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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

This chapter presented and discussed the background of the study, statement of the

problem, scope and delimitations, significance of the study, and the definitions of terms used.

Introduction

Over the years, depression and suicide have increased in an alarming rate. Depression

mostly occurs whenever there are conflicts and when other major events are encountered. It

greatly impacts a person's life, and it is very devastating. These types of problems can often be

seen at work, school, and at home, as well as the personal relationships of the patient. The most

serious effect of depression is suicide attempt or completion.

Evidences also show that depression is part of an illness with a biological basis. Research

on the Physiology of the Nervous System suggests that the level of activity of neurotransmitters,

such as norepinephrine and serotonin, changes in long-standing depression. Norepinephrine

increases restlessness and anxiety while Serotonin is thought to contribute in the well-being and

happiness of human beings. Disturbances among these chemicals can trigger depression.

Suicidal behavior is a major health concern in many countries developed and developing

alike according to the latest World Health Organization Mortality Database. At least a million

people are estimated to die annually from suicide worldwide. Many more people, especially the

young and middle-aged, attempt suicide.


Although cases of depression and suicide are rising, it is still considered as a taboo word

in the Philippines. Filipinos often avoid or disregard the topic. Most of which do not have enough

awareness and knowledge on what depression and suicide is.

However, there are small but noticeable changes on how Filipino perceive depression and

suicide. Being the world leader in social media usage for three consecutive years (Rappler, 2018),

Filipinos are now exposed to depression and suicide events happening in the world. They have

begun to familiarize and educate themselves in the concept of depression and suicide, thus

making it a medium to influence and educate other people about the issue.

In this study, the researchers want to know the level of knowledge the Pasig Catholic

College Senior High School Department has about depression and suicidal tendencies. They are

curious on how the students as well as the faculty members perceive it. In the process, the

researchers want to contribute or be a medium for people to be able to understand how deep and

complex the topic is.

Statement of the Problem

Upon conducting this study, the researchers will answer the following questions:

1. What are the programs of the Guidance Counselors’ office in addressing students’

depression issue?

2. How effective is Adolescent Depression Awareness Program?

3. What are the results of the “Standardized Test” about depression?


4. What will happen after 2 years of implementing the Adolescent Depression Awareness

Program?

Scope and Delimitations

This study involves the Senior High School Department of Pasig Catholic College. The

researchers will conduct surveys and questionnaires to students, professors, and guidance

counselors and the administrators of the said department.

Significance of the Study

This research is an ambitious endeavor in raising awareness and preventing depression

and suicide. In a nation of trend conformers and proclaimed liberals, people are still oblivious of

this rampant silent killer. Some are indifferent, some find it unspeakable and others see it as minor

and negligible. Unfortunately, the Philippines and its people are not spared and excluded.

The significance of this research aims to start small yet strong. The researchers intend to

focus on where they strongly believe they should and where they hope to make a colossal

impact—Pasig Catholic College. They hope this study would start a conversation amongst

schoolmates, classmates and friends. The purpose to transform this school into a community

where depression is not frightful, unspeakable and ignominious. Being depressed is not being

“Over Acting”. It is real, it is grave, it is conventional and it really is happening. The study is to

open the minds of the youths in Pasig Catholic College. To educate everyone is to help those who

suffer depression and those who suffer obliviousness, and perhaps a fewer consequential suicide.
For the researchers, they intend to extend the knowledge they are fortunate enough to

acquire during this essential study. Through this, they did not only gain information and

awareness but the audacity to speak up and bravery to ask their seatmate how are they doing and

mean it.

Definition of Terms

Depression

It is a state of feeling sad and hopeless. A person experiencing depression have symptoms

such as inactivity, unstable appetite, and difficulty in thinking and concentration.

Perception

It is how the Senior High School Department of Pasig Catholic College understand and

feel about depression and suicide

Suicide

It is the act of taking one’s life voluntarily or intentionally.


Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies, both local and foreign,

which are relevant to the research. It also provides the synthesis of the cited book and articles

collected.

