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List of rivers of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Major Rivers in India

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A river is a natural watercourse, usually of fresh water, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a
sea, or another river. Rivers form part of the hydrological cycle. This is a list of rivers in
India. Rivers that flow into the sea are geographically, along the coast starting from the Bay
of Bengal in the east, moving along the Indian coast southward to Kanyakumari, then
northward along the Arabian Sea. Tributary rivers are listed hierarchically in upstream order:
the lower in the list, the more upstream.

The biggest major rivers of India are:

 flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Brahmaputra, Cauvery, Ganges (with its main
tributaries Ramganga, Kali or Sharda, Gomti, Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, Ken, Sindh,
Tons, Ghaghara, Gandaki, Burhi Gandak, Koshi, Mahananda, Tamsa, Son, Bagmati),
Meghna, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna (and their main tributaries)
 flowing into the Arabian Sea: Indus, Narmada, Tapi (and their main tributaries)

The remaining rivers are as follows:

 Flowing into the Inner part of
 Coastal rivers.

 1 Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal
o 1.1 Meghna River Basin
o 1.2 Brahmaputra River Basin
o 1.3 Ganges River Basin
o 1.4 West Bengal Coastal
o 1.5 Godavari River Basin
o 1.6 Krishna River Basin
o 1.7 Andhra Pradesh Coastal Rivers
o 1.8 Penner River Basin
o 1.9 Cauvery River Basin
o 1.10 Tamil Nadu Coastal Rivers
 2 Rivers flowing into Arabian Sea
o 2.1 Karnataka Coastal Rivers
o 2.2 Kerala Coastal Rivers
o 2.3 Coastal rivers of Goa
o 2.4 Maharashtra Coastal Rivers
o 2.5 Tapti River Basin
o 2.6 Narmada River Basin
o 2.7 Mahi River Basin
o 2.8 Sabarmati River Basin
o 2.9 Indus River Basin
 3 Rivers flowing into inner part of India
 4 Alphabetical list
o 4.1 A - D
o 4.2 E - H
o 4.3 I - L
o 4.4 M - P
o 4.5 Q - T
o 4.6 U - W
o 4.7 X - Z
 5 Unsorted list by Tributary
 6 See also
 7 References

Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal

 Karnaphuli River from Mizoram and Bangladesh

Meghna River Basin

The Meghna-Surma-Barak River System is located in India and Bangladesh.

 Meghna River (in Bangladesh)

o Padma River (main Ganges
o Dhaleshwari River
o Dakatua River
o Gumti River
o Feni River

o (Old) Brahmaputra (in Bangladesh)
o Titas River, also called the Haora River
o Surma River
 Kangsha River
 Someshwari River
o Kushiyara River
 Manu River
o Barak River
 Tuivai River
 Irang River

Brahmaputra River Basin

 Brahmaputra River, called Jamuna River in Bangladesh

o Bhugdoi River (or Bhogdoi), also called Gelabill (previously called Desoi)
o Dhansiri River
 Mora Dhansiri River
o Dharla River (Bangladesh)
 Jaldhaka (India)
o Dibang River
o Dikhou River (or Dikhu)
 Namdang River
o Dihing River, also called Burhidihing, Buri Dihing, and Noa Dihing in its
earlier course through Namdapha National Park
 Tirap River
 Namphuk River
o Disang River
o Dorika Rivers
o Kakodonga River
o Kameng River, also called Jia Bhoreli (previously called Bhareli)
o Kapili River
o Kolong River
o Lohit River (or Luhit)
o Manas River
o Pagladiya River
o River Diphlu
 River Mora Diphlu
o Sankosh (also Sankhosh)
 Raidāk River
o Subansiri River
o Teesta River (also Tista)
 Rangeet River
 Lachen River
 Lachung River
o Torsa River (also Torsha), called Kaljani in Bangladesh
 Ghargharia River
 Buri Torsa
o Upriver of the Dibang the Brahmaputra is known as the Dihang River and,
China, the Yarlung Tsangpo River
o Yamuna

Ganges River Basin

Map of the Ganges (orange), Brahmaputra (violet), and Meghna (green) drainage basins.

Yamuna River drainage basin map.

 Ganges River
o Hooghly River (distributary)
 Damodar River
 Barakar River
 Jahanavi river It is named as jahanvi in Sultanganj,Bihar
 Jalangi River
 River Churni
 Ichamati River
 Rupnarayan River
 Ajay River
 Mayurakshi River
 Dwarakeswar River
 Mundeswari River
o Meghna River (distributary)
o Padma River (distributary)
o Atrai River
o Mahananda River
o Kosi River
o Bagmati River
o Bhurhi Gandak River
 Phalgu
o Gandaki River (also Gandak, known as Narayani in Nepal)
o Son River
 North Koel River
 Amanat River
 Rihand River
 Gopad River
 Goini River
 Neur River
 Banas River
 Johilla River
o Ghaghara River (sometimes spelled Gogra), called Karnali River in Nepal
 West Rapti River
 Rohni River
 Sarda River (also known as Chauka), called Mahakali in Nepal, also
known as the Kali River along the India–Nepal border
 Ladhiya River
 Sarayu River, or Sarju River
 Gori Ganga River (or Goriganga)
 Darma River (also Dhauliganga, Darmaganga)
o Gomati River (also spelled Gomti)
o Yamuna River
 Ban Ganga River
 Ken River
 Betwa River
 Dhasan River
 Halali River
 Kaliasote River
 Sindh River
 Kwari River
 Hindon River Ghaziabad in western Uttar Pradesh
 Karban River Agra region Uttar Pradesh
 Pahuj River in Bhind District Madhya Pradesh
 Chambal River
 Kuno River
 Banas River
 Berach River
 Bandi River
 Mashi River
 Morel River
 Kotari River
 Shipra River

