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KARAKTERISASI BATUAN SHALE “RESERVOIR”

HIDROKARBON UNTUK EKSPLORASI MIGAS


INDONESIA

PUSAT SURVEY GEOLOGI - BADAN GEOLOGI


KESDM RI
Potensi Shale “Reservoir” Gas di Indonesia
Kutei: 80,59 tcf

CSB : 86,90 tcf Bintuni : 31,40 tcf

Akimeugah : 62,64 tcf

Ombilin : 25,26 tcf


Potensi Shale “Reservoir” Minyak di Indonesia
Kajian karakterisasi Shale “Reservoir” Hidrokarbon Indonesia

Geological agency, 2017


1. Central Sumatra basin 5. Singkawang Basin
2. Bintuni Basin 6. North Embaluh Basin
3. Akimeugah Basin 7. Melawi and Ketungau
Basin
4. Kutai basin
Map of Distribution and Potential of Shale Oil and Gas Bearing Formation
of Indonesia
Shale Distribution
Shale Distribution
Shale Distribution
Shale Distribution
Shale Distribution
Shale Distribution
Shale Distribution
Shale Distribution
Shale “Reservoir” Hidrokarbon play profile
• Impermeable (< 0,1 md)
• Highly compact rocks
• Complex composition
• Naturally fractures
• Source rock and reservoir closely related
• Most of Deep (≥ 6000 ft)
• Relatively thin (50 – 200 ft)
15
Any decision to exploit a shale “reservoir”
hidrokarbon play is based on study
• geological
• environmental
• technical
• economic
Important Geological Element In Shale Hydrocarbon Play Exploration
Assesment Of Exploration Shale Hydrocarbon Work Flow

Sukhyar dkk, 2013


HOW TO MEASURED SHALE PROPERTIES ?

• Porositas dan permeabilitas rendah


• Mineral clay dan kerogen berlimpah
• Partikel batuan sangat kecil
• Microstructure
• Planar contacts
• Rock fabric yang kompleks
• Mixture komponen organic dan inorganic
• Diagenetic tinggi
• remineralisasi terus menerus
ANALISA BATUAN YANG PERLU DILAKUKAN

• Total Gas Content


• Total Organic Content
• Characterization of Organic Material
• Petrographic Analyses (FIB, SEM, XRD, T/S)
• Petrophysics property analyses
Routine Analyses
Mechanical Properties
MENGAPA DILAKUKAN ANALISA BATUAN ?

essential to

Petrophysical interpretation,
3D-Static modeling,
Resource estimation
Lauty, 2018
Central Sumatera Basin
• The potential of shale gas in the central Sumatran basin lies in the
brown shale formation deposited at the age of eocene to oligocene
and the early-middle Miocene Telisa formation with the following
characteristics:
• DEPOSITIONAL FACIES: Brown shale formation were deposited in
lacustrine environment, while the Telisa shales were deposited in
more marine environment.
• ORGANIC RICHNESS: the TOCs content of the Brown Shales Formation
is over 2%, with mainly consist of liptinite macerals (alginate),
however the Telisa Shales have much lower TOCs content > 0.5%,
comprises of predominantly vitrinite macerals.
Shale Gas Play Target : Deeper Burial Sediment

- 2200 m - 2700 m

Well #Kelok-1

Well #Kelabu-1

The prospect area for shale gas


mainly in the deeper burial
sediment (sub basin)
Deep Burial Sediment
• the brown shale formation has kerogen type I, II and III with maturity from early
mature to oil zone category, however the Telisa Shales has mainly kerogen II and
III, with maturity level immature to oil zone.
• MINERALOGY: the brown shale • PORE TYPE CHARACTERISTICS: porosity
formation consists of quite over 2%, with clay mineral occurs as
abudance clay minerals account authigenic mineral, pore lining and pore
of 30%, while the Telisa Shales filling minerals, while pyrite and quartz
comprises of predominantly occurs as detrital material, pore filling
dan fracture filling. Poroisty type: poros
quartz and pyrite (brittle floccullus, interparticle grain, organo
minerals). porosity dan microfracture.
Bintuni Basin
• Target formation for shale
gas exploration in Bintuni
Basin are Piniya Formation
and Aiduna Formation. The
Aiduna Formation is
characterized by the
lithology of claystone and
shale of light gray-dark gray,
with a laminate parallel
sedimentary structure and
wood or root deposits as
seen at Mawi Bay in Figure
• Potential Areas of shale 1.
• This area is located around the Bay area of Mawi,
Bald Mountain and surrounding areas. In this
area the shales are found on the Aiduna
Formation and the Kembelangan Group that is in
the Woniwogi Formation.

• Potential Areas of Shale 2.


• This area is in the vicinity of Tahota - Windesi. In
this area there are shales in the Kembelangan
Group that is in Piniya Formation. Characteristics
of shales in this formation is in the form of
mudstone (mudstone), dark gray, shale and clay,
dark gray, shale

• Potential Shales Area 3.


• This area is located in Bintuni area. In this area
the shales are found in the Classic Formation.
Characteristics of shales in this formation is in
the form of clay, fresh gray color, brown weather,
shale, calcite vein, massif
Akimeugah Basin
Kopai Formation
• This formation in the research area is found on the Wamena -
Elelim path. The formation is composed by claystone, with thin
sandstone patches. Claystone, gray, brownish yellow, black, clay
grain size, flake, massive, in some places react with Hcl, there is a
cross bedding sediment structure and hummocky cross
stratification. The deposition environments of this formation are
interpreted on the transition - lower shoreface, characterized by
coal and hummocky cross stratification structures showing the
lower shoreface deposition environment.
• The Appearance of Lower Shale of Kopai Formation (Sample 16 FB
001 / A) shows the domination of Illite (I), there are quartz mineral
minerals (Q) and micro porosity (P). The presence of quartz
minerals will increase the value of keoyasan (BI) in this shale layer,
in addition the presence of micro porosity has the potential to
provide a place for gas capture in the shale layer.
Piniya Formation
• This formation in the research area is found on the
Wamena - Elelim track, the Wamena - Bokondini track,
the Wamena - Tolikara trajectory, and the Wamena -
Bua track. The formation is composed of massive
claystone, limestone, and slate, and a green schist
located near the subduction zone on the Wamena -
Bokondini track. Claystone, gray - black, clay grain size,
reacts with Hcl, flakes, very hard, encountered bivalve
gastropod fossils, ammonite, and belemnite. shelf.
• The Appearance of the Lower Shale of the Piniya
Formation (Sample 16 FB 007 / A) Generally composed
of Illite (I) clay minerals and micro porosity (P). The
presence of micro porosity has the potential to provide
a place for gas capture in the shale layer
• Petrophysic Analysis has been done
from Apauwar-1 well to calculate TOC,
Hydrogen Index, and Tmax, for
geochemical analysis. The richness of
organic materials in the Mamberamo D
Member Formation is generally fair up
to the 2150 m interval. At depth
intervals below 2150 m, in general the
organic content materials is good.
• The maturity of the parent rock at a
depth of more than 3820 m has
matured, indicated by Tmax that has
entered the mature window.
Kutai Basin
Blok B

BLOK B
Blok A
Blok C
BLOK C

BLOK A

Blok A : zona Miosen Awal


Blok B : zona Oligosen Akhir
Blok C : zona Eosen Tengah MODEL GEOMETRI

AREA PENELITIAN TAHUN 2017


MODEL FASIES
MODEL VOLUME SERPIH

MODEL POROSITAS
MODEL SATURASI AIR MODEL TOC

MODEL BRITTLENESS
Sweet Spots

Parameter Kriteria Pay


Zone
Vsh >0.5
TOC >1
Brittleness >0.48
Maturity Gas
window

Payzone pada wilayah kerja MNK Kutai ditandai oleh area berwarna ;
Area berwarna merupakan interval batuan yang belum memasuki gas window
Singkawang Basin
Shale Characteristic
Banan Formation is member of
Bengkayang Group, characterized
by dark carbonaceous siltstone and
many trace fossils with horizontal
direction, the most important
features of this formation are
tuffaceous lithology and rock which
were being metamorphic processes
with blocky appearances and rock
fragments such as slaty structures.

Sungai Betung Formation


characterized by dark
carbonaceous claystone which is
large the amount of organic
content in rocks and interbeded
sandstone, which is Ammonite
sp. fossil print.
Shale Characteristic

Pedawan Formation is characterized by the dominance of sandstone


lithology and shale which have a sedimentary structure indicating rocks
deposited with turbidite systems. The appearance of sandstone which
means many contain feldspar and the number of carbon laminates,
locally found fragments of coal and resin.
Geochemical Analysis
From the Total Organic Carbon
Analysis we could know that
the organic materials contain is
classified from fair–very good
with number of 0.45 up to
2.14. The domination of OI
(Oxygen Index) show it could
be generated to gas. But the
value of S2 and HI is 0 (means
for Kerogen Type IV).

From the maceral analysis The maturity of


fine sediment show they are mature (peak
mature). wich mean that this formation
has good potensial for Shale Hydrocarbon
exploration.
Melawi - Ketungau Basin
Lintasan penelitian dibagi menjadi 12 lintasan, yaitu:
1. Lintasan Nanga Dua 8. Lintasan Sosok-Beduai
2. Lintasan Nanga Raun 9. Lintasan Sungai Ketungau - Sungai Sekalau
3. Lintasan Boyan Tanjung 10. Lintasan Nanga Merakai - Nanga Badau
4. Lintasan Mawan 11. Lintasan Nanga Merakai – Balai Karangan
5. Lintasan Nanga Selangkai
6. Lintasan Seiberuang
7. Lintasan Nanga Silat-Landau Badai
Formasi Selangkai

