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# 03 – Ship Structural Concept and Terms

Slide 1 2004-03-16
03 – Ship Structural Concept and Terms

Purposes
• To familiar with ship structure strength concept
• To understand frequently used strength terms
• Some formulae will be presented – only for
appreciation various factors affecting strength,
no need to memorise!

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Ship Structural Concept and Terms

• Stress
• Tension / Compression
• Shear Force
• Bending Moment
• Beam – Basic building block of ship structure
• Buckling

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Stress

Stress in
Structure Applied Force
structure

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Stress

Example:

## Cross sectional area = 100 mm2

Force applied = 25000 Newton
Stress
Force
Stress = 25000÷100 = 250 N/ mm2

## Normal shipbuilding grade A mild steel

Yield stress is 235 N/ mm2

Force
Stress =
Area
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Tension and Compression

Tension Compression

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Beam

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Beam – Shear Force

F/2 F/2

F/2

F/2

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Beam – Bending Moment

d F
F/2

F/2 F/2

## Highest bending moment at mid section !

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Beam – Different Loads and Supports

p p

L
L

2xM 2xM
3xM M

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Beam – Under Bending

Compression

## Bending stress is Tension

transferred in the
flanges
Shear stress is
transferred in the web

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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

## When a vessel’s hull is exposed to loading, it will bend

similarly as a single beam
MIDSHIP SECTION

## FLANGE - Deck and bottom

WEB - Sides and longitudinal bulkheads
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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

Hogging moment

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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

Sagging Moment

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Beam – Hull Girder Bending

Bending stress

Compression

Tension

Shearstress

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SHIP Shear Force & Bending Moment

Maximum
Maximm
Bending
moment

Zero Zero
Bending Bending
moment Shearing Force Bending Moment moment

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Example:2004-03-16
SF and BM distribution for a double hull tanker in a fully loaded condition
Beam – Building block of Structure

Girder support

Plating
Stiffener

Girder support

Water pressure

Stiffener
spacing

## STIFFENER WITH PLATING, AS A BEAM

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Beam in Ship Structure

Longitudinal between
two web frames

## Max shear and bending moment

towards ends (web frames)

## Symmetric load fwd and aft of

web frames gives fixed ends

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Beam in Ship Structure

## Max shear and bending

moment towards

Single beam with fixed ends and concentrated loads from the transverse web frames
Max Shear and bending moment towards ends
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Beam in Ship Structure

## Effect of brackets on the max bending stress

No or negative
effect

= =

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Buckling

Buckled !

F F
Buckling is permanent deformation that occurs when structure is subject to
excessive COMPRESSIVE forces.

F F

## Shear buckling occurs when structure is subject to excessive SHEAR forces.

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Structural Strength - Overview

Questions ?

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