 Ahar River
 Kali Sindh River
 Parbati River (Madhya Pradesh)
 Gambhir River
 Parbati River (Rajasthan)
o Ramganga River
 Khoh River
 Mandal River
o Alaknanda River
 Mandakini River
 Pindar River
 Nandakini River
 Dhauliganga River
 Rishiganga River
o Bhagirathi River
 Bhilangna River
 Jahnavi River

West Bengal Coastal

 Subarnarekha River
o Kharkai River
 Kangsabati River
o Bhagirathi
o Hughli
o Thenad River
o Mahananda River, North Bengal

Godavari River Basin

Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, one of the widest rivers in India

Godavari River in Maharashtra, Chhatisgarh,Telangana, Andhra Pradesh states

 Left bank tributaries:

o Purna river
o Pranahita River
 Wainganga River
 Kanhan River
 Kolar River
 Pench River
 Kulbehra River
 Nag River
 Wardha River
 Penganga River
 Pedda Vagu River
o Indravati River
 Bandiya River
o Sabari River
 Right Bank Tributaries:
o Pravara River
o Manjira River
o Manair River
 Other minor tributaries:
o Taliperu River
o Kinnerasani River
o Darna River
o Sindphana River

Krishna River Basin

 Krishna River in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh

o Varada River
o Tungabhadra River
 Tunga River
 Bhadra River
 Vedavathi River
 Suvarnamukhi River
 Veda River
 Avathi River
o Bhima River in Maharashtra and Karnataka
 Sina River
 Nira River
 Mula-Mutha River
 Mula River
 Mutha River
 Chandani River
 Kamini River
 Moshi River
 Ambi River
 Bori River
 Man River
 Bhogwati River
 Indrayani River
 Kundali River
 Kumandala River
 Ghod River
 Bhama River
 Pavna River
o Malaprabha River
o Ghataprabha River
o Varma River
o Venna River
o Koyna River in Satara district of Maharashtra state

Andhra Pradesh Coastal Rivers

Rivers like Vamshadhara and Nagavalli are the two coastal rivers in Srikakulam District of
Andhra Pradesh.

Sharada river starts at Devarapally in Visakhapatnam district and drains into the Bay of

Penner River Basin

 Penner River

Cauvery River Basin

Hogenakkal Falls, on the Cauvery River.

 Cauvery River (Cauvery)

o Kollidam (distributary)
o Amaravati River
o Arkavathy River
o Mettur Dam
o Bhavani River
o Noyyal River
o Hemavati River
o Kabini River
o Lakshmana Thirtha River

Tamil Nadu Coastal Rivers

 Thamirabarani River
 Palar River
 Vaigai River
 Vaippar river
 Vellar River
 Vasishta Nadi
 Swetha river
 Cooum River
 Adyar River
 Ponnaiyar River
 Cauvery
 Noyyal River

Rivers flowing into Arabian Sea

Karnataka Coastal Rivers

The rivers flowing through three coastal districts of Karnataka join Arabian sea.

 Kali River
 Netravati River
 Sharavathi River
 Aghanashini River
 Gangavalli River
 List of rivers of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts

Kerala Coastal Rivers

The rivers flowing through three coastal districts of Kerala to join Arabian sea.

 Periyar River
 Bharathapuzha River
 Pamba River
 Chaliyar River
 List of rivers of Kerala

Coastal rivers of Goa

 Tiracol
 Chapora
 Baga
 Mandovi River

Mandovi River, known as Mhadai in Western Ghats of Goa and Karnataka, has three sources:
the Degao, the Nanevadichi Nhõi (nhõi means river in Konkani) and Gavali; the last two
sources go dry in summer season. The main origin of the river, in the form of a spring, even
during Summer season, is at Bavtyacho Dongor hills near Degao village in Khanapur Taluka
of Belgaum Dist in Karnataka State.

The three streams confluence at the Kabnali village whereafter it is known as Mhadai, which
has an easterly flow initially, then flows north and finally turns to the west on entering Goa.
Mhadai River enters Goa between Krisnapur (Karnataka) and Kadval (Goa) villages. The
tributaries of the Mhadai are the Nersa Nala, the Chapoli and Kapoli nala, the Bail Nala, the
Volo Panshiro ( Karnataka), the Suko Panshiro, the Harparo, the Nanodyachi Nhõi, the
Vellsachi Nhõi, the Valpoichi Nhõi, the Ghadghadyachi Nhõi, the Valvanti/ Volvot, the
Divcholchi Nhõi, the Asnoddchi Nhõi, the Khandeaparchi Nhõi, the Mhapxechi Nhõi,
Xinkerchi Nhõi etc. It is the longest River of Goa with a reported length of 105 km.
 Zuari River
 Sal
 Talpona
 Galgibag