• Shale dengan warna hitam, kondisi sebagian besar sudah lapuk, fissile, laminasi, non karbonat.
Litologi lain dari formasi ini adalah batupasir dan batulempung. Batupasir dengan warna putih
keabuan dan kemerahan, ukuran butir pasir halus – pasir sedang, rounded, sortasi baik, kemas
terbuka, semen silika, telah mengalami oksidasi, laminasi (wavy), non karbonat. Batulempung,
warna cokelat, non karbonat, kondisi lapuk, laminasi, non fissile.
• TOC berkisar antara 0.16% - 1.47%
• Kenampakan Shale dari Formasi Selangkai (Sample 17 IG 018) dengan Nilai TOC 1.47%. Kerogen
Tipe III. Nilai Ro 0.78%-2.46%. Umumnya tersusun oleh mineral lempung Illite dan Kuarsa (Qz).
Kehadiran mineral kuarsa (Qz) menambah nilai kegetasan, sedangkan kehadiran micro porosity
(Por) dalam bentuk micro crack dan micro porosity dengan porositas sekitar 8-10%.
Formasi Pedawan

Kenampakan Shale dari Formasi Pedawan (Sample 17 MW 025 A)


dengan Nilai TOC 3.16%. Kerogen Tipe III. Nilai Ro 0.53%-2.62%.
Umumnya tersusun oleh mineral lempung Illite. Sedangkan
kehadiran micro porosity (Por) umumnya dalam bentuk micro
porosity dan micro crack dengan porositas sekitar 5-8%.

Shale dengan warna abu-abu tua sampai hitam kecokelatan, getas, setempat karbonatan
dengan sisipin tipis batupasir dengan kondisi lapuk, warna putih kelabu, sortasi baik, kemas
terbuka, non karbonat. TOC berkisar antara 0.27% - 3.16%
Formasi Ingar
Kenampakan Shale dari Formasi Ingar
(Sample 17 MW 016) dengan Nilai TOC
0.34%. Kerogen Tipe III. Nilai Ro 1.25%.
Umumnya tersusun oleh mineral
lempung Illite. Sedangkan kehadiran
micro porosity (Por) umumnya dalam
bentuk micro porosity dan micro crack
dengan porositas sekitar 3-8%.

• Perselingan batulanau dan batulempung


batulanau, abu - abu gelap, non karbonatan,
lapuk sedang, terkekarkan batulempung,
warna abu - abu terang kemerahan, non
karbonatan, lebih tipis. TOC berkisar
antara 0.34% - 0.55%
Formasi Silat

Kenampakan Shale dari Formasi Silat


(Sample 17 IG 034) dengan Nilai TOC
1.90%. Kerogen Tipe II/III dan Tipe III. Nilai
Ro 0.50%-0.70%. Umumnya tersusun oleh
mineral lempung Illite. Sedangkan
kehadiran micro porosity (Por) umumnya
• Serpih / shale berwarna abu-abu gelap, friable, mengandung material dalam bentuk micro porosity dan micro
organik yang melimpah, struktur sedimen laminasi paralel, pada bagian crack dengan porositas sekitar 8-10%.
tengah lapisan berseling dengan lignit dan lempung. Batulempung warna
abu – abu, berlapis 5-15 cm, struktur internal masif, pada bagian atas
mengalami oksidasi, mengandung material – material karbon.
• TOC berkisar antara 0.66% - 1.90%
Kelompok Mandai

• Kenampakan Shale dari Kelompok Mandai


(Sample 17 IG 009) dengan Nilai TOC 10.45%.
Kerogen Tipe II/III. Nilai Ro 0.44%-0.50%.
Umumnya tersusun oleh mineral lempung
Shale dengan warna hitam kecokelatan, kondisi lapuk, fissile, Illite. Sedangkan kehadiran micro porosity
laminasi, non karbonat. Litologi lain adalah batupasir, (Por) umumnya dalam bentuk micro porosity
batulempung, dan sisipan batubara. Batupasir dengan kondisi dan terdapat jejak sisa tumbuhan (plant),
lapuk, warna putih kelabu, sortasi baik, kemas terbuka, non porositas sekitar 3-8%.
karbonat. Batulempung, dengan warna cokelat cerah, lapuk,
non karbonat. Sisipan batubara, berwarna hitam, brittle, lapuk.
TOC berkisar antara 0.36% - 10.45%
• Formasi Kantu Formasi Ketungau
• Shale dengan warna abu-abu sampai abu-abu kekuning, Shale dengan warna abu-abu muda sampai abu-abu tua,
lunak, banyak mengandung fossil jejak berselingan lunak, berselingan dengan batulempung dan batupasir.
dengan batulempung dan batupasir. Batulempung
berwarna abu-abu sampai abu-abu tua setempat Batulempung berwarna abu-abu sampai abu-abu tua sedikit
mengandung sisa sisa tumbuhan. Batupasir berwarna karbonan. Batupasir berwarna abu-abu muda dan abu-abu
abu-abu muda dan abu-abu kemerahan sampai kemerahan berbutir halus sampai sedang dengan pemilahan
kekuningan berbutir halus sampai sedang dengan
pemilahan baik yang baik
Proposed Areas For Shale Hydrocarbon Research
Conclusion
• Assessment of Shale Gas in Geological Agency is one of priority
activities at national energy development and exploration activities in
the search for new oil and gas reserves in order to realize national
energy security.
• Some Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary sediments in Indonesia
show indications of unconventional oil and gas resources, but it's
potensial is not well known due the lack of surface and subsurface
geological data and analysis.
TERIMA KASIH