Depression

Depression is a common psychological disorder where there is a persistent feeling of

sadness. It is accompanied by anxiety, loss of interest, and low self-esteem which often happens

without a clear cause. Depression is now proven to be a disease which we cannot cure overnight

and needs active treatment. If it is not given the proper attention, it will negatively affect a

person’s work, education, and their general health. However, because it is a mental illness, it is

difficult to understand by many find its real cause. According to the National Institute of Mental

Health (2016), the combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors is believed

to be the cause of depression.

Helen M. Farrell (2015) stated that depression is associated with “the depletion of certain

neurotransmitters especially serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, specific changes in the

REM, slow-wave parts of the sleep cycle, and hormone abnormalities.” In a 2018 study, Major

Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomic Consortium conducted a

genome-wide association meta-analysis and found 44 independent and significant loci that link

to the clinical features of major depression.


Gregory S. Beattie (2005) identified the following types of intrapersonal connections of

human beings that influence depression: “(a) within the family, such as between the parents and

between parents and children; (b) the social environment where differences in ethnicity and social

class come into play; and (c) interactions between genders across age groups for both females

and males.” The family has the most weight and impact on the development of depression.

Marital problems among spouses lead to their children blaming themselves and a parent/s who

experience depression may influence their children which results to negative intrapersonal

behavior. Socializing contribute to building or maintaining a healthy relationship with others.

However, it can have an adverse effect on people. A person becomes sensitive to the opinion of

others will build an anxiety of people rejecting their own ideas and opinions, resulting in lower

participation in social activities. Evident differences on ethnicity and social class can trigger

depression as one will compare themselves to others. The different experiences of genders

influence mood disorders such as discrimination and expectations to conform to the societal

standards.

These are some of the following signs and symptoms of depression according to the

National Institute of Mental Health:

 Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood

 Feelings of hopelessness, or pessimism

 Irritability

 Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness

 Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities

 Decreased energy or fatigue


 Moving or talking more slowly

 Feeling restless or having trouble sitting still

 Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions

 Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping

 Appetite and/or weight changes

 Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts

 Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause

and/or that do not ease even with treatment

Not everyone who is depressed experiences every symptom. Some people experience

only a few symptoms while others may experience many. The severity and frequency of

symptoms and how long they last will vary depending on the individual and his or her particular

illness. Symptoms may also vary depending on the stage of the illness.

Suicide

Suicide, as defined in Stedman’s Medical Dictionary (2006) is the act of deliberately

causing one’s own death. The link of suicide and mental disorders is well-established but there

many suicide deaths happen when a person is in a crisis whether financially, marital, and many

more. According to Psych Central (2015), the Internet’s largest and oldest independent mental

health online resource, the warning signs of suicide include:

 Withdrawal and isolation from family and peers

 Use of alcohol and drugs


 Decline in school performance

 Increased irritability

 Dramatic change in dress, activities or friends

 Giving away of possessions

 Discussion of suicide

 Changes in sleep or appetite

Myths about Depression

One of the biggest misconceptions about depression is that, people do not consider it as a

real illness, but according to WebMD, (2018) an American corporation known primarily as an

online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being, depression

is a serious medical condition -- and the top cause of disability in American adults. However, it

is still confused with ordinary sadness. Biological evidence of the illness comes from studies of

genetics, hormones, nerve cell receptors, and brain functioning. Nerve circuits in brain areas that

regulate mood appear to function abnormally in depression (WebMD, 2018).

Another misconception about depression is that, depression is just self-pity. But according

to Dr. Margaret Rutherford (2016), Depression is far from feeling sorry for yourself. There is an

immense difference between the two. She said that, someone who is clinically depressed is

dealing with an unwanted and unchosen barrage of negative, destructive thoughts and emotions.

When a person is drowning in those thoughts and emotions, it is very hard for them to engage

with others or to be interested in anything outside of their own head.


