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Experiment No.

CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION

Objective:

To determine the percent by mass, molarity, and normality of a certain solution.

Theory:

The concentration of a solution is determined from the amount oof solute present in a
given amount of solution.

1. Percent by mass is defined as the mass of the solute (in grams) per gram of solution.

% by mass = mass of solute x 100


mass of solution

2. Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.


Molarity (M) = equivalent of solute
liter of solution

3. Normality is defined as the number of equivalents of solute per liter of solution.


Normality (N)= equivalent of solute
liter of solution

Apparatus:
Evaporating Dish, Graduated Cylinder, 400 ml Beaker, Bunsen Burner, Tripod, Wire
Gauze, Triple Beam Balance or Digital Weighing Balance.

Procedure:
1. Weigh a clean, dry evaporating dish. Record the mass.
2. Using a 10ml graduated cylinder, measure out 10ml sample of potassium chloride (KCl)
solution.
3. Weigh the evaporating dish containing the KCl solution. Record the mass.
4. Fill 4000-ml beaker about one-half full of water, heat it with the Bunsen Buurner (use a tripod
and wire gauze to support the beaker). Place the evaporating dish containing the KCl solution on
top of the beaker. Heat the water in the beaker to boiling. Keep replenishing the water in the
beaker as needed so it doesnt go dry. Keep heating it until the contents of the evaporating dish
appear to be dry.
5. Cool the evaporating dish with the dried KCl for 10 minutes. Weigh the evaporating dish with
the dry salt. Record the mass.

Table:
Mass of Evaporating dish 44.5 g
Mass of the evaporating dish with the KCl solution before heatinge 53.5 g
Mass of the KCl solution 9.0 g
Mass of the evapoprating dish withh dried KCl 45.2 g
Mass of dried KCl 0.7 g
Percent by mass of the solution 7.78 g
Number of moles of KCl present in the sample 9.45 x 10 mol
Volume of the solution in liters 0.01 L
Molar concentration of the solution 0.9 mol/L
Normal concentration of the solution 0.95 mol/L

Computations: