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NINETEENTH CENTURY  Jose San Martin “The Liberator” (Argentina, Chile

and part of Peru)


 Era of challenges and responses
 A period of major changes which affected EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ARE
men and society MULTIFARIOUS

6 IMPORTANT CHANGES INTHE 19TH CENTURY Series of changes in the industry:

1. Struggle for nationalism  From hand work to machine work


 Domestic system to the factory system
2. Gradual spread of democracy
BEGAN IN ENGLAND IN 1760
3. Modernization of living through the Industrial
Revolution Manufacturing

4. Advance of Science  Spinning jenny


 Spinning frame
5. March of Imperialism  Spinning shuttle
 Cotton gin
6. New Current in the movement of thought and  Sewing machine
growing confidence on progress
Transportation
NATIONS STRUGGLE FOR NATIONALISM
 Steam boats
Nationalism - A feeling of oneness by a group of  Steam locomotives
people who believe that they possess common  Airplanes
traditions, culture and common ideals or goals.  Automobiles
 Balloons
 French Revolution (1779-1789)
Overthrowing of absolutism Communication
 American Revolution (1775-1783)
Independence from Great Britain  Telephone
 Telegraph
HOW TO RUN THE GOVERNMENT?  Wireless telegraphy
 Cable
 Country should be free from domination and  Postal service
that a country should enjoy liberty, equality  Newspapers
and opportunity
 In the “good old days” when monarchs and  Establishment of factories
 Employment of thousands of workers
kings ruled over the subjects.
 Large scale production of manufacturing goods
 Commodities became cheaper
 Greece became independent nation from the  Towns and cities grew
Turks on 1830.  Improved standard of living
 Norwegians won their freedom from Swedes in  Division of labor practiced (capitalists and
1905. laborers)
 Italy became a free and united nation through the  Increase in population
work of Camillo Cavour, Joseph Mazzini and  Advances in medical knowledge and public
Joseph Garibaldi in 1861. hygiene
 Germany was united led by Iron Chancellor Otto  Opening of more lands for cultivation and
von Bismarck who adopted the policy of “blood commercialization
 Increase in national income
and iron” in 1871.
 Encouraged migration
 1867 1800 - 1825 Simon Bolivar “The Liberator”
(Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia and part of Peru)
RESPONSES TO THE GROWING SOCIAL PROBLEMS Workers have the right to form unions
CREATED BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
SCIENCE BECOMES THE SERVANT OF MAN (Soul of
 LIBERALS the Nineteenth century)
Adopted the laissez-faire policy to
stimulate the growth of factories MODERN IMPERIALISM STARTS A PROCESS OF
Allow everybody to expand as much HISTORIC CHANGE
as he wished in his individual
 Activity of a nation in extending its
enterprises
Industrialists became powerful and control and authority beyond its
rich territorial boundaries through the
Working men became poorer acquisition of new territories
Unemployment and misery resulted  Purpose of securing real materials,
 SOCIALISTS markets for manufactured products,
Government should own and manage additional food supplies, outlets for
the means of production surplus population and fields for
Benefit of all and not only for a few investment of surplus capital
individuals
As long as the capitalists controlled GROWING CONFIDENCE ON PROGRESS INSPIRES
the economic life of people, no OPTIMISM (Man made considerable progress in
democracy various fields)
Claude Henri, Francois Fourier and
Robert Owen  Democracy
 COMMUNISTS  Education
Authored communist manifesto  Science
Earliest socialists that reforms could  Public Health
be achieved gradually and peacefully  Literature
through normal political methods and  Music
with compensation for the private  Art
owners
“The divine flame of thought is inextinguishable
Only a violent revolution could
among Filipino people and in some way or another it
improve the lot of workingmen
Advocated has to shine and make it known. It is not possible to
Abolition of private property in land brutalize the inhabitants of the Philippines.”
Centralization of all means of
production in the hands of the state
Abolition of all rights of inheritance
Confiscation of the property of
emigrants and rebels
Universal and equal obligation of
work
 CATHOLICISM
Pope Leo XIII in Reform Novarum Growth and Development of Nationalism
(The Conditions of Labor)
Rights must be religiously respected Nationalism
Duty of public authority to prevent