This is when depression hides underneath the surface, because pain or sadness is not

allowed to be expressed. The people who experience it are all around us. They are movers and

shakers — people who know how to get things done, and done well. Their lives look great —

absolutely no whining allowed. They count their blessings, every day. There is not a self-pitying

bone in their body. No one sees what is on the inside. No one knows the amount of insecurity,

self-loathing or shame that exists in reality because it is perfectly hidden.

In PHD, the fear of exposure can become intense. It can feel as if your whole world will

cave in if anyone finds out that you struggle — or that you have secrets you have never shared.

The fact is — that it would not. The far greater risk is getting lost in the depression.

People whose experiencing depression thinks that talking makes things worse but

according to WebMD (2018), there is evidence that guided discussions with a professional can

make things much better. Different types of psychotherapy help treat depression by addressing

negative thought patterns, unconscious feelings, or relationship troubles. The first step is to talk

to a mental health professional.

According to Susan Fletcher (nd) many people function well with depression in front of

others. It is when they start their day, end their day, or isolate themselves from others that the

symptoms are obvious. It would be a mistake for someone to believe just because a person does

not appear sad, that they are not depressed. This is called ‘high functioning depression.’

Depression can be treated successfully—the treatment is not the problem. The willingness to be

assessed and ask for help is the major limitation.

Many people mistakenly believe that if you cannot see it like you can a broken bone, it

must be less significant and therefore can be overcome by simply using willpower. If not, they
mistakenly believe that people who suffer from depression are weak. But mental health disorders

are real, significant, and common.

Due to the stigma built around suicide and mental disorders like depression, people who

suffer from these find it difficult to get the help they need. Prevention of both has not been

addressed properly because of the lack of awareness of depression and suicide as major health

problem and the taboo of many societies to openly discuss it. The availability and quality of data

is said to be poor. (WHO, 2018)

Rate of Depression and Suicide in the Philippines

While we may tend to look upon the adolescence period as a time of growth and

opportunity, these years are also replete with stress that often accompanies such a major

developmental milestone. The stigma that surrounds mental health disorders in general, and

suicide in particular undoubtedly distorts society’s full understanding of the extent of suicidal

ideation and suicidal behaviors on the school environment. (The Jed Foundation & National

Mental Health Association, nd)

According to Ross Tugade, (2017) the reality, at least according to other numbers, is

darker: the National Center for Mental Health statistics project suicide rates of 2.5 for men and

1.7 for women per 100,000 members of the population. These numbers do not include unreported

cases. According to a 2014 report of the World Health Organization , there were 2,558 cases of

suicide due to mental health problems in the Philippines in the year 2012 alone. As a public health

concern, mental illness hits the most vulnerable sectors of society — the young and the poor.
In the Philippines which has a culture that emphasizes resilience and humor amidst pain

and personal suffering makes it all the more difficult to talk about mental illness out in the open.

The stigma surrounding mental illness only adds to the layers of struggle of people who suffer

from various mental health conditions.

School Programs about Depression

The Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP) educates school-based

professionals, high school students, and parents about the illness of depression. Through a student

curriculum, a training program for health and school-based professionals, and presentations for

parents and communities, ADAP delivers the core message that depression and bipolar disorder

are treatable medical illnesses and that concerned individuals should seek help. Through this

work, ADAP aims to increase awareness and decrease stigma about mood disorders in young

people while stressing the need for evaluation and treatment.

The mission of ADAP is to make the curriculum available nationally for school-based

professionals to incorporate into their classes.

Suicide, the most serious risk of depression, is the third leading cause of death among

young people ages 15 to 24. It is imperative that high school students, parents, and teachers

understand the clear link between depression and suicide. Since depression is the primary cause

of suicide, depression education can be effective suicide prevention.

Unfortunately, many high schools do not have a formal curriculum to address depression.

Among schools that address depression in health classes, very few discuss depression as a
medical illness. With an estimated 5% of adolescents having depression, this is one of the most

common illnesses teenagers face. The high rate of suicide in depressed teenagers underscores the

importance of all high school students receiving quality education about depression and learning

that depression is a treatable medical illness (Hopkins, 2015).

