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CHAPTER 1

DESIGN BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION

Amplifier is the generic term used to describe a circuit which produces and increased version of its input
signal. However, not all amplifier circuits are the same as they are classified according to their circuit
configurations and modes of operation.
In “Electronics”, small signal amplifiers are commonly used devices as they have the ability to amplify a
relatively small input signal, for example from a Sensor such as a photo-device, into a much larger output
signal to drive a relay, lamp or loudspeaker for example.
There are many forms of electronic circuits classed as amplifiers, from Operational Amplifiers and Small
Signal Amplifiers up to Large Signal and Power Amplifiers. The classification of an amplifier depends upon
the size of the signal, large or small, its physical configuration and how it processes the input signal that is
the relationship between input signal and current flowing in the load.
Project setting
This study was conducted at the Technological Institute of the Philippines. The materials used in
the study is chosen
Statement of the Problem
The study’s primary goal is to develop an audio operational amplifier using various components
and TA8201AK audio IC as a main unit.
Objective of the Project
The objectives of the proponents for the project are:
a. To design a single operational audio amplifier.
b. To create an audio amplifier with optimal output.
Scopes and Delimitations
The proponents’ only focus is on the result of the main component of TA8201AK Audio Amplifier.
To test if the amplifier is working and to identify the input voltage using digital oscilloscope, and it is limited
to the testing of the output voltage of the amplifier.
The Significance of the Project
The important points of this project include:
 The project prototype aims to create a feasible and do-it-yourself audio amplifier that students can
make.
 The proponents enhance their knowledge about different circuits and amplifiers that can be used in
their future field of work.
 The proponents’ share of knowledge in the study will enable readers to gather and pick-up some
information that can be useful in their daily life.

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Definition of Terms
TA8201AK. The TA8201AK is an audio power amplifier for consumer application. ... It is suitable for
car−audio power amplifier with high performance.
Amplification. This is the operation of an amplifier and is usually used to make a signal stronger.
Amplitude. Objective measurement of the degree of change in atmospheric pressure and rarefaction of
air caused by sound waves.
Digital Oscilloscope. A digital oscilloscope is a complex electronic device composed of various
software and electronic hardware modules that work together to capture, process, and display and store
data that represents the signals of interest of an operator.
Capacitor. A device used to store an electric charge. Consisting of one or more pairs of conductors
separated by an insulator.
Decibels. A unit used to measure the intensity of a sound or the power level of an electrical signal by
comparing it with a given level on a logarithmic scale.
Operational Amplifier. An operational amplifier, or op-amp for short, is fundamentally a voltage
amplifying device designed to be used with external feedback components such as resistors and
capacitors between its output and input terminals. These feedback components determine the resulting
function or “operation” of the amplifier and by virtue of the different feedback configurations whether
resistive, capacitive or both, the amplifier can perform a variety of different operations, giving rise to its
name of “Operational Amplifier” Frequency. Number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.
Transistor. A semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Amplifier. An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase
the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current). An amplifier uses electric power from a power
supply to increase the amplitude of a signal. The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is
measured by its gain: the ratio of output to input. An amplifier is a circuit that can give a power gain
greater than one.
Electronic Circuit. Is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors,
capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage
sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances). An electrical circuit is a network
consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. Linear electrical networks, a special type
consisting only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors),
and linear distributed elements (transmission lines), have the property that signals are linearly
superimposable. They are thus more easily analysed, using powerful frequency domain methods such
as Laplace transforms, to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.
Digital Multi Meter. A test tool used to measure two or more electrical values—principally voltage (volts),
current (amps) and resistance (ohms). It is a standard diagnostic tool for technicians in the
electrical/electronic industries.
Potentiometer. A potentiometer is a manually adjustable, variable resistor with three terminals. Two
terminals are connected to a resistive element, the third terminal is connected to an adjustable wiper.
The position of the wiper determines the output voltage.

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CHAPTER 2
DESIGN INPUTS, METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES
DESIGN INPUTS
Introduction to Amplifier
Amplifier is the generic term used to describe a circuit which produces and increased version of its
input signal. However, not all amplifier circuits are the same as they are classified according to their circuit
configurations and modes of operation.
In “Electronics”, small signal amplifiers are commonly used devices as they have the ability to amplify a
relatively small input signal, for example from a Sensor such as a photo-device, into a much larger output
signal to drive a relay, lamp or loudspeaker for example.
There are many forms of electronic circuits classed as amplifiers, from Operational Amplifiers and Small
Signal Amplifiers up to Large Signal and Power Amplifiers. The classification of an amplifier depends upon
the size of the signal, large or small, its physical configuration and how it processes the input signal that is
the relationship between input signal and current flowing in the load.
Classification of Signal Amplifier

FIGURE 1 Classification of Signal Amplifier


There are many forms of electronic circuits classed as amplifiers, from Operational Amplifiers and
Small Signal Amplifiers up to Large Signal and Power Amplifiers. The classification of an amplifier depends
upon the size of the signal, large or small, its physical configuration and how it processes the input signal,
which is the relationship between input signal and current flowing in the load.

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Ideal Amplifier

FIGURE 2 Ideal Amplifier Model


An ideal signal amplifier will have three main properties: Input Resistance or ( RIN ), Output
Resistance or ( ROUT ) and of course amplification known commonly as Gain or ( A ). No matter how
complicated an amplifier circuit is, a general amplifier model can still be used to show the relationship of
these three properties.
Amplifier Gain
The introduction to the amplifier gain can be said to be the relationship that exists between the signals
measured at the output with the signal measured at the input. There are three different kinds of amplifier gain
which can be measured and these are: Voltage Gain (Av), Current Gain (Ai) and Power Gain (Ap) depending
upon the quantity being measured

FIGURE 3 Amplifier Gain of the Input Signal

Audio Amplifier

In a microphone, sound waves vibrate its diaphragm which cause vibrations in other components
and the vibrations are converted to electrical current forming the audio signal. This electrical signal is analog
signal representing the sound. It has two important characteristics which recognize the signal as a unique
sound. The frequency of the signal signifies the pitch of the sound. This is the most important factor in the
recognition of a sound. The amplitude of the signal signifies the loudness of the sound. Since, this is the
voltage level of the signal at a point of time, it also represents the power of the signal. There are various ways
in which the amplitude of an audio signal can be measured like Peak to Peak Amplitude, Root Means Square
(RMS) Amplitude, Pulse Amplitude, Semi Amplitude etc. The Peak to Peak and RMS amplitude values will
be used in the circuit analysis of the audio amplifiers designed in this series.

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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURES

1. After planning the circuit, the group came up to this circuit focusing TA8201AK as the integrated
circuit. We input the circuit into the multisim and the result is shown in the figure below.

FIGURE 4 Schematic Diagram of the Circuit

2. The schematic was designed in Express PCB to make the actual circuit.

FIGURE 5 PCB design

3. The circuit design was printed in an acetate sheet.


4. The acetate sheet was taped on top of a pre-sensitized board to be exposed.
5. The pre-sensitized board was place in the fluorescent lamp for 25 minutes.
6. The exposed board was then submerged on a developer’s solution to reveal the traces of the circuit.

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7. The developed board was submerged in a ferric chloride solution to melt the unnecessary copper
traces.
8. Holes were drilled for the component placement
9. The components were soldered to the PCB.
10. The circuit was then tested to see if its working and the necessary measurements for the actual data
was done.

Creating a circuit
based on the Testing the circuit Visualizing the circuit
integrated circuit using Multisim on breadboard
(TA8201AK) used.

Inserting the
Testing the circuit in Printing the circuit
components on the
the pcb using PCBexpress
pcb

Applying finishing
touches

FIGURE 6 Process Flowchart

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CHAPTER 3
TESTING, PREPARATIONS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
For this chapter, the proponents will explained the series of procedures done before the creation of
the actual project, the testing of the project using digital oscilloscope and sound level meter/
The proponents first test the design of an audio amplifier if it is working and tested it using the circuit.
In every circuit design this was an important part since it will make the researchers prove that the design is
working.
Purpose of the test
The purpose of the said test is to see if the actual design was working with safety regarded first since
circuiting helped the proponents perform the amplification project without soldering the components. The
testing of the project was made possible by applying the understanding of the students about the principle of
operation and frequency response of the amplifier. The proponents will have the knowledge and skills on
how to use the digital oscilloscope and sound level meter.
Procedures to follow in conducting the testing
Part 1 Using Digital Oscilloscope:

1. Plug in the 12V AC-DC adapter and supply it to your audio amplifier.
2. Use signal from AFG/signal generator to feed to op-amp input.
3. Probe at input pins of the filter to view the signal on oscilloscope - View input on channel 1.
4. Use signal from AFG/signal generator to feed to op-amp input.
5. Set sinusoidal signal from channel 1 of the AFG amplitude = 368mV peak-to=peak and the frequency
= 30 Hz.
6. Auto set the oscilloscope to see input waveforms.
7. Set input:
 Sinusoidal, 386mV peak-to-peak amplitude
 30 Hz frequency
 Continuous mode (on AFG)
 enable the channel 1 output on AFG
8. Auto set the oscilloscope to optimally see input signal.
9. Set up the measurement on Ch1 - Vpp, Frequency.
10. Keeping the amplitude of the sinusoid input fixed at 368mV peak-to-peak, vary its frequency from
300Hz to 3 kHz. You may take more readings near cut-off frequency.
11. Tabulate the measurements on table 1.