 is a sense of loyalty or psychological
and punish injury
Poor and helpless have special attachment that members of a nation share,
consideration upon questioning its based on a common language, history, culture,
rights and desire for independence.
State has the right to regulate the use
of private property and to protect it
 It is a feeling that drives a people together as - The principal ideas of liberalism- liberty and
a nation. It is love of country expressed in equality- were first realized successfully in
devotion to and advocacy of national interest the American Revolution and then achieved in
and independence. part in the French Revolution. This political
and social philosophy challenged
The growth of nationalism can be attributed to conservatism in the European continent.
two major revolutions of the earlier century; - Liberalism demanded representative
government as opposed to autocratic
 American Revolution of 1776;
 French Revolution of 1789 monarchy, equality before the law as opposed
to legally separate classes. The idea of liberty
The American Revolution gave birth to the United also meant to specific individual freedoms:
States of America. On the other hand, freedom of the press; freedom of speech,
French Revolution led to the overthrowing of the freedom of assembly; and freedom from
absolute rule of the Bourbon Dynasty and the arbitrary arrest.
abolition of the feudal system.
- Democracy became a way of life in many
The ideology of the French Revolution European countries, like Britain, Belgium, and
Switzerland.
 Liberty - Democracy was gradually established thru
 Fraternity the following means:
 Equality o promulgation of laws that advance
democracy;
– had influenced subject peoples to cast off the yoke
o undertaking of reforms thru
of colonialism by means of armed uprising.
legislation; abolition of slavery;
There are three points that stand out in this o adoption of a liberal constitution;
complex ideology: providing the citizens the
o opportunity to propose laws;
1. Nationalism has evolved from a real and or o adoption of manhood suffrage; and
imagined cultural unity manifesting itself in a
common language, history and territory. o granting of political, economic and
social rights to the people.
2. Nationalists have usually sought to turn this
cultural unity into political reality so that the The Industrial Revolution
territory of each people coincides with its state
boundaries.
 One of the most crucial developments
3. Nationalist believed that every nation has the right in the 19th century was the Industrial
to exist in freedom and develop its character and Revolution. The Industrial Revolution
spirit. refers to the transformation of
manufacturing brought about by the
Negative side of Nationalism: invention and use of the machines.
This development started in England
 The ideas of national superiority and national
and later on spread into Belgium,
mission can lead to aggressive crusades and
counter- crusades. France, Germany, and even in the
 Nationalism can also stress differences among United States.
peoples.
Positive effects of industrial revolution
Rise and Gradual Spread of Liberalism and  The rise of the factory system
Democracy  Mass production of essential and non-
essential goods
 Improvement of people’s standard of  Optimism or faith in society and man’s
living ability to progress was brought about
 Greater urbanization of society by the advancement of science, the
 Beginnings of specialization or coming of steam-powered industry,
division of labor and the spread of liberalism and
 Invention of labor-saving devices socialism. The optimism of the
 The beginnings of industrial century was summed by Marquis de
capitalism Condorcet in his work, Sketch for the
 Fostering of liberalism and Historical Picture of the Progress of
nationalism the Human Mind. He saw that “the
 Encouragement of people’s mobility. strongest reason for believing that
nature has set no limit to the
Negative effects of Industrial Revolution: realization of our hopes” and foresaw
 Widening of gap between the rich and “the abolition of inequality between
the poor nations, the progress of equality
 Unending economic warfare between within nations, and the true
labor and capital and other perfection of humanity. Progress was
environmental problems now independent of any power that
 Beginning of child and women labor might wish to halt it and will never be
 Intensification of imperialistic rivalry reversed.”
between and among industrialized