The complex problem of suicide and suicidal behaviors on campus demands a

multifaceted, collaborative approach. We cannot expect to accomplish the goals set forth in the

National Strategy by leaving it solely up to the campus counselors and/or mental health centers.

College administrators must work to ensure that all elements of the campus and the entire

community are working together (The Jed Foundation & National Mental Health Association,

2010).

Synthesis

Factors such as genetic, environment, and psychological can influence the development

of depression. Abnormalities or imbalances in a human being's chemical makeup, external factors

such as work and family, and how people interact or cope in a situation can have an adverse

effect. Depression cannot be easily detected as it is a psychological disorder. Thus, society has

built stigma around the topic making it difficult for people who suffer from it get the treatment

that they need. Unable to treat this mood disorder leads to negative effects and one of it is suicide.

The feeling of persistent sadness and hopelessness suffocates a person resulting them to

deliberately end their own life using effective means. With the prevalent psychological disorder,

schools have established certain programs for their students who suffer from depression and

suicidal tendencies.
Conceptual Framework

To obtain the objective of the study which is to determine the level of understanding of

the Senior High School Community of Pasig Catholic College, the researchers will conduct

questionnaires, interviews, or survey to their participants. The different factors that influence

depression and suicide, the stigma built around it, and the programs that the school establish can

affect how the participants perceive the topic.


References

Beattie, G. S. (2005). Social Causes of Depression. Retrieved from

http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beattie.html

Chua, K. (2018, February 15). PH top in social media usage for 3 straight years. Retrieved

from https://www.rappler.com/technology/news/196114-we-are-social-

philippines-soci al-media-usage

National Institute of Mental Health. (2016, May). Depression . Retrieved from

https://web.archive.org/web/20160805065529/http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/to

pics/depression/index.shtml

Farrell, H. M. (2015, December 15). What is depression? Retrieved from

https://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-is-depression-helen-m-farrell

Goldberg, J. (2018, January 11). Myths and Facts About Depression. Retrieved from

https://www.webmd.com/depression/ss/slideshow-depression-myths

Goldsmith, B. (2009, July 15). 10 Little Known Facts About Depression. Retrieved from

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/emotional-fitness/200907/10-little-

kno wn-facts-about-depression

Grohol, J. D. (2005, April 4) Signs of Suicide. Retrieved from

https://psychcentral.com/library/suicide_signs.htm

University of California. (19 May 2017). Depression and Suicide . Retrieved from

https://caps.ucsc.edu/resources/depression.html
World Health Organization. (2018, January 31). Suicide. Retrieved from

http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/suicide

Wray, N. R. (2018, April 26). Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants

and refine the genetic architecture of major depression. Retrieved from

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41588-018-0090-3

Johns Hopkins University. School Programs about Depression. Retrieved from

http://www.adap-training.com/index.cfm?page=general_info

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/psychiatry/specialty_areas/moods/ADAP/
Chapter III

Methodology

This chapter presents the methodologies used in collecting data for the research. It

presents a description of the research design, research locale, research instruments, and data-

gathering procedure.

Research Design

This study involves verbal and narrative descriptions and the subjects cannot be

manipulated for it will be studied based on its natural setting. Thus, qualitative research approach

is used. This research also aims to develop a theory about depression and suicidal tendencies not

receiving enough attention in the Pasig Catholic College community based on in-depth

observations and narratives. It will be using symbols, meanings, and ideas derived from

observations and interviews with school administrators, teachers and guidance counselors in

Pasig Catholic College.

This qualitative research will narrate the perceptions of Pasig Catholic College

community towards persons who experience depression and suicidal tendencies and aim to

present a detailed analysis of the said case in hopes to implement the Adolescents Depression

Awareness Program also known as ADAP.


