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PHILIPPINE LITERARY HISTORY

PERIOD FOCUS HIGHLIGHTS AUTHORS WORKS


Pedro Bukaneg Biag ni Lam Ang and other epics like Indarapatra’t
- Has no definite literature aside from oral
Pre-colonial Period - Belief Systems and Oral Traditions - considered blind since birth Sulayman, Ibalon, Bidasari etc.
traditions, folktales or epics.
- entitled as the father of Ilocano Literature
Doctrina Christiana
- an oldest book that contains prayers and guidelines
on how to become a good Christian.
1. Presentation of Recreational Plays like:
Carillo Padre Modesto de Castro Urbana at Felisa
- the first play introduced - the author of Urbana at Felisa - a book that talks about two sisters who
- Christianity in the Philippines. communicate by sending letters to each
(from the 3G’s of the - a shadow play others.
Spanish Period
Spaniards: God, Gold and - this book presents good manners
Glory) 2. Spanish became the medium of
presenting literature for the reason that Padre Antonio de Borja Ang Barlaan and Josephat
Spaniards are afraid that Filipinos might - the author of Ang Barlaan at Josephat - first novel translated in the Philippines
plot a revolt against them. - written by P. Antonio de Borja

Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar Florante at Laura


- the Father of Balagtasan - talks about the struggles of Florante and Laura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal To My Fellow Youth
- the national hero of our country - written by Rizal when he was 12 years old.
- one of the illustrados who lead the La Liga - contains the famous line “Ang hindi magmahal sa
Filipina. kanyang salita, mahigit sa hayop at malansang
- fought the Spaniards by means of writing isda”
1. Literary pieces were written solely to
Period of - Nationalisms is the main focus of
enlighten the Filipinos on the tyranny of Noli me Tangere and El Filibusterismo
Enlightenment literature.
the Spaniards. - talks about the social illnesses of the Philippines
during the Spanish Period.

Mi Ultimo Adios
- written by Rizal when he was behind the bars
while waiting for his execution

Marcelo H. Del Pilar Dasalan at Tocsohan


- a collection of parodied prayers made by Del Pilar
to criticize the friars.

Graciano Lopez Jaena Fray Botod (Big Bellied Friar)


- A work of Jaena that criticizes an abusive, cruel,
lazy, indifferent, greedy and lustful friar.
Pedro Paterno Ninay
Andres Bonifacio Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa
- a poem written by Andres Bonifacio to show his
love for country.
1. In this period, the Filipinos are already
- The love for country and freedom Emilio Jacinto Kartilya ng Katipunan
Period of Revolution prepared to fight for the freedom of the
became the focus of literature. - this contains the guidelines of the katipuneros
country.
Liwanag at Dilim
- a book written by Jacinto that criticizes the ways of
Spaniards
Severino Reyes Walang Sugat

Paz Benitez Marquez Dead Stars


- author of Dead Stars and known as the first - a love story in which the man protagonist fell in
Filipino female writer who wrote in English. love with another person despite the fact that he is
already engaged.

Lope K. Santos Ang Pangginggera


- known for his commitment to the Filipino - a story about females who are obsessed in gambling
language. and playing panggingge.
1. The medium of presenting literature
includes the native language, Spanish and
Banaag at Sikat
English.

2. Fairy tales and films were introduced in


Iñigo Ed Regalado Madaling Araw
- Nationalism is still the main focus this period.
American Regime - the author of Madaling Araw and Ang Huling Ang Huling Pagluha
of literature
Pagluha. He is known for his pen name
3. Vaudeville became popular. It is a form
Odalager.
of entertainment in which the actors
sing, dance and perform comedy and
acrobatics.
Jose Corazon De Jesus Ang Pamana
- the author of Ang Pamana - a poem that talks about the mother that gave her
children all her belongings as inheritance.

Amado V. Hernandez Luha ng Buwaya


- the author of Luha ng Buwaya and the famous - a novel that tackles social issues by presenting a
Mga Ibong Mandaragit common agrarian problem in a form of a greedy
landowner and its poor farmers.
Mga Ibong Mandaragit
- a novel that discusses the social illnesses of the
Philippines.

Aurelio Tolentino Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas


1. The Filipino language became the Clodualdo Del Mundo Bulaga
medium in presenting literature.
Julian Cruz Balmaceda Sino Ba Kayo?
2. There was no freedom in this period.
Jose Maria Hernandez Panday Pira
- The loss of freedom became the 3. American works such as novels and
Japanese Occupation
main focus of this period films were put into halt. Francisco Soc Rodrigo Sa Pula, Sa Puti

4. Many writers practiced the vernacular Liwayway Arceo Tatlong Maria


literature. Uhaw Ang Tigang na Lupa

5. Haiku and Tanka were introduced.


Kwento ni Mabuti
- The freedom gained is the main 1. The Filipinos fully gained the freedom Paglalayag ng Puso ng Isang Bata
Rebirth of Freedom Genoveva Edroza Matute
focus. from the occupants. Bangkang Papel
Ako’y Isang Tinig
- The freedom of expression became 1. The national artists became popular.
Contemporary Period All Philippine National Artist
the main focus literature They instilled nationalism in their works.

PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ARTIST

NATIONAL ARTIST CONTRIBUTION WORKS


- The Anchored Angel
- Introduced the reversed consonance rime scheme.
- The Emperor’s New Sonnet (A poem that has no content)
Jose Garcia Villa - Makes comma poems and uses punctuation marks
- The Bashful One (A poem made of lines and comma)
- His pen name is Doveglion
- Footnote to Youth (A short story that talks about a youth’s decision in life)
- First Asian president of United Nations General Assembly
Carlos P. Romulo - He then became the Philippine Ambassador to Washington, D.C. - I am a Filipino
- He was the only Asian to win America’s coveted Pulitzer Prize in Journalism
- A poet, fictionist, essayist, biographer, playwright - May Day Eve
Nick Joaquin - He is also known as Quijano de Manila - A Woman Who Had Two Navels
- He quitted studying after three years of secondary education at the Mapa High School. - Summer Solstice
- A Filipino writer who practiced “committed art”. - Luha ng Buwaya
- A writer who believed that the function of the writer is to act as the conscience of society - Mga Ibong Mandaragit (A novel that was first written by Hernandez while in
Amado V. Hernandez
and to affirm the greatness of the human spirit in the face of inequity and oppression. prison. It is the first Filipino socio-political novel that exposes the ills of the
society as evident in the agrarian problems of the 50’s.)
- An author who won the First Commonwealth Literary Contest in 1940, received the - Bread of Salt
Nestor Vicente Madali Gonzalez
Republic Cultural Heritage Award in 1960 and the Gawad CCP Para sa Sining in 1990. - The Wind of April
N.V.M. Gonzales
- The Bamboo Dancers
- He pioneered the development of the short story as a lyrical prose-poetic form.
Francisco Arcellana - He had been most daring in exploring new literary forms to express the sensibility of the - I Wait for You
Filipino people.
- A poet, fiction writer, teacher and literary critic is one of the finest Filipino Writers in
English whose works are characterized by a remarkable fusion of style and substance, of
Edith Tiempo - Bonsai
craftsmanship and insight.
- Her poems are intricate verbal transfigurations of significant experiences
- A prolific lyricist and composer for decades
- Sa Ugoy ng Duyan
- He made it to the Guinness Book of World Records as the only person able to make music
Levi Celerio - Ang Pipit
using just a leaf.
- Ang Pasko ay sumapit
- He also translated some folksongs such as At Cu Pung Singsing, Alibangbang etc.
- He was considered as the country’s best writer of comic short stories.
- He also led the campaign to change the independence day fromJuly 4 to June 12 - We Filipinos are Mild Drinkers
Alejandro Roces - He caused the change of language from English to Filipino in the country’s stamps, - My Brother’s Peculiar Chicken
currency, and passports

- He sits as the current chairman of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts
- Ang wika ko
Virgilio Almario (NCCA) and the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (KWF)
- Poem 45
- He goes by the moniker Rio Alma
- Ang Larawan
- A thespian who marked his career with prolific artistic productions.
Rolando Tinio - Ang Trahedya nina Romeo at Juliet
- He revived the traditional Filipino drama by re-staging old theater forms like the sarswela
- Makbet
- Tales of the Manuvu
- He introduced to the Tagalog Literature the Bagay Poetry
Bienvenido Lumbera - Ramahari
- Pioneered the creative fusion of fine arts and popular imagination
- Sa Sariling Bayan: Apat na Dulang May Musika
- He is known as the “Master of the Tagalog Novel”
- Sa Paanan ng Krus
Lazaro Francisco - He gained prominence as a writer not only for his social conscience but also for his
- Singsing na Pangkasal
“masterful handling of the Tagalog language” and “supple prose style.
Cirilo Bautista - He is a co- founding member of the Philippine Literary Arts Council (PLAC) - A Man falls to his death (Bautista’s controversial work that talks about suicide)
- He was acknowledged as a leading figure in the promotion of regional literature and history.
- He is the founding director of the Cebuano Studies Center—an important research institution - House of Memory
Resil Mojares
which placed Cebu in the research and documentation map—he pioneered Cebuano and -Waiting for Mariang Makiling
national identity formation.
- He is a Hiligaynon poet, essayist, short story writer, critic, grammarian, editor,
Ramon Muzones lexicographer, and novelist who authored an unprecedented 61 completed novels. (A number
of these represent groundbreaking “firsts’ in Hiligaynon literature.)
- GAPO
Lualhati Bautista - A Filipino female novelist known in the contemporary period - Dekada ‘70
- Bata, Bata, Pa’no ka Ginawa?