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# CHEP 406: MOMENTUM TRANSFER

Lecture 3:
The Mechanical Energy Balance in Flow Systems

Lecturer:
ENGR. MICHAEL ALLAN G. RAMOS
Department of Chemical Engineering
Technological Institute of the Philippines
A.Y. 2019-2020, 1st Semester
The Total Energy Balance
Recall:
𝑤 𝑣#& 𝑔 𝑤 𝑣&
&
𝑔
𝑤 𝐸# + +𝑤 𝑧# /
+ 𝑤 𝑃# 𝑉# +𝑤 𝑄 = 𝑤 𝐸& + + 𝑤 𝑧& + 𝑤 𝑃& 𝑉& +𝑤 𝑊′
2 𝛼 𝑔* 𝑔* 2 𝛼 𝑔* 𝑔*

4 54 7
In differential form: 𝑑𝐸 + 𝑑 𝑃𝑉 + 6 78
+𝑑 78
𝑧 = 𝛿𝑄 / − 𝛿𝑊; ′

## Applying the definition of Enthalpy, H: 𝐻 = 𝐸 + 𝑃𝑉

& 𝑔 &
𝐻# + 𝑣# / 𝑣& 𝑔
+ 𝑧# + 𝑄 = 𝐻& + + 𝑧& +𝑤 𝑊; ′
2 𝛼 𝑔* 𝑔* 2 𝛼 𝑔* 𝑔*

𝒗𝟐 𝒈
∆𝑯 + ∆ +∆ 𝒛 = 𝑸 / − 𝑾𝒇 ′
𝟐𝜶𝒈𝒄 𝒈𝒄
1) Nozzles and Diffusers: commonly used in jet engines, rockets, spacecraft,
and even garden hoses
(a) Nozzle: a device that increases the (b) Diffuser: a device that increases the
velocity of a fluid at the engine at the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down
expense of pressure
Fluid in Fluid out Fluid in Fluid out
Nozzle Diffuser

Conditions:
i. 𝑸 ≅ 𝟎 rate of heat transfer between fluid and surroundings is very small
ii. 𝑾𝒇 ′ ≅ 𝟎 involves no shaft work or electric resistance
iii. ∆𝑬𝑲 ≠ 𝟎 fluid experiences large change in velocity
iv. ∆𝑬𝑷 ≅ 𝟎 fluid experiences little or no change in elevation

## Applying the Total Energy Balance: ∆𝑯 + ∆𝑬𝑲 = 𝟎

2) Turbines (or Expanders)
• consists of alternate sets of nozzles and rotating blades
• fluid flows in steady-state expansion process
• conversion of high-pressure steam into shaft work

Fluid in
𝑊; ′
Turbine or Shaft work
Expander

(Source: siemens.com)
Conditions: Fluid out

## i. 𝑸 ≅ 𝟎 rate of heat transfer between fluid and surroundings is very small

ii. 𝑾𝒇 ′ ≠ 𝟎 produces shaft work thru rotating blades
iii. ∆𝑬𝑲 ≠ 𝟎 if there is a variation in inlet and outlet pipe diameters Isentropic efficiency:
iv. ∆𝑬𝑷 ≅ 𝟎 fluid experiences little or no change in elevation 𝑾 ′
𝒇
𝜼=
Applying the Total Energy Balance: ∆𝑯 + ∆𝑬𝑲 = 𝑾𝒇 ′ 𝑾𝒇 ′ (𝒊𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒊𝒄)
3) Compressors (or Pumps)
• devices used for steady-state compression; causing an
increase in fluid pressure
• used mainly in fluid transportation thru pipes
Fluid out