Part 2 Using Sound Level Meter:

1. Turn on the audio amplifier, connect it in a cell phone and play any song.
2. Turn on the Sound Level Meter on by sliding the Power/Measurement Range Switch to an appropriate
measurement range (35–90 or 75–130 dB).
3. Get a ruler and measure the sound level, vary the distance from 1 inch to 12 inches.
4. Record the measured data on table 2.

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Assumptions if available
The proponents assumed other values of resistors at first because of the unavailability in proper
resistors for it, but the proponents conducted the test again after getting the necessary values of resistances.
Same goes with the Capacitors. The proponents also assumed the input frequency and input voltage in the
digital oscilloscope, and also the varying distance in measuring the sound level of the audio amplifier.

Tabular presentation of gathered data


In this part, the proponents will explain about the problems encountered during the testing of the
project and how each of them were solved. The table shows the components used and the result of the trial
itself. This shows the data done with the testing and troubleshooting conducted for achieving the goal of the
project which is the amplification of the audio signal.

Frequency Vi (p-p)
(Hz) (V)
300 2.92
500 2.88
700 2.84
900 3.12
1000 3.00
1300 2.84
1500 2.76
1700 2.68
1900 2.68
2300 2.64
2500 2.56
2700 2.54
3000 2.52
Table 1
Distance Sound Level
(Inch) (dB)
1 117
2 113
3 112
4 111
5 110
6 108
7 106
8 105
9 105
10 105
11 104
12 104

Table 2

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Analysis and discussion of gathered data
In part 1, the group measured the input voltage at different frequency using digital oscilloscope. Table 1
shows that the maximum voltage of 3.12 V is at 900 Hz while the lowest frequency of 300 Hz have 2.92V
and the highest frequency of 3000 Hz have 2.52 V.

In part 2, the group measured the sound level in decibel (dB) of the audio amplifier. The group noticed that
as the distance increases the sound level decreases. The group also observed that there is an equal sound
level even though the distance is increased. The sound level depends on how high or how low the sound is.

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CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion
The proponents concluded that having knowledge and information is significant in making the said
operational amplifier to make it work. The audio amplifier is the result of the correct connection of the circuit
in a PCB that was tested first using the breadboard to avoid mistakes and additional costs. There are different
corresponding integrated circuit that is intended to make a decent audio amplifier. Changing the value of the
capacitor will help the amplifier to create clearer and louder sound. It is important to use a digital
oscilloscope when measuring the amplitude of signals, to know the accuracy of the measurement that is
being made. On the other hand, a sound level meter is extremely important because it ensures that all sound
exposures are below the threshold of what is considered safe for human ears . All in all, a small input signal
can release a louder sound using an audio amplifier.

Recommendation
The proponents recommend to use other operational amplifier main integrated circuit other than the
used TA8201AK by this paper. The proponents also recommend to use other circuit that can produce louder
and clearer than the sound produced by the proposed method in this study.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Audio power amplifier. (2018, May 07). Retrieved March 15, 2019, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_power_amplifier
Britannica, T. E. (2009, March 18). Amplifier. Retrieved March 15, 2019, from
https://www.britannica.com/technology/amplifier
Introduction to the Amplifier an Amplifier Tutorial. (2018, June 10). Retrieved March 15, 2019, from
https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/amplifier/amp_1.html
Soni, Mukesh, 7 Lab Experiments with Op-Amp, Retrieved March 15, 2018
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282055366_7_Lab_Experiments_with_Op-
amp_A_manual_for_undergrad_students_teaching_staff

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APPENDIX
A. Data sheet of different component

B. Pictures

C. Manual of Operation of the Prototype


1. Plug the adaptor of the audio amplifier.
2. Connect the jock to any devices you want to connect to the amplifier.
3. Play whatever track you wish to play
4. Adjust the volume using the potentiometer to enjoy the music or sound.

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D. Bill of Materials

Pre-sensitized PCB – 120 Php


Speaker – 200 Php
Case of the Amplifier – 150 Php

Total: 873 Php

E. Gantt Chart

Activity Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Mar
8, 12, 13, 14, 19, 20, 22, 27, 7,
2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019

Researching and
Planning
Gathering of
Materials
Doing the Project
(Etching, Soldering,
Testing)
Finishing Touches
and Documentation

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F. Progress Report

February 8, 2019.
The proponents talked and searched about the op-amp audio amplifiers and gathered some data.
They scheduled out the project plan in order to make the timetable feasible for all of them.
February 12-14, 2019.
They bought an amplifier kit in the E-gizmo store in the Taft Avenue. Then they tried it using the
breadboard and the components that they have bought.
February 19-22, 2019.
They start making the amplifier by etching the pcb, soldering the components in the pcb.
February 27, 2019.
They tested the amplifier for the first time and conduct some revisions and adjustments
March 7, 2019.
The proponents tested the amplifier using digital oscilloscope and sound level meter. They measured
the input voltage of the circuit at different frequency and the sound level of the circuit in decibels.

Pictures of the proponents while doing the project.

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