Maharashtra Coastal Rivers

 Shastri River
 Gad River
 Vashishti River
 Savitri River
 Kundalika River
 Gandhari River
 Patalganga River
 Ulhas River
o Thane Creek (distributary)
o Vasai Creek (distributary)
 Mithi River or Mahim River
 Oshiwara River
 Dahisar River
 Tansa River in Thane
 Vaitarna River
 Surya River
 Chenna River
 Terna river


Tapti River Basin

 Tapti River and its tributaries

 Tapti River (or Tapi) in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
o Gomai River in Nandurbar district of Maharashtra
o Arunavati River in Dhule district of Maharashtra
o Panzara River in Jalgaon, Dhule districts of Maharashtra
 Kaan River in Dhule district
o Aner River in Jalgaon, Dhule districts
o Girna River in Nashik, Malegaon, Jalgaon districts
 Titur River in Jalgaon district
o Waghur River in Jalgaon, Aurangabad districts
o Purna River in Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Jalgaon, Navsari districts of
Gujarat, Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh
 Nalganga River in Buldhana district
 Vaan River in Buldhana, Akola, Amravati districts of Maharashtra
 Morna River in Akola, Washim districts
 Katepurna River in Akola, Washim districts
 Umaa River in Akola, Washim districts
o Sangiya River in Amravati district of Maharashtra

Narmada River Basin

 Narmada River
o Kolar River in Sehore
o Barna River in Raisen
o Hiren River
o Tawa River
o Burhner River

Mahi River Basin

 Mahi River
o Som River
 Gomati River

Sabarmati River Basin

 Sabarmati River
o Wakal River
o Sei River

Indus River Basin

Map of the main rivers of the Indus Basin.

 Indus River (largely in Pakistan)

o Panjnad River (Pakistan)
 Sutlej River (Northern India and Pakistan)
 Beas River
 Parbati River (Himachal Pradesh)
 Chenab River (largely in Pakistan)
 Ravi River (largely in Pakistan)
 Jhelum River (in Pakistan and India)
 Neelum River or Kishanganga

o Suru River
 Dras River
 Shingo River
o Yapola River
o Zanskar River
 Markha River
 Khurna River
 Tsarap River
 Doda River
o Hanley River

Rivers flowing into inner part of India

 Ghaggar River in Haryana, Rajasthan
 Musi River at Hyderabad, India
 Samir River, India/ india
 Luni River at Rajasthan

Alphabetical list
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.


 Aarpa
 Adyar River
 Aganashini
 Ahar River
 Ajay River
 Aji River
 Alaknanda River
 Amanat River
 Amaravathi River
 Arkavati River
 Atrai River
 Baitarani River
 Balan River
 Banas River
 Barak River
 Barakar River
 Beas River
 Berach River
 Betwa River
 Bhadar River
 Bhadra River
 Bhagirathi River
 Bharathappuzha
 Bhargavi River
 Bhavani River
 Bhilangna River
 Bhima River
 Bhugdoi River
 Brahmaputra River
 Brahmani River
 Burhi Gandak River
 Cauvery River
 Chambal River
 Chenab River
 Cheyyar River
 Chaliya River
 Coovum River
 Damanganga River
 Devi River
 Daya River
 Damodar River
 Doodhna River
 Dhansiri River
 Dudhimati River


 Falgu River
 Gambhir River
 Gandak
 Ganges River
 Ganges River
 Gayathripuzha
 Ghaggar River
 Ghaghara River
 Ghataprabha
 Girija River
 Girna River
 Godavari River
 Gomti River
 Gunjavni River
 Halali River
 Hoogli River
 Hindon River
 gursuti river


 Indus River
 Indravati River
 Indrayani River
 Jaldhaka
 Jhelum River
 Jayamangali River
 Jambhira River
 Kabini River
 Kadalundi River
 Kaagini River
 Kali River- Gujarat
 Kali River- Karnataka
 Kali River- Uttarakhand
 Kali River- Uttar Pradesh
 Kali Sindh River
 Kaliasote River
 Karmanasha
 Karban River
 Kallada River
 Kallayi River
 Kalpathipuzha
 Kameng River
 Kanhan River
 Kamla River
 Kannadipuzha
 Karnaphuli River
 Kelna River
 Kathajodi River
 Kelo River
 Khadakpurna River
 Kodoor River
 Koel River
 Kolab River
 Kolar River (Madhya Pradesh)
 Kolar River (Maharashtra)
 Kollidam River
 Kosi River
 Kuakhai River
 Koyna River
 Krishna River
 Kundali River
 Kaushiga River
 Kuwanav River
 Ken River
 Karha River
 Lachen River
 Lachung River
 Lakshmana Tirtha River
 Luni River


 Mahanadi River
 Mahananda River
 Mahakali River
 Mahi River
 Mandovi River
 Meenachil River
 Meghna River
 Mithi River
 Mula River
 Musi River
 Mutha River
 Muvattupuzha River
 Malaprabha
 Mani River
 Manorama River
 Moyar River
 Narmada River
 Nethravathi River
 Nag River
 Nagavali River

 Palar River
 Pamba River
 Pahuj River
 Man River
 Pamba River
 Mandakini River (Uttarakhand)
 Pallikkal Aaru River
 Panchganga River
 Panjnad River
 Panzara River
 Parambikulam River
 Parbati River (Himachal Pradesh)
 Parbati River (Madhya Pradesh)
 Parbati River (Rajasthan)
 Payaswini
 Pench River
 Penganga River
 Penner River
 Periyar River
 Phalgu
 Ponnaiyar River
 Pranhita River
 Purna River
 Pluest River (Poonch J&K)
 Pavana River


 Sutlej River
 Shabarmati River
 Saravati River
 Shetrunji River
 son river
 Subarnarekha River
 Tapi River
 Thate puthra River
 Tunga River
thamirabarani river


 Vaan River
 Vaigai River
 Vamsadhara River
 Varuna River
 Vashishti River
 Vedavathi River
 Vrishabhavathi River
 Vishwamitri River
 Vaitarna
 Udyavara river
 Ulhas River
 Ural River
 Uttara Cauvery River
 Wainganga River
 Wagh River
 Wardha River
 Wehashli River


 Yamuna River
 Zuari River

Unsorted list by Tributary

See earlier section

See also
 Rivers of India
 Major rivers of India
 List of rivers in India by discharge
 List of dams and reservoirs in India

 Bhalerao, S.M., Bharatiya Sarita Kosh (in Marathi), (Encyclopedia of Indian Rivers)
 Vol. 1: Scientific Information, pages 1–788 + 16 pages of colour photographs (ISBN
 Vol. 2: Scientific Information, pages 789-1660 + 16 pages of colour photographs
(ISBN 978-81-89959-51-7),
 Vol. 3: Scientific, Cultural, Historical Information, pages 1661-2468, + 36 pages of
colour photographs (ISBN 978-81-89959-52-4)
 Book of 60 Maps (ISBN 978-81-89959-57-9), Published Nov. 2007, Diamond
Publications, 1691 Sadashiv Peth, Shankar

Prasad Society, Tilak Road, Pune 411 030, INDIA


 v
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 e

Geography of India

 v
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List of rivers of Asia


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Hydrography of the Indian subcontinent


 Rivers of India
 Lists of rivers by country
 Lists of rivers of India
 India geography-related lists

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List of major rivers of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of the major rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in India

Map showing rivers and flood prone areas in India

Rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indians. They provide potable
water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihood for a large number of people all
over the country. This easily explains why nearly all the major cities of India are located by
the banks of rivers. The rivers also have an important role in Hindu Dharma and are
considered holy by all Hindus in the country.[1]

Seven major rivers along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India.
The largest basin system of the rivers pour their waters into the Bay of Bengal; however,
some of the rivers whose courses take them through the western part of the country and
towards the east of the state of Himachal Pradesh empty into the Arabian Sea. Parts of
Ladakh, northern parts of the Aravalli range and the arid parts of the Thar Desert have inland

All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds:

1. The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges

2. Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
3. Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India

Himalayan glaciers in the Indian subcontinent are broadly divided into the three river basins,
namely the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The Indus basin has the largest number of
glaciers (3500), whereas the Ganga and Brahmaputra basins contain about 1000 and 660
glaciers, respectively.[2]

 1 The Indo-Gangetic Plains
 2 Ganges River System
 3 Indus River System
 4 Annual flows and other data
 5 The Peninsular River System
 6 See also
 7 References
The Indo-Gangetic Plains
Known as Ganga-Satluj Ka Maidaan (भभभभ भभभभ भभ भभभभभ), this area is drained by
16 major rivers. The major Himalayan Rivers are the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. These
rivers are long,and are joined by many large and important tributaries. Himalayan rivers have
long courses from their source to sea.(in India Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal)

Ganges River System

The major rivers in this system are (in order of merging, from west to east)

 Ganga - Starting from Gangotri Glacier, Uttarakhand

 Chambal -Flows through Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and merges into Yamuna in
Uttar Pradesh
 Betwa - Not Himalayan river, covers Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh before
merging into Yamuna
 Yamuna - Yamuna runs its most of the course parallel to Ganga before contributing
its water to Ganga at Allahabad
 Gomti - Starts near the junction of three borders viz. Nepal, Uttarakhand and UP
 Ghaghra - Starts in Nepal near Uttarakhand
 Son - Not Himalayan river, covers MP, UP, Jharkhand and Bihar. Largest of Ganga's
southern tributaries
 Gandak - Starts from Nepal
 Kosi - Starts from Bihar, near Indo-Nepal border
 Brahmaputra - Merges with Ganga to form the grand river (but short in length) -
Padma in Bangladesh. By now, flow velocity of both rivers slow down to
considerable extent as they are in plains now.

Before entering Bangladesh, Ganga leaves a distributary Hugli, which provides water for
irrigation in West Bengal

Indus River System

The 'Indus River originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash range near Lake Mansarovar
in Tibet. Although most of the river's course runs through neighbouring Pakistan, as per as
regulation of Indus water treaty of 1960, India can only use only 20 percent of the water in
this river. A portion of it does run through Indian territory, as do parts of the courses of its
five major tributaries, listed below. These tributaries are the source of the name of the Punjab
of South Asia; the name is derived from the punch ("five") and aab ("water"), hence the
combination of the words (Punjab) means "land with the water of five rivers". The Indus is
3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi) long.

