 (e.i.) 30 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
OILY WATERS 15
20 (e.i.) (m.c.) n.v. 15 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
TREAT. BASINS
OIL/GAS 1 - 2 -10
20 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 15 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
PIPELINES (2)
PROCESS
SAFETY 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.) 15 (n.n.)
VALVES
DRY GAS
30 (n.i.) 30 (n.i.) 30 (n.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 10log(Q-2)/2 10log(Q-2)/2
FLARES
WET GAS
60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 10log(Q-2)/2 10log(Q-2)/2
FLARES
PRESSURE 6 (m.c.) 15
7.5 (e.i.) 10 (l.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
REDUCER (m.c.)
FREE FLAME
n.v. 7.5 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
EQUIPMENT
10 30
MANUAL SOV (m.c.) 20 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
(m.c.)
OFFICES,
10 30
CONTROL 20 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
FITTINGS INSIDE

(m.c.) (m.c.)
ROOM
THE PLANT

FIRE FIGHTING 10 30
20 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
PUMPS (m.c.) (m.c.)
FIRE FIGHTING 10 30
20 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
VALVES (m.c.) (m.c.)
AERIAL POWER
15 (n.n.) 6 (e.i.) 20 (e.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
LINES
CARRIAGE 30
30 (n.n.) 20 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
ROADS (m.c.)
FITTINGS OUTSIDE

NON-CARRIAGE 30
30 (n.n.) 20 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
THE PLANT

ROADS (m.c.)
RAILWAYS AND 30
30 (n.n.) 20 (l.i.) 30 (n.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
TRAMWAYS (m.c.)
PUBLIC 75 100
30 (n.n.) 20 (l.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
PREMISES (m.c.) (n.i.)
75 100
STATIONS 30 (n.n.) 20 (l.i.) 15 (n.n.) 30 (n.i.) 60 (n.i.)
(m.c.) (n.i.)

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All the spacing into the tables is expressed in meters.

(1) It reduces to 5 m if the building is made of reinforced concrete of minimum thickness 15 cm, with beams covering or
concrete slab and with upper vents area at least equal to 1/10 of the room plot area.
(2) The minimum distance to be adopted are:
- 1 m between two underground gas pipelines;
- 2 m between two underground oil pipelines or a gas pipeline and a oil pipeline;
- 10 m between the shut-off valves of the gas and oil lines placed at the connection to the main manifolds, if above
ground.
(3) - it reduces to 0.8 m if the tanks are underground.
(4) - it reduces to 7.5 m if the tanks are underground.
(5) - it reduces to a half if a water barrier is interposed.
(*) To be defined each time according to the tank capacity.

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ANNEX 5 – F&G DETECTORS UNIT REQUIREMENTS

LEGEND
FP= Fusible plug detector
FT = Fixed temperature point detector
ROR= Rate of rise temperature detection cable
RC = Rate Compensated heat detector
LTD = Linear temperature detection cable
SO = Smoke optical detector (point type or linear type)
SI = Smoke ionisation detector
UV = Ultraviolet flame detector
IR = Infrared flame detector
UV/IR = UV and IR flame detector
IR3 = Multi-Frequency Infrared detectors
CG = Catalytic gas detector
FG = Infrared gas detector (at point)
LG = Linear infrared gas detector
HSE = Electrochemical cell detector (H2S)
HSS = Semiconductor gas detector (H2S)
Fire Type (in accordance with NFPA):
CLASS A = fires in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many
plastics.
CLASS B = fires in flammable liquids, combustible liquids, petroleum greases, tars, oils, oil-based
paints, solvents, lacquers, alcohols, and flammable gases.
CLASS C = fires that involve energized electrical equipment.
CLASS D = fires in combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium,
and potassium.
CLASS K = fires in cooking appliances that involve combustible cooking media (vegetable or
animal oils and fats).

Other reference codes


a Alternative new technology to be evaluate case-by-case
b Further use to be evaluated
c Simultaneous use of different type of detection systems
d Alternative to be evaluated case-by-case
e Floor void included
f Only if into a closes space
g Only if engines are into the closed space

Level of Acceptability
1 Acceptable (the type of detector is generally considered suitable for the risk and
required function, even if some operational and functional reserves do not classify
it as optimal.
2 Preferable (the type of detector is generally considered optimal for the risk and
required function)

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FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM GAS DETECTION SYSTEM
DETECTOR SELECTION DETECTOR SELECTION
UNIT AREA TO BE PROTECTED TYPE AND ACCEPTABILITY LEVEL TYPE AND ACCEPTABILITY LEVEL
FIRE TYPE
UV/IR
FP FT ROR RC LTD SO UV IR CG FG LG HSE(*) HSS(*)
or IR3
100 OIL WELLHEADS AREA CLASS B 2 2b 1b 1 2 a 1 2
OIL AND GAS COLLECTIONG
130 AND SUPPLYING MANIFOLD
CLASS B 1 2 1 2 1 2

OIL AND GAS LAUNCHING AND


190 RECEINVING TRAPS
CLASS B 1 2 1 2 1 2

230 COLD FLARES CLASS B 1


230 FLARES AND VENTS CLASS B 1 2 1 2
360 GAS COMPRESSION CLASS B 1b 2 2 1c 2c 1c 2c
410 DIATHERMIC OIL SYSTEM CLASS B 1 2
420 COMBUSTIBLE GAS SYSTEM CLASS B 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
560 OILY WATER TREATMENT CLASS B 1b 2b 1 2 1 2
CLASS C
680 WORKSHOPS
CLASS B
2
CLASS C
680 LABORATORIES
CLASS A
2b 2
900 BATTERY ROOM CLASS C 2
960 RADIO ROOM CLASS C 2
200 OIL SEPARATOR CLASS B 1 2 2b 1 2 a 1 2
210 OIL TREATMENT CLASS B 1 2 2 1 2 a 1 2
FLOATING ROOF OIL STORAGE
220 TANK AND BASIN
CLASS B 2 2b 2d 2 d, a 1 2
1 (on
220 OIL PUMP AREA CLASS B main oil 2 2d 1 2 1 2
pumps)
300 GAS SEPARATION CLASS B 2b 2b 1 2 a 1 2
GLYCOL FOR GAS
380 DEHYDRATION
CLASS B 2 1 2 1 2

PRESSURISED STORAGE
370 TANKS FOR LIQUID GAS
CLASS B 1 2 2 1 2 a

370 LPG PUMP AREA CLASS B 2d 2d 1 2


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FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM GAS DETECTION SYSTEM


DETECTOR SELECTION DETECTOR SELECTION
UNIT AREA TO BE PROTECTED TYPE AND ACCEPTABILITY LEVEL TYPE AND ACCEPTABILITY LEVEL
FIRE TYPE
UV/IR
FP FT ROR RC LTD SO UV IR CG FG LG HSE(*) HSS(*)
or IR3
INDOOR GAS ENGINE MAIN CLASS C
470 GENERATORS CLASS B
2b 2b 2 1 2

OUTDOOR GAS ENGINE MAIN


470 GENERATORS
CLASS B 2

GAS TURBINE MAIN


470 GENERATORS, IN CANOPY
CLASS B 1d 2d 2d 2d 1 2

DIESEL EMERGENCY
CLASS C
480 GENERATOR, SAFE AREA
CLASS B
2d 2d 1d
UTILIZATION
DIESEL EMERGENCY
CLASS C
480 GENERATOR, CLASSIFIED
CLASS B
2d 2d 1d 1 2
AREA UTILIZATION
660 AIR CONDITIONING PLANT CLASS C 2 1c 2c 1c 2c
CLASS A
680 CHEMICALS WAREHOUSE
CLASS B
1d 2d

FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS CLASS A


680 WAREHOUSE CLASS B
1d 1d 2d

COMBUSTIBLE SOLID CLASS A


680 WAREHOUSE CLASS B
1d 2d

WAREHOUSE WITH
CLASS A
680 COMBUST.PACKAGING
CLASS B
1d 2d
PRODUCTS
INDOOR FLAMMABLE LIQUID
680 DRUMS WAREHOUSE
CLASS B 1 1 2

