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# PERMUTATION

AND
COMBINATION
Counting Techniques
and
Probability
Fundamental Principle of Counting
Fundamental Principle of Counting
If a choice consists of two steps, the first of
which can be done in p ways,
and for each of these, the second
can be done in q ways,
then the whole choice can be done in pq ways.

1 3 6 7 9
2 8 10
5 4 11 12
Example 1: A prospective buyer of a new car
can choose between manual or automatic
transmission and can also choose from 4
colors: red, blue, pink or green. How many
different choices does the buyer have?
SOLUTION: Two choices for transmission:
manual or automatic, p = 2
Four choices for color:
Red, Blue, Pink, Green, q = 4
Therefore, pq = 2(4) = 8 choices
TRANSMISSION COLOR OUTCOMES

## Red Manual Red

Blue Manual Blue
Manual Manual Pink
Pink
Green Manual Green
Red Automatic Red
Blue Automatic Blue
Automatic Automatic Pink
Pink
Green Automatic Green
snack, you may
choose from coffee,
milk or juice.
You also have two
choices for sandwich:
ham or tuna.
How many possible
snacks are there?

Solution:
p=3 q=2 pq = 3(2) = 6
Tree Diagram – systematic way of
listing all the possible choices.

## 1. Coffee and ham 2. Coffee and tuna

3. Milk and ham 4. Milk and tuna
5. Juice and ham 6. Juice and tuna
Generalized Counting
Principle
Ex.1 AJ bag factory manufactures ladies
bags
in 8 styles, 6 colors and 4 sizes.
Howp= many different bags are available?
8 styles
q = 6 colors
r = 4 sizes
pqr = 8(6)(4) = 192 bags
Ex.2A car license plate consists of any three
letters followed by any three digits.
How many possible license plates are there?

Z J M- 9 0 5
MATATAG NA REPUBLIKA 2012

26 x 26 x 26 x 10 x 10 x 10
Suppose there are no repetitions
of letters and digits
26 x 25 x 24 x 10 x 9 x 8 = 11,232,000
Looking for Hit-and-Run Plate Number

## A witness to a hit-and-run accident told the police

that the plate number of the suspect’s car contained
the letters X L followed by a different letter, and then
followed by three digits, the first of which is 4.
The witness cannot recall the last 2 digits, but is
certain that all 3 digits are different.
Find the maximum number of car registrations that
the police may have to check.
Solution:

Letters A to Z 0 1 2 3 5
except X and L 6 7 8 9

X L __ 4 __ __

1x1 x 24 x 1 x 9 x 8
= 1,728 registrations
Ex. 3 How many 11-digit
cellphone numbers can be
formed if each begins with
0917?

0 9 1 7 __ __ __ __ __ __ __
Each digit has 10 choices

(10)(10)(10)(10)(10)(10)(10) = 10,000,000
PERMUTATIONS
A permutation is an arrangement
of n objects and the order is
important.
In how many ways can
a clown distribute 10
balloons with different
colors to 5 children if
each child gets only
one balloon?

10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6
= 30,240 ways
St. La Salle Hall, in how many ways can
a person enter the hall by one door and
leave by a different door?

Ans. (7)(6) = 42
A pizza can be ordered with 3 choices of size
(small, medium, or large), 4 choices of crust
(thin, thick, crispy, or regular), and 5 choices
of toppings (beef, bacon, pepperoni, cheese
or mushroom). How many one-topping pizzas
can be ordered?

Ans.
(3)(4)(5) = 60 pizzas
Exercises
1. Cars are offered for sale with 3 body styles, 6 colors, 3
types of engines, with or w/o air bag, with or w/o aircon,
ordinary rim or magwheels. How many different choices
does a buyer have? Ans. 432
2. An ice cream sundae can be made from the flavors:
chocolate, strawberry, mango, ube, cheese or vanilla
and 3 toppings. It can also be ordered with or without
whipped cream. How many ice cream sundaes can a
customer order? Ans. 36
3. A food chain serves 3 appetizers, 5 main dishes, 2
salads and 4 desserts. How many different meals can
be ordered? Ans. 120
4. How many car license plates can be made if each has 3
different digits followed by 2 different letters?
(10)(9)(8)(26)(25) = 468,000
Circular Permutations
an arrangement of objects in a
circular manner.
A B C A B C
(same as) (same as)

C B A
A C B A C B
(same as) (same as)

C A
B
Fix A and permute B and C . So, we have only two arrangements.
In a circular permutation, consider one
object first in a fixed position and
arrange the remaining (n-1) objects in
the remaining (n-1) positions.
The number of permutations of
n distinct objects arranged in a
circle is (n – 1)!
Examples:

## 1. In how many ways can 8 children stand

in a circle to play a game?
(8 – 1)! = 7! = 5,040 ways
2. Eight students are seated at a round
table. In how many ways can they be
seated if three of them insist on sitting
next to each other?