The major rivers in Indus river system are (in order of their length):

 Indus - 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi)

 Chenab - 960 kilometres (600 mi)
 Jhelum - 813 kilometres (505 mi)
 Ravi - 720 kilometres (450 mi)
 Sutlej - 529 kilometres (329 mi)
 Beas - 460 kilometres (290 mi)
 Shyok
 Zanskar

Annual flows and other data

India experiences an average precipitation of 1,170 millimetres (46 in) per year, or about
4,000 cubic kilometres (960 cu mi) of rains annually.[3] Some 80 percent of its area
experiences rains of 750 millimetres (30 in) or more a year. However, this rain is not uniform
in time or geography. Most of the rains occur during its monsoon seasons (June to
September), with the northeast and north receiving far more rains than India's west and south.
Other than rains, the melting of snow year round over the Himalayas feeds the northern rivers
to varying degrees. The southern rivers, however experience more flow variability over the
year. For the Himalayan basin, this leads to flooding in some months and water scarcity in
others. Despite extensive river system, safe clean drinking water as well as irrigation water
supplies for sustainable agriculture are in shortage across India, in part because it has, as yet,
harnessed a small fraction of its available and recoverable surface water resource.[4] India
harnessed 761 cubic kilometres (183 cu mi) (20 percent) of its water resources in 2010, part
of which came from unsustainable use of groundwater. Of the water it withdrew from its
rivers and groundwater wells, India dedicated about 688 cubic kilometres (165 cu mi) to
irrigation, 56 cubic kilometres (13 cu mi) to municipal and drinking water applications and
17 cubic kilometres (4.1 cu mi) to industry.[3]

According to 2011 report of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
India's basin wise distribution of catchment area and utilizable surface water resources is
presented in the following table:[3]

Catchment Additional
area Average available
[hide]Basin River basin
Region Draining into (% of river runoff surface
number unit 3
irrigated (km ) water
India) (km3)
1.1 North Bangladesh 26.5 525.02 250
1.2 Northeast Bangladesh 6 537.24 24
1.3 East Bangladesh 1.5 48.36
2 Northeast Northeast 1.1 31
3 Subernarekha Bay of Bengal 0.9 12.37
Brahmani- East-
4 Bay of Bengal 1.6 28.48 6.8
Baitarani southeast
5 Mahanadi Bay of Bengal 4.4 66.88 18.3
Catchment Additional
area Average available
[hide]Basin River basin
Region Draining into (% of river runoff surface
number unit
irrigated (km3) water
India) (km3)
6 Godavari Central Bay of Bengal 9.7 110.54 50
7 Krishna Central Bay of Bengal 8 78.12 76.3
8 Pennar Southeast Bay of Bengal 1.7 6.32 58
9 Kaveri South Bay of Bengal 2.5 21.36 6.9
East flowing
rivers between Central-
10 Bay of Bengal 2.7 22.52 19
Mahanadi and east
East flowing
rivers between
11 Southeast Bay of Bengal 3.1 16.46 13.1
and Pennar
West flowing
rivers between
12 Southwest Arabian Sea 1.7 113.53 16.7
Tadri and
West flowing
13 rivers between Southwest Arabian Sea 1.7 87.41 24.3
Tapi and Tadri
14 Tapi Arabian Sea 2 14.88 11.9
15 Narmada Arabian Sea 3.1 45.64 14.5
16 Mahi Northwest Arabian Sea 1.1 11.02 34.5
17 Sabarmati Northwest Arabian Sea 0.7 3.81 3.1
West flowing
rivers between
18 Northwest Arabian Sea 10 15.1 1.9
Kutsh and
19 Northwest India 0 Negligible 15
inland basin
Indus Pakistan,
20 Northwest 10 73.31 46
tributaries India
100 1869.37

The Peninsular River System

The main water divide in peninsular rivers is formed by the Western Ghats, which run from
north to south close to the western coast. Most of the major rivers of the peninsula such as the
Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of
Bengal. These rivers make delta at their mouths. The Narmada, Periyar and Tapti are the only
long rivers, which flow west and make estuaries.

This chart shows the tributaries and distributaries of major rivers of India. The merging of
cells to the right side each time indicates getting supply from a tributary and vice versa. The
bottom-most row shows other rivers with no major helping rivers (Saryu is an exception).
Flow of the rivers is assumed to be from left to right.

See also
 Indian Rivers Inter-link
 Amazon river basin
 Rhine river basin
 Danube river basin
 Nile river basin
 Yangtze river basin

 Sunil Vaidyanathan, Rivers of India, ISBN 978-8189738884, 2012
  page no 361
  FAO, India - Rivers Catchment, Aquastat, United Nations (2011)

4.  K.L. Rao, India's Water Wealth, ISBN 978-8125007043, 1979


 Lists of rivers of India

 Rivers of India

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River Info
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 1 Statewise Major Rivers

 2 Indian River Systems
o 2.1 Indus River System
 2.1.1 Shyok river
 2.1.2 Zanskar river
 2.1.3 Suru river
o 2.2 Brahmaputra River System
o 2.3 Ganga River System
 2.3.1 Yamuna River System
o 2.4 Narmada River System
o 2.5 Tapi River System
o 2.6 Godavari River System
o 2.7 Krishna River System
o 2.8 Cauvery River System
o 2.9 Mahanadi River System
 3 Independent Rivers in India

