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Clark Hailie Wayne Estrella

10- Einstein

DIFFERENT WAYS OF SEPARATING MIXTURES


Chromatography
Is the separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension or as a vapor (as in gas
chromatography) through a medium in which the components move at different rates. Thin-
layer chromatography is a special type of chromatography used for separating and identifying
mixtures that are or can be colored, especially pigments.
Distillation
Is an effective method to separate mixtures comprised of two or more pure liquids. Distillation
is a purification process where the components of a liquid mixture are vaporized and then
condensed and isolated. In simple distillation, a mixture is heated and the most volatile
component vaporizes at the lowest temperature. The vapor passes through a cooled tube (a
condenser), where it condenses back into its liquid state. The condensate that is collected is
called distillate.
Evaporation
Is a technique used to separate out homogenous mixtures where there is one or more
dissolved solids. This method drives off the liquid components from the solid components.
The process typically involves heating the mixture until no more liquid remains, Prior to using
this method, the mixture should only contain one liquid component, unless it is not important
to isolate the liquid components. This is because all liquid components will evaporate over
time. This method is suitable to separate a soluble solid from a liquid.
Filtration
Is a separation method used to separate out pure substances in mixtures comprised of particles
some of which are large enough in size to be captured with a porous material. Particle size can
vary considerably, given the type of mixture. For instance, stream water is a mixture that contains
naturally occurring biological organisms like bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Some water filters
can filter out bacteria, the length of which is on the order of 1 micron. Other mixtures, like soil,
have relatively large particle sizes, which can be filtered through something like a coffee filter.
Magnetism
Is ideal for separating mixtures of two solids with one part having magnetic properties. Some
metals like iron, nickel and cobalt have magnetic properties whiles gold, silver and aluminum do
not. Magnetic elements are attracted to a magnet.
Separating Funnel:
In this technique, two liquids that do not dissolve very well in each other (immiscible liquids) can
be separated by taking advantage of their unequal density. A mixture of oil and water, for example,
can be separated by this technique.
Simple distillation

Is a method for separating the solvent from a solution. For example, water can be separated from
salt solution by simple distillation. This method works because water has a much lower boiling
point than salt. When the solution is heated, the water evaporates. It is then cooled and
condensed into a separate container. The salt does not evaporate and so it stays behind.

Fractional distillation is a method for separating a liquid from a mixture of two or more liquids.
For example, liquid ethanol can be separated from a mixture of ethanol and water by fractional
distillation. This method works because the liquids in the mixture have different boiling points.
When the mixture is heated, one liquid evaporates before the other.
Sedimentation: is the process of separating the insoluble solid from the liquid by allowing
the solid to settle at the bottom of the container.

Decantation:

Is similar to sedimentation, but it also involves pouring off the liquid in order to leave the solid
behind.

Crystallization:

Is an evaporating technique that works to form crystals of the solute and then dissolve those
crystals out of the solution.

DECANTING GOLD

To search for tiny particles of gold in rivers, a mixture of sand, mud, and gravel is scooped up in
a pan and swirled around. Gold particles are heavier than the other particles, so they settle to the
bottom of the pan. The lighter particles stay suspended in the water, and are decanted (poured
off). This technique of panning for gold is called decanting. Cream is also separated from milk by
decanting – the cream is less dense than the milk.

Thin Layer Chromatography:

Genetic scientists use thin layer chromatography (TLC) to study the substances that
make up our genes. In TLC, the solid material is a plate of glass or plastic coated with a
chemical, usually aluminium oxide or silicon oxide. When the liquid mixture travels up the
plate, some of the substances move farther up the plate than others. The substances
appear as spots on the plate. Scientists study genes to learn about inherited
characteristics.

Flotation:

Separation of solids by density different. When put into water, some substances will sink while
others will float. The "floaters" can then be skimmed off of the surface.
Extraction:
Separation of liquids by density and solubility. Given enough time, mixtures of liquids of
different densities and solubility will form layers. The top layer can be skimmed off or
siphoned, and the bottom layers can be removed via a siphon or mechanical means.

Sublimation:
Separates a mixture of solids, one of which sublimes. A few substances change directly,
from a solid to vapour on heating without going through the liquid state. This change is
called sublimation. On cooling, water vapour changes back to solid directly.

Citation:
http://theartofseparationtechniques.blogspot.com/2010/08/sublimation-decanting-and-
centrifuging.html
https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zgvc4wx/revision/1
http://www.eschooltoday.com/science/elements-mixtures-compounds/separation-of-
mixtures.html
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/cheminter/chapter/methods-for-separating-mixtures/
https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zgvc4wx/revision/1
http://www.best-filter.com/what-are-the-six-ways-of-separating-mixtures/