## (6 - 1)!(3!) = 720 ways

Exercises
1. In how many ways can a chairman and a co-chairman be
chosen from 52 members of a faculty club?
52P2 = 2,652

## 2. In how many ways can 10 student teachers be assigned

to 10 sections of Math classes? 10P10 = 10! = 3,628,800
3. In how many ways can the 1st , 2nd , 3rd prizes be awarded
in a math contest with 25 contestants? 25P3 = 13,800
4. A bus has 6 vacant seats in the last row. If 2 additional
passengers enter the bus, in how many ways can they
be seated? 6P2 = 30
5. 4 Chinese books, 2 Japanese books and 3 Pilipino books
on a shelf. In how many ways can the books be arranged if
a. there are no restrictions? 9P9 = 9! = 362,880

## b. all the Chinese books are together? 6! 4! = 17,280

c. books of the same language are together?
4! 2! 3! 3! = 1,728
6. In how many ways can 6 persons line up to get on a bus?
6P6 = 6! = 720
If three specific persons insist on staying together, how
many ways are possible? 4! 3! = 144
If two specific persons refuse to stay together, how many
ways are possible? 6! – 5! 2! = 480
7. In a campaign of Presidential candidates, the 4 female
and 4 male candidates decided to sit on the stage.
In how many ways can they be seated in a row if they
must sit alternately by gender? 4! 4! 2 = 1,152
If all the 4 males are together and all the 4 females are
together? 4! 4! 2 = 1,152
If the first seat is occupied by a man? 4(7P7) = 20,160
If the first and the last seats are occupied by women?
4(6P6) 3 = 8,640
8. In how many ways can 6 people be seated in a circular
table? 5! =120
9. How many ways can the letters from each word be
arranged? ANNETTE 630
DIVISION 6,720
PHILIPPINES 1,108,800
10. In how many ways can 3 red marbles and 4 blue marbles
be arranged in a row? 35
11. In how many ways can 5 mangoes and 4 apples be
distributed among 9 children if each child receives only
one fruit? 126
12. In how many ways can 8 persons be seated on a round
table if two of them want to be together? 6! 2! = 1440
Solve #12 if two of them refuse to be together?
7! - 6! 2! = 3600
13. In how many ways can 8 students be arranged in a row
for a class picture if Paul and Peter want to stand next to
each other and John and Joe also want to be together?
6! 2! 2! = 2880
COMBINATIONS
A combination is an arrangement
of n objects with no repetitions
and the order is NOT important.
Combinations of n distinct objects
taken r at a time where r < n : nCr
Given 4 letters P, Q, R, S. Take 3 letters at a time
There are 4P3 = 24 permutations
PQR PQS PRS QRS
PRQ PSQ PSR QSR
QRP QSP RSP RSQ
QPR QPS RPS RQS
24
RPQ SPQ SPR SQR  4 combinations
RQP SQP SRP SRQ 6

4 P3
4 C3  n Pr
3! n Cr 
n=4,r=3 r!
n!
n Pr n!
n Cr  
(n  r)!

r! r! r!(n  r)!

## The number of combinations of n

distinct objects taken r at a time is
n!
C  where r < n
r!(n  r)!
n r

NO
ORDER!
EXAMPLES
In how many ways can a teacher choose
3 of their 30 students to attend a

30!
30 C3 
3!(30  3)!

30(29)(28)(27!)

6(27!)
= 4,060 ways
Six officers of the RMCHS Mathematics
Club are in a conference room. If each
one shakes hands with each of the
others once, how many handshakes
are possible?

6!
6 C2 
2!(6  2)!
= 15 handshakes
PHILIPPINE 6/42 LOTTO GAME
A player chooses 6 numbers from
1 to 42 in no particular order.
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18
How many 19 20 21 22 23 24
possible bets 25 26 27 28 29 30
are there? 31 32 33 34 35 36
37 38 39 40 41 42

42C6 = 5,245,786
Each ticket costs P10
It costs P52,457,860
for sure win!
More Examples
1. How many committees of 4 persons can be chosen
from a group of 10 persons? 10C4 = 210
2. In how many ways can a committee of 5 persons
be chosen from 7 single ladies and 9 men?
a. if there is no restriction on the gender.
16C5 = 4,368
b. if there must be 3 single ladies and 2 men.
Choose 3 from the 7 single ladies: 7C3 = 35
Choose 2 from the 9 men: 9C2 = 36
By FPC, there are 35(36) = 1,260 ways
c. if all are single ladies.
7C5 = 21
A carton of 20 compact disks contains 5 pirated
and 15 original disks. In how many ways can an
inspector choose 3 of the compact disks and
a) get the one that is pirated?
pirated original
5C1 ● 15C2 = 5 (105) = 525
b) get two of the pirated disks?
pirated original

5C2 15C1
● = 10 (15) = 150
c) none of the pirated disks?