Statewise Major Rivers

No State *
1 Andhra Pradesh
2 Arunachal Pradesh
3 Assam
4 Bihar
5 Chhattisgarh
6 Goa
7 Gujarat
8 Haryana
9 Himachal Pradesh
10 Jammu and Kashmir
11 Jharkhand
12 Karnataka
13 Kerala
14 Madhya Pradesh
15 Maharashtra
16 Manipur
17 Meghalaya
18 Mizoram
19 Nagaland
20 Odisha
21 Punjab
22 Rajasthan
23 Sikkim
24 Tamil Nadu
25 Tripura
26 Uttar Pradesh
27 Uttarakhand
28 West Bengal
29 Telangana
Union Territories
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands More details
2 Chandigarh More details
3 Dadra and Nagar Haveli More details
4 Daman and Diu More details
5 Lakshadweep More details
6 Delhi More details
7 Puducherry More details

Indian River Systems

The Indian River Systems can be divided into four categories – the Himalayan, the rivers
traversing the Deccan Plateau, the Coastal and those in the inland drainage basin. The
Himalayan rivers are perennial as they are fed by melting glaciers every summer. During the
monsoon, these rivers assume alarming proportions. Swollen with rainwater, they often
inundate villages and towns in their path. The Gangetic basin is the largest river system in
India, draining almost a quarter of the country. The rivers of the Indian peninsular plateau are
mainly fed by rain. During summer, their flow is greatly reduced, and some of the tributaries
even dry up, only to be revived in the monsoon. The Godavari basin in the peninsula is the
largest in the country, spanning an area of almost one-tenth of the country. The rivers
Narmada (India’s holiest river) and Tapti flow almost parallel to each other but empty
themselves in opposite directions. The two rivers make the valley rich in alluvial soil and teak
forests cover much of the land. While coastal rivers gush down the peaks of the Western
Ghats into the Arabian Sea in torrents during the rains, their flow slow down after the
monsoon. Streams like the Sambhar in western Rajasthan are mainly seasonal in character,
draining into the inland basins and salt lakes. In the Rann of Kutch, the only river that flows
through the salt desert is the Luni. The major river systems and Independent river of India are
discussed in below link.

 Indus River System

 Brahmaputra River System
 Ganga River System
 Narmada River System
 Tapti River System
 Godavari River System
 Krishna River System
 Cauvery River System
 Mahanadi River System

Indus River System

Indus River, Tibetan and Sanskrit Sindhu, Sindhi Sindhu, or Mehran, great trans-Himalayan
river of South Asia. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 1,800
miles (2,900 km). Its total drainage area is about 450,000 square miles (1,165,000 square
km), of which 175,000 square miles (453,000 square km) lie in the Himalayan ranges and
foothills and the rest in the semiarid plains of Pakistan.

The Indus originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake
Manasarovar. It follows a north-westerly course through Tibet. It enters Indian territory in
Jammu and Kashmir. It forms a picturesque gorge in this part. Several tributaries - the
Zaskar, the Shyok, the Nubra and the Hunza join it in the Kashmir region. It flows through
the regions of Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit and runs between the Ladakh Range and the
Zaskar Range. It crosses the Himalayas through a 5181 m deep gorge near Attock, lying
north of the Nanga Parbat and later takes a bend to the south west direction before entering
Pakistan. It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length
of about 2880 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian
Sea. The main tributaries of the Indus in India are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj.

The principal rivers of the Indus River system are snow-fed. Their flow varies greatly at
different times of the year: the discharge is at a minimum during the winter months
(December to February); there is a rise of water in spring and early summer (March to June);
and floods occur in the rainy season (July to September). Occasionally there are devastating
flash floods. The Indus and its tributaries receive all their waters in the hilly upper parts of
their catchments. Therefore, their flow is at a maximum where they emerge out of the
foothills, and little surface flow is added in the plains, where evaporation and seepage
considerably reduce the flow volume. On the other hand, some water is added by seepage in
the period after the monsoon months. In the main stream of the Indus, the water level is at its
lowest from mid-December to mid-February. After this the river starts rising, slowly at first
and then more rapidly at the end of March. The high-water level usually occurs between mid-
July and mid-August. The river then falls rapidly until the beginning of October, when the
water level subsides more gradually.

Brief description of some of the important tributaries of Indus River other then Jhelum,
Chenab, Ravi,Beas and Satluj is given below. :

Shyok river

The Shyok river draining the northern Karakoram mountains in the Lingzi Thang area, is
joined by Chang Chenmo and Galewan nallas in the upper catchment. Further down it is
joined by a major tributary, the Nubra river from the north opposite Diskit village, and the
combined course of the two river enters the Pak occupied Kashmir below Boagdoong.
Catchment area of Shyok is 19540 sq kms.