𝑊; ′ Compressor or
Shaft work Pumps

## Fluid in (Source: aiche.org)

Conditions:
i. 𝑸 ≅ 𝟎 rate of heat transfer between fluid and surroundings is very small
ii. 𝑾𝒇 ′ ≠ 𝟎 requires shaft work for compression
iii. ∆𝑬𝑲 ≠ 𝟎 if there is a variation in inlet and outlet pipe diameters Isentropic efficiency:
iv. ∆𝑬𝑷 ≅ 𝟎 fluid experiences little or no change in elevation 𝑾𝒇 ′ (isentropic)
𝜼=
𝑾𝒇 ′
Applying the Total Energy Balance: ∆𝑯 + ∆𝑬𝑲 = 𝑾𝒇 ′
Illustrative Example 1
Steam enters a turbine with a velocity of 30 m/s and enthalpy of 3348 kJ/kg. The
steam leaves the turbine as a mixture of vapor and liquid having a velocity of 60 m/s
and an enthalpy of 2550 kJ/kg. If the flow through the turbine is adiabatic and
changes in elevation are negligible, determine the work output involved per unit
mass of steam through-flow.
Illustrative Example 2
A pump delivers water at steady rate of 300 gal/min. Just upstream of the
pump where the pipe diameter is 3.5 in, the pressure is 18 psi. Just
downstream the pump where the pipe diameter is 1 in, the pressure is 60 psi.
The change in water elevation across the pump is zero. The rise in internal
energy of the water, associated with a temperature rise across the pump is 93
ft-lbf/lbm. If the pumping process is considered to be adiabatic, determine the
power required by the pump in horsepower.
Illustrative Example 3
Water enters a boiler at 18.33oC and 137.9 kPa through a pipe at an average velocity
of 1.52 m/s. Exit stream at a height of 15.2 m above the liquid inlet leaves at 137.9
kPa, 148.9oC, and 9.14 m/s in the outlet line. At steady state, how much heat must
be added per kg mass of steam? The flow in the two pipes is turbulent.
The Mechanical Energy Balance
Modifications of the total energy balance is to made to obtain the “mechanical
energy balance”. Engineers are often concerned with this special type of energy
called “mechanical energy”.

Heat terms and internal energy terms do not permit simple conversion into work.
There is a lost work or loss in mechanical energy along the conversion which is
caused by frictional resistance to flow.

## Total work done by the fluid, 𝑊 = 𝑊′ + d 𝐹 𝑊′ = 𝑊 − d 𝐹

where: n&
𝑊 / = work done by the fluid 𝑊′ = m 𝑃𝑑𝑉 − d 𝐹
n#
d F = total hluid friction
The Mechanical Energy Balance
By the first law of thermodynamics: ∆𝑈 = 𝑄′ − 𝑊′

n&
∆𝑈 = 𝑄′ − m 𝑃𝑑𝑉 − d 𝐹
n#

## Recall the definition of Enthalpy: ∆𝐻 = ∆𝑈 + ∆(𝑃𝑉)

n& p&
∆𝐻 = ∆𝑈 + m 𝑃𝑑𝑉 + m 𝑉𝑑𝑃
n# p#

## n& n& p&

Combining these equations: ∆𝐻 = 𝑄′ − m 𝑃𝑑𝑉 − d 𝐹 + m 𝑃𝑑𝑉 + m 𝑉𝑑𝑃
n# n# p#

p&
∆𝐻 = 𝑄′ + d 𝐹 + m 𝑉𝑑𝑃
p#
The Mechanical Energy Balance
p&
∆𝐻 = 𝑄′ + d 𝐹 + m 𝑉𝑑𝑃
p#

𝑣& 𝑔
Applying to the Total Energy Balance: ∆𝐻 + ∆ +∆ 𝑧 = 𝑄 / − 𝑊; ′
2𝛼𝑔* 𝑔*

p&
&
/
𝑣 𝑔
𝑄 + d 𝐹 + m 𝑉𝑑𝑃 + ∆ +∆ 𝑧 = 𝑄 / − 𝑊; ′
p# 2𝛼𝑔* 𝑔*

∆𝑃 ∆(𝑣 &) 𝑔
+ + ∆𝑧 + d 𝐹 + 𝑊;/ = 0 Overall Mechanical Energy Balance
𝜌 2𝛼𝑔* 𝑔*
Illustrative Example 4
A pump draws a solution, sp gr. 1.84, from a storage tank of large cross-section
through a 3” pipe. The velocity in the suction line is 3 fps. The pump
discharges through 2” pipe to an overhead tank. The end of the discharge line
is 50 ft above the level of the solution in the feed tank. If the pressure being
developed by the pump is 48.38 psi, what is the frictional losses in the entire
system in “ft of solution”?