680 CLASS A
GARAGES
CLASS B
2 1
690
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FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM GAS DETECTION SYSTEM


DETECTOR SELECTION DETECTOR SELECTION
UNIT AREA TO BE PROTECTED TYPE AND ACCEPTABILITY LEVEL TYPE AND ACCEPTABILITY LEVEL
FIRE TYPE
UV/IR
FP FT ROR RC LTD SO UV IR CG FG LG HSE(*) HSS(*)
or IR3
CLASS A
690 OFFICIES AND FACILITIES
CLASS C
2
CLASS A
690 EDP CENTRES
CLASS C
2 b, d 2 b, d 2d

INDOOR STATION FOR FIRE


730 FIGHTING WATER PUMPING
CLASS C 2 b, d 2

MAIN POWER SUPPLY > 1000V


910 SUBSTATION AND CABIN
CLASS C 2f

910 INDOOR OIL TRASFORMERS CLASS B 2d 2d


910 OUTDOOR OIL TRASFORMERS CLASS B 2
920 MAIN POWER SUBBLY < 1000V CLASS C 2f
935 CABLE PATHWAYS CLASS C 2d
950 ÷
CONTROL CENTRE CLASS C 2f
980
LOCAL IINSTRUMENTATION
990 PANEL
CLASS C 2f

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ANNEX 6 – ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION UNIT REQUIREMENTS

Fire Protection

Exposure
Equipment Protection /
Delivery
Type Autonomy Operation Reference Control of
or size
burning /
Extinguishment

30 min (55
min for
Fixed foam 4.1 l/(min
alcohol Automatic NFPA 11 Exposure
system m 2)
resistant protection and
foam) extinguishment
Subsurface 4.1 l/(min
37.8 < Tfp foam system m 2)
30 min (*) Automatic NFPA 11
< 60°C
Fixed water NFPA 15
36 l/(min Exposure
cooling - Automatic and ENI
m 2) protection
system standard
Foam/water 2000
monitor and l/min 400 30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
handline l/min

Fixed foam 4.1 l/(min


55 min Automatic NFPA 11 Exposure
system m 2)
protection and
Fixed
Subsurface 4.1 l/(min Extinguishment
(cone) 55 min (*) Automatic NFPA 11
Roof Tfp < foam system m 2)
Tank 37.8°C or Fixed water NFPA 15
36 l/(min Exposure
(outdoor) Top > Tfp cooling - Automatic and ENI
m 2) protection
system standard
Foam/water 2000
monitor and l/min 400 30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
handline l/min

Fixed foam 4.1 l/(min


55 min Automatic NFPA 11 Exposure
system m 2)
protection and
Extinguishment
Subsurface 4.1 l/(min
55 min (*) Automatic NFPA 11
foam system m 2)
Crude
Petroleum Fixed water NFPA 15
36 l/(min Exposure
cooling - Automatic and ENI
m 2) protection
system standard
Foam/water 2000
monitor and l/min 400 30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
handline l/min

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Fire Protection

Exposure
Equipment Protection /
Delivery
Type Autonomy Operation Reference Control of
or size
burning /
Extinguishment

Fixed foam
12.2
system top-of- 20 min Automatic NFPA 11
l/(min m2)
seal Exposure
protection and
Fixed foam Extinguishment
system 20.4
10 min Automatic NFPA 11
Outdoor open-top below-the- l/(min m2)
floating roof tank seal
Fixed water NFPA 15
36 l/(min Exposure
cooling - Automatic and ENI
m 2) protection
system standard
Foam/water 2000
monitor and l/min 400 30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
handline l/min
Exposure
Fixed foam 12.2
20 min Automatic NFPA 11 protection and
system l/(min m2)
Extinguishment
Fixed water NFPA 15
37.8 < Tfp 36 l/(min Exposure
cooling - Automatic and ENI
< 60°C m 2) protection
system standard
Foam/water 2000
monitor and l/min 400 30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
handline l/min
Exposure
Fixed foam 12.2
20 min Automatic NFPA 11 protection and
system l/(min m2)
Fixed Extinguishment
(cone) Tfp < Fixed water NFPA 15
36 l/(min Exposure
Roof 37.8°C or cooling
m 2)
- Automatic and ENI
protection
Tank Top > Tfp system standard
(outdoor) Foam/water 2000
monitor and l/min 400 30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
handline l/min
Exposure
Fixed foam 12.2
20 min Automatic NFPA 11 protection and
system l/(min m2)
Extinguishment
Fixed water NFPA 15
Crude 36 l/(min Exposure
cooling - Automatic and ENI
Petroleum m 2) protection
system standard
Foam/water 2000
monitor and l/min 400 30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
handline l/min

