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INTRODUCTION

Cancer is a deadly disease which is caused due to uncontrolled growth of the


cells and forms from the extra mass tissue known as tumour. Some types of
cancer cause rapid cell growth, while others cause cells to grow and divide at
a slower rate.

Frequently, cancer cells can break away from this original mass of cells, travel
through the blood and lymph systems, and lodge in other organs where they
can again repeat the uncontrolled growth cycle. This process of cancer cells
leaving an area and growing in another body area is termed metastatic spread
or metastasis

Most of the body's cells have specific functions and fixed lifespans and cell
death is part of a natural and beneficial phenomenon called apoptosis. A cell
receives instructions to die so that the body can replace it with a newer cell
that functions better. Cancerous cells lack the components that instruct them
to stop dividing and to die. As a result, they build up in the body, using oxygen
and nutrients that would usually nourish other cells. Cancerous cells can
impair the immune system and cause other changes that prevent the body
from functioning regularly. Different cells of the body are affected during
cancer, like lungs, kidney, eyes, heart, brain, etc.

In addition to smoking, risk factors for cancer include heavy alcohol


consumption, excess body weight, physical inactivity, poor nutrition and
exposure to UV rays.

Genetic factors can also contribute to the development of cancer.A person's


genetic code tells their cells when to divide and expire. Changes in the genes
can lead to faulty instructions, and can result in cancer.
A person can also inherit a predisposition for a type of cancer and this is
referred to as hereditary cancer syndrome. Inherited genetic mutations
significantly contribute to the development of 5–10 percent of cancer cases.

Substances like arsenic, radon, lead and its compunds, titanium dioxide and
indium phosphide are some of the most harmful causative agents of cancer.

Treatment for this disease includes surgery, chemotherapy, raditation therapy


and stem cell transplant

TYPES
Doctors classify cancer by:

 its location in the body

 the tissues that it forms in

For example, sarcomas develop in bones or soft tissues, while carcinomas


form in cells that cover internal or external surfaces in the body. Basal cell
carcinomas develop in the skin, while adenocarcinomas can form in the
breast.

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TREATMENT
Innovative research has fueled the development of new medications and
treatment technologies. The treatment of cancer has undergone evolutionary
changes as understanding of the underlying biological processes has
increased. Below are examples of approaches to cancer treatment.

CHEMOTHERAPY
Chemotherapy aims to kill cancerous cells with medications that target rapidly
dividing cells.

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HORMONE THERAPY
Hormone therapy also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or
endocrine therapy involves taking medications that change how certain
hormones work or interfere with the body's ability to produce them. This
method of treatment is commonly used to treat prostate and breast
cancers.

IMMUNOTHERAPY TO TREAT CANCER


Immunotherapy refers to a diverse set of therapeutic strategies designed to
induce the patent’s own imune system to fight the tumor. It is a type
of biological therapy , that is, it uses substances made from living organisms
to treat cancer. Two examples of these treatments are checkpoint inhibitors
and adoptive cell transfer.
Immunotherapy drugs have been approved to treat many types of cancer.
However, it is not yet as widely used as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation
therapy.

RADIATION THERAPY
COPY FROM SUMMARY PROJECT

STEM CELL TRANSPLANTS IN CANCER TREATMENT


Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in
people, it involves removing cells, such as red or white blood cells that
chemotherapy or radiation has destroyed, lab technicians then strengthen the
cells and put them back into the body. Stem cell transplant can be especially
beneficial for people with blood-related cancers, such as leukemia
or lymphoma.

SURGERY TO TREAT CANCER


Surgery, when used to treat cancer, is a procedure in which a surgeon
removes cancer from the body. Surgery works best for solid tumors that are
contained in one area. It is not used for leukemia (a type of blood cancer) or
for cancers that have spread. When cancerous cells spread to other parts of
the body, surgery becomes imossible.

Examples of surgical procedures for cancer include mastectomy for breast


cancer, prostectomy for prostate cancer.

CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION OF THE SUMMARY PROJECT

PREVENTION
PREVENTION FROM THE SUMMARY PROJECT ALSO FIND
SOME MORE METHODS OF PREVENTION
5. Get vaccinated
Cancer prevention includes protection from certain viral infections. Talk to your doctor
about vaccination against:

 Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. The
hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for certain adults at high risk — such as adults
who are sexually active but not in a mutually monogamous relationship, people with
sexually transmitted infections, people who use intravenous drugs, men who have
sex with men, and health care or public safety workers who might be exposed to
infected blood or body fluids.
 Human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that can lead to
cervical and other genital cancers as well as squamous cell cancers of the head and
neck. The HPV vaccine is recommended for girls and boys ages 11 and 12. The
U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of vaccine Gardasil 9
for males and females ages 9 to 45.
6. Avoid risky behaviors
Another effective cancer prevention tactic is to avoid risky behaviors that can lead to
infections that, in turn, might increase the risk of cancer. For example:

 Practice safe sex. Limit your number of sexual partners and use a condom when
you have sex. The more sexual partners you have in your lifetime, the more likely
you are to contract a sexually transmitted infection — such as HIV or HPV. People
who have HIV or AIDS have a higher risk of cancer of the anus, liver and lung. HPV
is most often associated with cervical cancer, but it might also increase the risk of
cancer of the anus, penis, throat, vulva and vagina.
 Don't share needles. Sharing needles with people who use intravenous drugs can
lead to HIV, as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C — which can increase the risk of
liver cancer. If you're concerned about drug misuse or addiction, seek professional
help.
7. Get regular medical care
Regular self-exams and screenings for various types of cancers — such as cancer of
the skin, colon, cervix and breast — can increase your chances of discovering cancer
early, when treatment is most likely to be successful. Ask your doctor about the best
cancer screening schedule for you.

DON’T USE TOBACCO


The use of tobacco products has been linked to many types of cancer, including lung, colorectal,
breast, throat, cervical, bladder, mouth and esophageal. It’s never too late to quit. About 90
percent of all lung cancer is related to smoking. Non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand
smoke are also at risk for lung cancer and other respiratory conditions.

PROTECT YOUR SKIN FROM THE SUN


Skin cancer is the most common and most preventable cancer in the United States. More than
96,400 people are diagnosed with melanoma annually. Exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation
causes most skin cancer. Be sure to use adequate sun protection year-round. Never use indoor
tanning beds.

EAT A HEALTHY DIET


Eat lots of fruits, vegetables, beans and whole grains. Limit red meat and cut out processed
meats. For healthy recipe ideas, visit our blog. It is also important to limit alcohol consumption
because alcohol can increase your risk for liver, colorectal and breast cancers. If you drink
alcohol, have no more than two drinks a day if you are a man or one drink a day if you are a
woman.

MAINTAIN A HEALTHY WEIGHT AND BE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE

Getting at least 30 minutes of physical activity each day can make a big difference in your
general health and well-being. Inactivity and obesity have been linked to breast and colorectal
cancer, and there is also some evidence of a link to lung and pancreatic cancer. Add exercise to
your routine to reduce stress, increase energy, boost your immune system, control your weight
and reduce your risk for cancer.

PRACTICE SAFE SEX AND AVOID RISKY BEHAVIORS


Many strains of the human papillomavirus, also known as HPV, are spread through skin to skin
contact during vaginal, anal and oral sex. High-risk strains of HPV have increasingly been found
to cause many types of cancer. The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can also be spread from person to
person through unprotected sex. It can cause long-term liver infections that can increase a
person’s chance of developing liver cancer.
GET IMMUNIZED (HPV & HEPATITIS VACCINES)
Certain viruses have been linked to cancer, but are preventable through vaccination. Talk to your
health care professional about the age recommendations for HPV vaccines. In the U.S.,
approximately one-third of liver cancers are linked to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C
virus (HCV). An HBV vaccination is available and is recommended for babies, older children
who were not vaccinated earlier and adults who are at risk for HBV infection.

KNOW YOUR FAMILY MEDICAL HISTORY AND GET


REGULAR CANCER SCREENINGS
Talk to your health care professional about cancer screening. Some tests can help detect cancer
early, when treatment is more likely to be successful, and some can also detect precancerous
conditions before they become cancer. While screening has been proven to save lives, screening
guidelines aren’t always “one size fits all.”
CAUSES

CASE STUDY

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms caused by cancer will vary depending on what part of the body is
affected.

Some general signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific to, cancer, include:

 Fatigue

 Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin

 Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain

 Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won't
heal, or changes to existing moles

 Changes in bowel or bladder habits

 Persistent cough or trouble breathing

 Difficulty swallowing

 Hoarseness
 Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating

 Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain

 Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats

 Unexplained bleeding or bruising