15C3 = 455
Exercises
1. In how many ways can 3 students be chosen from a class
of 20 for a field trip? 20C3 = 1,140
What if Michael is not allowed to go on the field trip?
19C3 = 969
2. If Derick must answer any 5 questions on a Math test
containing 10 questions, in how many ways can he
choose the 5 questions? 10C5 = 252
3. How many different lines can be drawn using 6 points if
no three of which are collinear? 6C2 = 15

## 4. How many committees of 6 can be formed from 10

freshmen and 5 sophomores if each committee is to
consist of 4 freshmen and 2 sophomores?
10C4 • 5C2= 210 (10) = 2,100

## What if no sophomores are to be included in the

committee? C = 210
10 6
5. In how many ways can a committee of 5 be chosen
from a group of 6 opposition senatorial candidates, 5
administration candidates, and 2 independent candidates
a) if there are 2 opposition candidates, 2 administration
candidates and 1 independent candidate?
6C2 • 5C2 • 2C1= 15 (10)(2) = 300
b) no administration candidates must be there?
8C5 = 56
c) if there must be at least 3 administration candidates?
5C3 • 8C2 + 5C4 • 8C1 + 5C5 • 8C0 = 280 + 40 + 1 = 321
6. A box of 12 batteries includes one that is defective. In how
many ways can an inspector choose 3 of the batteries and
a) get the one that is defective? 1C1 •11C2= 1(55) = 55

11C3= 165
b) not get the one that is defective?
PROBABILITY
The theory of probability was
founded in the 17th century by
two French mathematicians
Blaise Pascal and Pierre Fermat.
It began with problems related
to the games of chance.
DEFINITIONS OF SOME TERMS
Experiment is a process that has
definite results called the outcomes.
Sample space S is the set of all possible
outcomes of an experiment.
Event E is a subset of the sample space.

Toss a coin S = { H, T }
E={T}
Toss two coins S = { HH, HT, TH, TT }
E = { HT, TH }
Roll a die S = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 }
E = { 2, 4, 6 }
Roll a pair of dice S has 6(6) = 36 outcomes
Sample Space of rolling a pair of dice
nd
2
1
st 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 (1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6)
2 (2,1) (2,2) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6)
3 (3,1) (3,2) (3,3) (3,4) (3,5) (3,6)
4 (4,1) (4,2) (4,3) (4,4) (4,5) (4,6)
5 (5,1) (5,2) (5,3) (5,4) (5,5) (5,6)
6 (6,1) (6,2) (6,3) (6,4) (6,5) (6,6)

## E = {(3,6), (6,3), (4,5), (5,4)}

COMPUTING PROBABILITY
If an experiment can result in N
equally likely outcomes and an event
E can result in n outcomes, then the
probability that event E will occur is
n
given by P(E)  .
N
0 < P(E) < 1
E will never happen E is sure to happen
EXAMPLES:
S = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } N = 6

## If a fair die is rolled, what is the probability of getting

a) an even number?
3 1
E = { 2, 4, 6 } n=3 P(E) = 
6 2
b) a number less than 5?
4 2
E = {1, 2, 3, 4} n = 4 P(E) = 
6 3
c) a number larger than 7?
E={ } n=0 P(E) = 0

ieis
N = 36
If two dice are rolled, what is the probability of getting
a) a sum of 9?
E = {(3,6), (6,3), (4,5), (5,4)} n=4
4 1
P(E) = 
36 9
nd
b) two odd
1
st
2 numbers?
1 2 3 4 5 6
E = {(1,1), (1,3),
1 (1,1) (1,2)(3,1),
(1,3) (1,5), (5,1),(3,3),
(1,4) (1,5) (1,6) (3,5),
2 (2,1) (2,2) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6)
(5,3), (5,5)} n(3,4)
= 9(3,5)
3 (3,1) (3,2) (3,3) (3,6)
4 (4,1)P(E) 9 (4,4)
(4,2) =(4,3) 1 (4,5) (4,6)

5 (5,1) (5,2) (5,3)36 (5,4)
4 (5,5) (5,6)
6 (6,1) (6,2) (6,3) (6,4) (6,5) (6,6)
S = { H, T } N = 2
If a coin is tossed, what is the probability of getting a head?
1
E={H} n=1 P(E) =
2