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Fire Protection

Exposure
Equipment Protection /
Delivery
Type Autonomy Operation Reference Control of
or size
burning /
Extinguishment

Exposure
Fixed Foam/
20.4 l/(min NFPA 15 protection and
water spray - Automatic
m 2) NFPA 16 control of
system
burning
Foam/water
Pump 2000 l/min
monitor and 15 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
400 l/min
handline
Wheeled and NFPA 10
50 kg and
Portable fire - Manual and ENI Extinguishment
12 kg
extinguishers standard
Fixed
10.2 l/(min NFPA 15 Exposure
foam/water - Automatic
m 2) NFPA 16 Protection
system
Process Vessels, Foam/water
Columns, 2000 l/min
monitor and 15 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
Scrubbers, 400 l/min
handline
Reactors.
Wheeled and NFPA 10
50 kg and
Portable fire - Manual and ENI Extinguishment
12 kg
extinguishers standard
Foam/water
2000 l/min
monitor and 15 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
400 l/min
handline
Manifold
Wheeled and NFPA 10
50 kg and
Portable fire - Manual and ENI Extinguishment
12 kg
extinguishers standard
Foam/water
2000 l/min
monitor and 15 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment
400 l/min
Launching and handline
receiving Traps Wheeled and NFPA 10
50 kg and
Portable fire - Manual and ENI Extinguishment
12 kg
extinguishers standard
Foam monitor 2000 l/min
Metering Station and handline 400 l/min
30 min Manual NFPA 11 Extinguishment

NFPA 10
Equipment air Portable fire 12 kg and
- Manual and ENI Extinguishment
compressor exstinguishers 5 kg CO2
standard
Exposure
Fixed water 20.4
- Automatic NFPA 15 protection and
spray system l/min/m2 control of burning

Water monitor 2000 l/min


Compressor - Manual Extinguishment
and handline 400 l/min

Wheeled and
50 kg and
portable fire - Manual NFPA 10 Extinguishment
12 kg
extinguishers
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Fire Protection

Exposure
Equipment Protection /
Delivery or
Type Autonomy Operation Reference Control of
size
burning /
Extinguishment

Sprinkler for
diesel engine see NFPA 30
Water/Foam fire pump
Extinguishment
fighting Pump NFPA 10
Portable fire 12 kg and 5
- Manual and ENI
exstinguishers kg CO2
standard
Fixed
water/foam 10.2 l/(min
Trasformers cooling m 2)
Automatic NFPA 15 Extinguishment
system
Fixed water
6.1 l/(min
cooling - Automatic NFPA 15 Extinguishment
m 2)
system
Cable Trays
Fixed water
12.2 l/(min Control of
cooling - Automatic NFPA 15
m 2) burning
system

Fixed Depend on
NFPA 12
saturation the type of
- Automatic NFPA
Electric cabin and system (CO2) extinguishing
2001
or clean agent agent used
Telecommunication
Extinguishment
room
UPS Room NFPA 10
Portable fire
5 kg CO2 - Manual and ENI
extinguishers
standard

Sprinkler see NFPA 13 Extinguishment

Building NFPA 10
Portable fire 12 kg and 5
- Manual and ENI Extinguishment
extinguishers kg CO2
standard
NFPA 11
Fixed foam 4.1 l/(min and ENI
Diked area outdoor pourers m 2)
30 min Manual
best
Extinguishment
practice
Note:
(*) Not for Class IA hydrocarbon liquids or for the protection of alcohols, esters, ketones,
aldehydes, anhydrides, or other products requiring the use of alcohol-resistant foams.

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ANNEX 7 – IRAQI ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS

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