PIPE SPECS
3” pipe: Di = 3.068 in
2” pipe: Di = 2.067 in
The Total Mechanical Energy Losses, ∑ 𝐅

## ∑ 𝐹 à total mechanical energy losses or total friction between reference points

d 𝑭 = 𝑭𝑳 + 𝑭𝑪 + 𝑭𝑬 + 𝑭𝑴

Define:
1. Line Friction, FL = Fskin + Fform due to straight pipes, fittings, and valves
2. Friction due to sudden contraction, FC due to sudden reduction of pipe size/flow area
3. Friction due to sudden expansion, FE due to sudden enlargement of pipe size/flow area
4. Friction due to meters, Fm due to obstruction imposed by flow measuring
elements
The Total Mechanical Energy Losses, ∑ 𝐅
Consider a fully-developed, steady-state incompressible flow in a pipe:

## By Mechanical Energy Balance:

∆𝑃 Mechanical energy
d𝐹 = − losses per unit of
𝜌
flowing mass

𝑣& 𝐿
And, d𝐹 = 𝐾 𝑓 d unit:
}~}•7€
2 𝑔* 𝐷 •‚ƒƒ

## where: f = friction factor

= total momentum transfer / momentum transfer by turbulence

= 𝜙 𝑁†}
ˆ
The Total Mechanical Energy Losses, ∑ 𝐅
For Chemical and Mechanical Engineering Applications:
𝜏•‹ Œ
K = 4 and Fanning friction coefficient, 𝑓‰ =
1
𝜌 𝑣&
2

𝑣& 𝑳
𝐿 𝒇/ 𝒗𝟐 ∑
and so, ∑ 𝐹 becomes: d 𝐹 = 4 𝑓‰ d d𝑭 = 𝑫
2 𝑔* 𝐷 𝟐 𝒈𝒄

## For Hydralics Applications:

𝜏•‹ Œ
𝑓• =
K = 1 and Moody friction coefficient, 1
𝜌 𝑣&
8
𝑳
𝑣& 𝐿 𝒇𝑴𝒗𝟐 ∑
d 𝐹 = 𝑓• d d𝑭 = 𝑫
and so, ∑ 𝐹 becomes: 2 𝑔* 𝐷 𝟐 𝒈𝒄
Evaluation of Friction Factor, f
For friction in LAMINAR FLOW:
Fanning friction coefficient,
16 64
𝑓‰ = à 𝑓′ =
𝑁†} 𝑁†}

## For friction in TURBULENT FLOW:

𝜀
𝑓/ = 𝜙 (𝑁†} . )
𝐷
where: 𝜀 = roughness parameter

= relative roughness
ˆ

## (Source: Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 8th ed.)

Evaluation of Friction Factor, f

Colebrook Equation:
(For turbulent range)

## (Source: Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 8th ed.)

Churchill Equation:
(For turbulent range)

## (Source: Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 8th ed.)

Evaluation of Friction Factor, f

Churchill Equation:
(For both laminar and turbulent range)

## (Source: Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 8th ed.)

Illustrative Example 5
Compute the friction occurring in a pipeline, consisting of 25 mm med. wt.
steel pipe with 25 m straight pipe, two 90o elbow, four 45o elbow and a fully
open standard gate valve. The fluid is water at 30oC and flowing at 4.0 m/s.
The Total Mechanical Energy Losses, ∑ 𝐅

## ∑ 𝐹 à total mechanical energy losses or total friction between reference points

d 𝑭 = 𝑭𝑳 + 𝑭𝑪 + 𝑭𝑬 + 𝑭𝑴

Define:
1. Line Friction, FL = Fskin + Fform due to straight pipes, fittings, and valves
2. Friction due to sudden contraction, FC due to sudden reduction of pipe size/flow area
3. Friction due to sudden expansion, FE due to sudden enlargement of pipe size/flow area
4. Friction due to meters, Fm due to obstruction imposed by flow measuring
elements
Frictional Losses Due to Sudden Expansion

## Consider the figure below:

The friction losses due to sudden
(a) (2) expansion at a is:
(1) 𝑳
𝒇/ 𝒗𝟐 ∑ 𝑫𝒆
Fluid in 𝑭𝒆 =
D1 D2 𝟐 𝒈𝒄

## where: Le = equivalent length due to sudden expansion

v = velocity of fluid in the smaller diameter pipe
L1 L2 D = diameter of the smaller pipe

## The Mechanical Energy losses from (1) to (2): d 𝑭 = 𝑭𝑳𝟏 + 𝑭𝑬 + 𝑭𝑳𝟐

˜• ˜š ˜—
;•– 4•— ∑ ;•– 4•— ∑ ;—– 4—— ∑
™• ™• ™—
∑𝐹 = + +
& 78 & 78 & 78
Frictional Losses Due to Sudden Contraction