countries. Optimism and confidence in progress can be
gleaned from the achievements of men in the 19th
In the Philippines, it caused the displacement of the century. Notable among these were the following:
farmers from their lands.  Extensions of human rights to many
people
The Advancement of Science The triumph of  Promotion of higher education for
science and technology had at least three men and women
significant consequences.  Education for nationalism in schools;
1. Everyday experience and innumerable -Investment in science to serve
scientists impressed the importance mankind
of science on the mind of ordinary  Improvement of public health thru the
citizens. establishment of numerous, hospitals
2. As a science became more prominent  Emergence of realistic literature,
in popular thinking, the philosophical depicting the life of the time
implication of science spread to broad
sections of the population. Technical
advances led the people to develop
optimistic faith in man’s capability to
achieved progress. Edukasyon sa Pilipinas noong panahon ng mga
3. The methods of science acquired Kastila
unrivaled prestige after 1850. For
many, the union of careful experiment Ang kultural na pagbabago ng lahing Pilipino ay batay
and abstract theory was the only sa relihiyon. Ang edukasyon ay pinamahalaan ng mga
route to truth and objective reality. prayle sa pamamagitan ng pagbubukas ng mga
paaralang parokya (paaralan ng simbahan) na siyang
Optimism and Confidence in Progress naging isang paaralang itinatag sa Cebu.
Ang pagtatag ng mga paaralan ay isang paraan upang Sa mga kolehiyong ito itinuturo ang Doctrina
maitanim sa isipan ng mag-aaral ang Kristiyanismo. Christiana, Espanyol, Latin, Kasaysayan, Matematika,
Musika, kagandahang-asal, pagpipinta, at sining-
Ang paaralang primarya para sa mga batang katutubo pantahanan tulad ng pananahi, pagbuburda, paggawa
ay naitatag lamang sa huling bahagi ng ikalabinsiyam at pag-aayos ng mga bulaklak.
na siglo. Ang mga aralin ay nakasentro sa relihiyon,
bagamat itinuturo rin ang kagandahang-asal, Iba pang paaralang itinatag
pagbasa, pagsulat, pagbilang, musika, Doctrina
Christiana, at mga kasanayang nauukol sa Maliban dito, nagtatag ng iba pang mga paaralan at
pamumuhay at pamamahay. Sinabi ni Padre Pedro mga pamantasan. 3 unibersidad ang itinatag sa
Chirino na ang mga Pilipino ay matatalino; madali kapuluan. Ang una ay ang Unibersidad ng San Ignacio
nilang natutunan ang wikang Kastila at pagbigkas na tumagal hanggang 1766. Ang pangalawa ay ang
nito. Madali rin nilang natutunan ang kahit ano. Kolehiyo ng Nuestra Senora del Rosario na naging
Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas. At ang pangatlo ay ang
Nagtatag din ng mataas na paaralan ang pamahalaang Unibersidad ng San Felipe na tumagal hanggang
Kastila upang madagdagan ang kaalaman ng mga 1726.
mag-aaral. Noong taong 1565 dumating ang mga
Agustino, Sumunod ang mga Pransiskano noong Ang paaralang bayan ay nagbukas ng paaralan para sa
1577. Dumating sa Marikina ang mga Hesuita noong mga lalaki at isa para sa mga babae sa bawat
1581. Ang mga Dominikano naman ay dumating munisipyo. Maliban sa mga asignatura, tinuruan ang
noong 1587 at ang mga Rekolito noong 1606. mga babae ng pagbuburda, paggagantsilyo, at
pagluluto sa halip na pagsasaka.
Kauna-unahang Paaralan para sa mga Lalaki
Nagtatag din ng paaralang normal para sa mga lalaki
May mga kolehiyo para sa mga lalaki na itinatag ng sa pamamahala ng mga Hesuita. Ang mga nakatapos
mga Hesuita tulad ng Kolehiyo ng San Ignacio sa Cebu sa pag-aaral dito ay naging guro sa paaralang
na ngayo'y seminaryo ng San Carlos at Kolehiyo ng primarya. Sila ay ligtas sa pagbabayad ng buwis at
San Jose (1601) sa Maynila. sapilitang paggawa. Ang mga gurong ito ay
kinikilalang mataas na tao sa lipunan. Kabilang sila sa
Noong 1865 pinamahalaan ng mga Hesuita ang mga principalia. Dahil dito, sila ay iginagalang at may
Escuela Pia ng Maynila. Ito ang Ateneo de Manila malaking impluwensiya sa pamayanan.
University ngayon. Ang mga Dominiko ay nagtatag
din ng mga paaralan para sa mga lalaki. Ang una ay
ang Nuestra Senora del Rosario (1611) sa Maynila. Ito
ang naging Kolehiyo ng Santo Tomas.

Kauna-unahang Paaralang Pambabae

Nagtatag din ng mga paaralang pambabae. Layunin


ng mga ito na ihanda ang kababaihan alinman sa
pagiging mabuting asawa at ina ng tahanan o sa
pagmamadre. Ang ilang paaralan ay ang (Colegio de
Santa Potenciana - 1589), (Colegio de Sta. Isabel -
1632), (Colegio de Santa Rosa - 1750), (Kumbento ng
Asuncion - 1892), at (Colegio ng Concordia - 1896).