Zanskar river

Zanskar river is formed by two major tributaries in Zanskar valley called Stot and Lugnek
river. The former originates from Pansi pass and glaciers on Southern range of mountains at
high altitudes about 4500 M. Umasi-la glacier 5234 M is the main glacier contributing to it in
lower reach near Tungri. The Lugnek river drains the catchment adjacent to Himachal
Pradesh in the East. Both tributaries join at Padam (Zanaskar Tehsil) to constitute Zanaskar
river which joins Indus at Nimu.
Suru river

Suru river originates from glaciers on south of Pansi pass and flow north till Ringdom from
where it takes a bearing towards west and passes through Parkhachik, Kargil and flow down
to meet Indus at Marol (in Pak occupied Kashmir). The Drass is an important tributary of
Suru which joins on the left bank below Kargil.

A typical feature of Ladakh region is that a number of lakes exist here which serve as inland
drainage receiver in some of the areas. A few prominent lakes are described here in brief:

a) Pangong Lake

The lake is partly in China and partly in India. Water of this lake is highly brackish and runs
in the form of a narrow stream with about 128 km. Length and 5 km width. It is situate east-
west of Chushul at RL 4714 M.
b) Spanggur Tso

Spanggur Tso is also known as bitter lake with a length of 24 km. and width of 2.5km. The
lake is situated adjacent to the international border with China and 6 kms. south of Pangong
lake. The water of the leak is extremely bitter.

c) Tso Morari Lake

Known as mountain lake also. It is 24 km in length with a width of 6 kms. Its water is
brackish and is situated at RL 5000m surrounded by mountains ranging from 700 mts. To
1700 mts in Rupshu area.

d) Tsokar Lake

It is one of the beautiful lakes of world known as white lake and is situated at RL 5228 m in
almost north of Tsomorari. Its length and with are 6.9 km and 3.7 km respectively. Its water
is bitter and brackish. It is irregular in shape and contains high content of sub-carbonates of

Brahmaputra River System

The river Brahmaputra covers a catchment area of about 5,80,000 right from its origin
in Himalayan Lake Manasarover at an elevation of about 5,150 m in Tibet to the outfall in the
Bay of Bengal. It flows eastward in Tibet and south, south-west in India and traverses a
distance of about 2900 km out of which 1,700km is in Tibet, 900 km is in India and 300 km
is in Bangladesh. In the upper reaches, the river is fed by the glaciers and in the lower
reaches, it is joined by a number of tributaries which originates at different elevation in the
hills encircling the catchment forming watershed. Among the tributaries Subansiri, Manas,
Jiabharali, Pagladiya, Puthimari and Sankosh etc are snow fed. The break up of catchment
area in India is as follows:

State Area
ASSAM (Excluding Barak valley) 70,634 Sq.Km.
NAGALAND 10,803 Sq.Km.
MEGHALAYA 11,667 Sq.Km.
Total 1,94,413 Sq.Km.

The Tibetan name of river is "TSANGPO" and Chinese name is "YALUZANGBU". The
watershed area is mostly on the northern side of the river in this region. After traversing a
distance of about 1700 km eastwardly, the river changes its course from east to south and
then enters the Arunachal Pradesh in Indian territory. Its name also changes from
"TSANGPO" to Siang and Dehang in Arunachal Pradesh . The river then flows almost in
Southern direction for another distance of about 200 km upto Passighat. Before touching
plains it is joined by two major Himalayan tributaries viz. Lohit and Debang. The combined
flow of these rivers is known as the Brahmaputra and passes through the plains of Assam and
Bangladesh before falling into the Bay of Bengal. From Passighat to Dhubri where it travels
in plains of Assam is well known as Brahmaputra valley.

The river Brahmaputra receives a number of tributaries at its north and south banks, in the
catchment area in India. The major tributaries are as follow

Tributaries from North bank Tributaries from South bank

The Jiadhal The Noa Dehing
The Subansiri The Buridehing
The Siang The Debang
The Kameng (Jiabharali in Assam) The Dikhow
The Dhansiri(North) The Dhansiri(S)
The Puthimari The Kopili
The Pagladiya The Digaru
The Manas The Dudhnai
The Champamati The Krishnai
The Saralbhanga
The Aie
The Sankosh

In addition, six tributaries namely the Tista, the Sankosh, the Raidak-I, the Raidak-II, the
Torsa and the Jaldhaka flowing through the northern West Bengal also join the main stream
of Brahmaputra but, in the plains of Bangladesh. The North bank tributaries are flashy and
have steep slopes, shallow braided channels, coarse sandy beds, carry a heavy silt charge. The
South bank tributaries have flatter grades, deep meandering channels, fine alluvial soils and
comparatively low silt charge.

Ganga River System

The Ganga (Ganges) rises from the Gangotri Glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas at an
elevation of some 4100 metres above the sea level under the name of Bhagirathi. This main
stream of the river flows through the Himalayas till another two streams – the Mandakini and
the Alaknanda – join it at Dev Prayag, the point of confluence. The combined stream is then
known as the Ganga. After traversing a distance of 1450 km. in Uttaranchal and Uttar
Pradesh, the river forms boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar for length of about 110
km. The Ganga, then flows through a length of 445 km. in Bihar/Jharkhand and 520 km. in
West Bengal before its outfall into Bay of Bengal. The river after traversing a distance of
2525 kms from its source meets the Bay of Bengal at Ganga Sagar in West Bengal. In Uttar
Pradesh, the major tributaries of river Ganga are the Ramganga, the Yamuna, the Gomti, and
the Tons. The river Ganga enters into state of Bihar near Buxar and leaves Jharkhand near
Rajmahal. Its important tributaries in Bihar are the Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Burhi Gandak,
the Kosi, the Sone, the Punpun and the Kiul. The Ganga drains a total catchment area of
10.631 lakh, out of which 8.61 lakh in India. Thus Ganga basin covers 26
percent of geographical area of the country. The annual rainfall in the Ganga basin varies
from 500 mm. to 2500 mm in the mountains and 400 mm to 1250 mm in the plains. Most of
rainfall is concentrated during the months of June to September

Yamuna River System

The River Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier, 6387m above mean sea level
(msl), at the Banderpoonch peak in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. The catchment of
the river extends to states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh,Himachal Pradesh, Haryana,
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh and the entire union territory of Delhi. The river flows 1211
km from here to its confluence with the River Ganga at Allahabad. The main tributaries
joining the river include the Hindon, Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken.

Narmada River System

The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. It forms the traditional boundary
between North India and South India, and is a total of 1,313 km (801 mi) long. Of the major
rivers of peninsular India, only the Narmada, the Tapti and the Mahi run from east to west. It
rises on the summit of Amarkantak Hill in Madhya Pradesh state, and for the first 320
kilometres (200 miles) of its course winds among the Mandla Hills, which form the head of
the Satpura Range; then at Jabalpur, passing through the 'Marble Rocks', it enters the
Narmada Valley between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges, and pursues a direct westerly
course to the Gulf of Cambay. Its total length through the states of Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, and Gujarat amounts to 1312 kilometres (815 miles), and it empties into the
Arabian Sea in the Bharuch district of Gujarat.

Tapi River System

The Tapi is a river of central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with the
length of around 724 km; it runs from east to west. The Tapi River originates in the Betul
district from a place called Multai. It is one of only three rivers in peninsular India that run
from east to west - the others being the Narmada River and the Mahi River. The Tapi is the
second largest westward draining inter-state river basin. It covers a large area in the State of
Maharashtra besides areas in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

Godavari River System

The river with second longest course within India, Godavari is often referred to as the Vriddh
(Old) Ganga or the Dakshin (South) Ganga. The name may be apt in more ways than one, as
the river follows the course of Ganga's tragedy. The river is about 1,465 km (900 miles) long.
It rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) in Maharashtra
around 380 km distance from the Arabian Sea, but flows southeast across south-central India
through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, and empties
into the Bay of Bengal. At Rajahmundry, 80 km from the coast, the river splits into two
streams thus forming a very fertile delta. Some of its tributaries include Indravati River,
Manjira, Bindusara and Sabari. Some important urban centers on its banks include Nasik,
Bhadrachalam, Rajahmundry and Narsapur. The Asia's largest rail-cum-road bridge on the
river Godavari linking Kovvur and Rajahmundry is considered to be an engineering feat.

Krishna River System

The Krishna is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1400 km in length). It originates at
Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, passes through Sangli and meets the sea in the Bay of Bengal
at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh. The Krishna River flows through the states of
Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The traditional source of the river is a spout
from the mouth of a statue of a cow in the ancient temple of Mahadev in Mahabaleshwar. Its
most important tributary is the Tungabhadra River, which itself is formed by the Tunga and
Bhadra rivers that originate in the Western Ghats. Other tributaries include the Koyna,
Bhima, Mallaprabha, Ghataprabha, Yerla, Warna, Dindi, Musi and Dudhganga rivers.

Cauvery River System

The Cauvery (also spelled Kavery) is one of the great rivers of India and is considered sacred
by the Hindus. This river is also called Dakshin Ganga. The headwaters are in the Western
Ghats range of Karnataka state, and flows from Karnataka through Tamil Nadu. It empties
into the Bay of Bengal. Its waters have supported irrigated agriculture for centuries, and the
Cauveri has been the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India. The
source of the river is Talakaveri located in the Western Ghats about 5,000 feet (1,500 m)
above sea level. It flows generally south and east for around 800 km, emptying into the Bay
of Bengal through two principal mouths. Its basin is estimated to be 27,700 square miles
(811,55 km²), and it has many tributaries including Shimsha, Hemavati, Arkavathy, Kapila,
Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and Famous

Mahanadi River System

The Mahanadi River system is the third largest in the peninsula of India and the largest river
of Orissa state. The basin (80º30’–86º50’ E and 19º20’–23º35’ N) extends over an area
approximately 1415,89 km2, has a total length of 851 km. The basin is characterized by a
tropical climate with average annual rainfall of 142 cm (NWDA, 1981) with 90% occurring
during the SW-monsoon. The river begins in the Baster hills of Madhya Pradesh flows over
different geological formations of Eastern Ghats and adjacent areas and joins the Bay of
Bengal after divided into different branches in the deltaic area. The main branches of River
Mahanadi meet Bay of Bengal at Paradip and Nuagarh (Devi estuary). The tidal estuarine
part of the river covers a length of 40 km and has a basin area of 9 km2. Based on physical
characteristics, the estuary has been characterized as a partially mixed coastal plain estuary.

Independent Rivers in India

List of independent rivers in India Read More--

 Page created by Rrscj, 23 December 2011

 Contributors: Y paithankar x45, Alokkalsi x10, Karishma bhatnagar x8
 Last modified by Karishma bhatnagar, 26 October 2015

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