## S = { HH, HT, TH, TT } N = 4

If two coins are tossed, find the probability of getting
a) at least one tail
3
E = { HT, TH, TT } n = 3 P(E) = 4
1
E = { TT } n=1 P(E) = 4

ieis
N = 52

## A standard playing card has 52 cards:

4 suits (heart, club, diamond, spade)
Each suit has 9 numbers (2 to 10) and ace, king, queen, jack
If a card is drawn, find the probability of getting
a) a diamond 13 1
n = 13 P(E) = 
52 4

b) an ace 4 1
n=4 P(E) = 
52 13
c) an ace or a n = 16 P(E) =
16

4
diamond 52 13

d) a face card 12 3
n = 12 P(E) = 
52 13
52 cards
Draw two cards
N = 52C2 = 1326
What is the probability of getting
a) two black cards?
325 25
n = 26C2 = 325 P(E) = 
1326 102
b) one red card and one is spade?
338 13
n = 26C1 • 13C1 = 26(13) = 338 P(E) = 
1326 51

## c) two spades or two red cards?

403 31
n = 13C2 + 26C2 = 78 +325 = 403 P(E) = 
1326 102
An urn contains 5 red balls, 4 pink balls and
3 blue balls. If one ball is drawn at random,
what is the probability that it is
a) red
5
n=5 P(E) =
12
b) pink
4 1
n=4 P(E) = 
12 3
c) not blue N = 12
n=9 9 3
P(E) = 
12 4
5 red 4 pink 3 blue
Draw three balls
N = 12C3 = 220
What is the probability that
a) all three are pink?
4 1
n = 4C3 = 4 P(E) = 
220 55
b) two are red and one is blue?
30 3
n = 5C2 • 3C1 = 10(3) = 30 P(E) = 
220 22
c) 2 balls are blue?
27
n = 3C2 • 9C1 = 3(9) = 27 P(E) =
220
What is the probability of
winning the jackpot prize
in the Philippine 6/42
lotto game?
N = 42C6 = 5,245,786
n=1
1
P= = 0.0000001906
5,245,786
Exercises
1. Two dice are rolled. Find the probability that the sum is 8.
5/36
2. Two coins are tossed. Find the probability of obtaining
3. Three coins are tossed. List the elements in the sample
space.
What is the probability of obtaining at least 2 heads?
4/8 =1/2
4. A card is drawn from a deck of 52 playing cards.
Find the probability of getting a spade. 13/52 =1/4
Find the probability of getting a red card. 26/52 =1/2
Find the probability of getting a king, a queen or a jack.
12/52 =3/13
Find the probability of getting a club or a 5.
16/52 =4/13
5. Two cards are drawn from a standard deck of 52 cards.
Find the probability of getting two face cards.
12C2 /52C2 = 66/1326 =11/221
6. A bag contains 10 pink balls, 20 green balls, 30 white
balls and 15 red balls. If one ball is drawn at random,
find the probability that it is
a) pink 2/15
b) green or red 7/15
7. An urn contains 5 green balls, 4 red balls and 1 blue
ball. If two balls are picked at random, find the probability
of getting
a) 2 red balls. 4C2 /10C2 = 6/45 =2/15

## b) no green balls 5C2 /10C2 = 10/45 =2/9

c) 1 green and 1 5C1 • 4C1 /10C2 = 5(4)/45
red ball
=20/45 =4/9
8. A committee of 3 is to be chosen at random
from a group of 12 men and 8 women. Find the
probability that
a) all 3 are women.
8C3 /20C3 = 56/1140 =14/285
b) there will be 2 men and 1 woman.
12C2 • 8C1 /20C3 = 66(8)/1140
= 528/1140 = 44/95
9. Four coins are tossed. Find the probability of
getting at least 3 heads. 5/16
10. Three dice are rolled. Find the probability of
getting
a) three 2’s 1/216
b) only two 2’s 15/216 = 5/72
Binomial Distribution
b(x; n, p) = C(n,r)∙px qn-x , x = 0, 1, 2,…,n.
11. In tossing a fair coin 6 times in succession,
find the probability of getting exactly 3 H.

## 12. Find the probability of obtaining exactly 3

2’s if an ordinary die is tossed 5 times in
succession.
Conditional Probability
* P(A/B) = P(A ∩ B)/ P(B)
13. A pair of dice is rolled. If it is known that
the sum is 10, find the probability that
of the dice shows a 4?
2/3
14. A pair of dice is rolled. Find the probability
that the sum of the numbers on top faces
is 10 if it is known that one of the dice
shows a 4.
2/11