## Consider the figure below:

The friction losses due to sudden
(1) (a) contraction at a is:
(2) 𝑳𝒄
𝒇/ 𝒗𝟐 ∑
𝑫
Fluid in 𝑭𝒄 =
D1 D2 𝟐 𝒈𝒄
where: Lc = equivalent length due to sudden contraction
v = velocity of fluid in the smaller diameter pipe
L1 L2 D = diameter of the smaller pipe

## The Mechanical Energy losses from (1) to (2): d 𝑭 = 𝑭𝑳𝟏 + 𝑭𝑪 + 𝑭𝑳𝟐

˜• ˜› ˜—
;•– 4•— ∑ ;—– 4—— ∑ ;—– 4—— ∑
™• ™— ™—
∑𝐹 = + +
& 78 & 78 & 78
Evaluation of Equivalent Length

## (1) Use D1 and D2 to obtain Ke or Kc

𝑫𝑺 𝟐 𝟐
KC ~ obtained graphically as a For large tanks:
𝑲𝒆 = 𝟏 − function of DS/DL Ke = 1.0 (pipe exit loss)
𝑫𝑳
Kc = 0.50 (pipe entrance loss)
where: DS = small diameter pipe
DL = large diameter pipe

Sudden expansion

## L/D1, Equivalent Length

Resistance coefficient, K

Sudden contraction

## Pipe internal diameter, in

ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEM 6
Water flows steadily through a 5-m long 25-mm med wt. steel pipe (D=0.0272 m) with
a velocity of 5 m/s. The end of this pipe is connected to a 10-m long 40-mm med wt.
steel pipe (D=0.0418 m). Calculate the total mechanical energy losses through the
pipeline. Assume the density and the viscosity of the flowing water is 998 kg/m3 and
1.0 cP. 40-mm med wt.
25-mm med wt. steel pipe
steel pipe
(a) (2)

(1)
Fluid in
0.0272 m 0.0418 m
v1 = 5 m/s

5m 10 m
ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEM 7
Water flows steadily through a 10-m long 40-mm med wt. steel pipe (D=0.0418 m).
The end of this pipe is connected to a 5-m long 25-mm med wt. steel pipe (D=0.0272
m) in which the fluid velocity is 5 m/s. Calculate the total mechanical energy losses
through the pipeline. Assume the density and the viscosity of the flowing water is 998
kg/m3 and 1.0 cP. 40-mm med wt.
steel pipe 25-mm med wt.
steel pipe
(1) (a)

(2)
Fluid in
0.0418 m 0.0272 m
v2 = 5 m/s

10 m 5m
PIPE ENTRANCE:
K-VALUES FOR VARIOUS GEOMETRIES

INWARD-PROJECTING SQUARE-EDGE
𝑲𝑪 = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟖 𝑲𝑪 = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟎

## SLIGHTLY ROUNDED CHAMFERED

PIPE ENTRANCE 𝑲𝑪 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟑 𝑲𝑪 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟒
GEOMETRY

## Technological Institute of the Philippines / ChE / MGR

ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEM 8
Water (density = 998 kg/m3, viscosity = 0.80 cP) is to be delivered from a storage tank to a point at 100
L/min through a 25-mm medium weight steel pipe whose straight length totals to 20 m. Please refer to
figure A below. A pump that could provide up to 371 watts at steady-state will be used in the piping
system. What if the same task was to be accomplished without using a pump (please refer to figure B
below), would it be possible to deliver water to the container by simply elevating the storage tank?

(1)
25-mm med wt.
steel pipe (L = 20 m) 1.0 m 25-mm med wt.
steel pipe (L = 20 m )
slightly
slightly (2) rounded
(2)
(1) rounded Delivery entrance
5.0 m Delivery
entrance Point
1.0 m 5.0 m Point

## Figure A: Use of Pump Figure B: Without Use of Pump

GROUP ACTIVITY
For the pipe system given below, please determine the rating of the pump (in hP). It can be assumed
that the pump efficiency is about 70% and that water is to be delivered at 300 L/min.
1.0 m
Storage Tank (open) 4” Schedule 40 P = 350 kPa
T = 28oC steel pipe
15 m

(1)
2” Schedule 40
1.0 m
steel pipe
slightly
rounded 10 m
5.0 m entrance

50 m 45 m
GROUP ACTIVITY
For the pipe system given below, please determine the rating of the pump (in hP). It can be assumed
that the pump efficiency is about 70% and that water is to be delivered at 300 L/min.

(3)

25 mm med. wt
steel pipe (Di = 0.072m)
3.0 m

(1) (2)

10 m 25 m
END.