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03 – Ship Structural Concept and Terms

Slide 1 2004-03-16
03 – Ship Structural Concept and Terms

Purposes
• To familiar with ship structure strength concept
• To understand frequently used strength terms
• Some formulae will be presented – only for
appreciation various factors affecting strength,
no need to memorise!

Slide 2 2004-03-16
Ship Structural Concept and Terms

• Stress
• Tension / Compression
• Shear Force
• Bending Moment
• Beam – Basic building block of ship structure
• Buckling

Slide 3 2004-03-16
Stress

Stress in
Structure Applied Force
structure

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Stress

Example:

Cross sectional area = 100 mm2


Force applied = 25000 Newton
That is about 2.5 Ton.
(A car weights about 1.5Ton)
Stress
Force
Stress = 25000÷100 = 250 N/ mm2

Normal shipbuilding grade A mild steel


Yield stress is 235 N/ mm2

Force
Stress =
Area
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Tension and Compression

Tension Compression

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Beam

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Beam – Shear Force

F/2 F/2

F/2

F/2

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Beam – Bending Moment

d F
F/2

Bending moment = (F/2)x(d)


F/2 F/2

Highest bending moment at mid section !

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Beam – Different Loads and Supports

p p

L
L

2xM 2xM
3xM M

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Beam – Under Bending

Compression

Bending stress is Tension


transferred in the
flanges
Shear stress is
transferred in the web

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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

When a vessel’s hull is exposed to loading, it will bend


similarly as a single beam
MIDSHIP SECTION

FLANGE - Deck and bottom


WEB - Sides and longitudinal bulkheads
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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

Hogging moment

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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

Sagging Moment

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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

Bending stress

Compression

Tension

Shearstress

Slide 15 2004-03-16
SHIP Shear Force & Bending Moment

Maximum
Maximm
Bending
moment

Zero Zero
Bending Bending
moment Shearing Force Bending Moment moment

Slide 16
Example:2004-03-16
SF and BM distribution for a double hull tanker in a fully loaded condition
Beam – Building block of Structure

Girder support

Plating
Stiffener

Girder support

Water pressure

Stiffener
spacing

STIFFENER WITH PLATING, AS A BEAM

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Beam in Ship Structure

Longitudinal between
two web frames

Max shear and bending moment


towards ends (web frames)

Symmetric load fwd and aft of


web frames gives fixed ends

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Beam in Ship Structure

Longitudinal girder between two


transverse bulkheads

Max shear and bending


moment towards
transverse bulkheads

Single beam with fixed ends and concentrated loads from the transverse web frames
Max Shear and bending moment towards ends
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Beam in Ship Structure

Effect of brackets on the max bending stress

No or negative
effect

= =

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Buckling

Buckled !

F F
Buckling is permanent deformation that occurs when structure is subject to
excessive COMPRESSIVE forces.

F F

Shear buckling occurs when structure is subject to excessive SHEAR forces.


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Structural Strength - Overview

Questions ?

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