Research Locale

This study will be conducted in Pasig Catholic College School Year 2018 – 2019. The

researchers decided to use the typical sampling technique in choosing their participants. They

will interview the following: Mrs. Melinda Segismundo, Senior High School Principal; Mr.

Michael Medina, Senior High School Assistant Principal; Mr. Ralph Balin, Senior High School

Psychometrician and Guidance Counselor, Mrs. Mary Grace Bulaoro, Senior High School

Guidance Counselor; and some members of the Faculty

The chosen participants will be interviewed individually inside Pasig Catholic

College.

Research Instruments:

Interview Questionnaire

This instrument was created by the researchers, to collect qualitative-data regarding the

Depression and Suicidal Tendencies in Pasig Catholic College.

1. Coming from a different generation, what’s your stand about depression? Do you

believe that it actually exists?

2. Do you believe that there are students here in our school that are experiencing

depression?

3. How do you identify if a student is depressed or not?

4. What do you think are the reasons why students experiencing depression in our

school?
5. Currently, do we have programs related to depression?

6. If yes, how does the program help students whose experiencing depression?

7. If none, do you believe we need a program to prevent/address this issue?

8. What are the steps do you take after knowing that the student/s has some

possibilities or signs that they are depressed?

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers wrote a letter to conduct an interview with the School Administrator,

Guidance Counselors, Psychometrician, and some members of the Faculty. This letter was signed

and approved by their Research Adviser.

After getting the approval of their Research Adviser, the researchers distributed the letters

and asks for the approval of the target respondents to participate in the interview

The researchers conducted an in-depth interview with the respondents on the agreed time

and date.

The researchers had the interview voice recorded with the consent of the respondents, after

conducting the interviews, the researchers transcribed the recordings into texts.
Chapter IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter is dedicated to the presentation and analyses of the data gathered by the

researcher in order to satisfy the objectives of the study.

Coming from a different generation, what’s your stand about depression? Do you

believe it actually exists?

So, my stand regarding depression: this is a serious matter and that it shouldn’t be taken

for granted and I do believe it actually exists. Kasi, coming from this depression, doon

nagkakaroon ng mas marami pang nagiging problema. Kaya I really believe that this is happening

in the Philippines but hindi natin siya masyadong – ang feeling natin na, ‘Ay, it’s depression.”

Parang nagiging connotation siya for stress. Kasi kapag sinabi nating depression, mental illness

na siya. You can be admitted to a mental institution already pero parang sa ibang tao, ‘Ay, depress

ako.” So, parang bukas wala na. And I believe it actually exists. - Mrs. Bulaoro, SHS Guidance

Counselor

(So, my stand regarding depression: this is a serious matter and that it shouldn’t be taken

for granted and I do believe it actually exists. Because, coming from this depression, you’ll

encounter more problems. That’s why I really believe that this is happening in the Philippines

but we're not really – we feel that ‘Oh it’s depression.” It’s becoming a connotation for stress.
When we say depression, it’s a mental illness. You can be admitted to a mental institution

already. But for others, ‘Oh, I’m depressed.” and tomorrow it would be gone. And I believe it

actually exists.)

Noong una kasi, I thought, people who says that they’re depressed are actually just making

arte-arte just to get attention. But later on, when we studied, it’s actually true that there are

individuals who are experiencing depression. Pero, my question is, why do we have a lot of cases

like this these days? ‘Di ba unlike before, hindi naman ganito kalala, what’s wrong? You have

read the articles already? What’s the reason behind this? - Mr. Medina, SHS Assistant Principal

(Before, I thought, people who says that they’re depressed are actually just making “arte-

arte” just to get attention. But later on, when we studied, it’s actually true that there are

individuals who are experiencing depression. But my question is, why do we have a lot of cases

like this these days? Unlike before, it’s not like this, what’s wrong? You have read the articles

already? What’s the reason behind this?)

For me, depression is a very serious thing. I’m not going to say it’s a problem but it’s a

very serious thing that majority of us tend to just belittle. I hate it when people think that

depression is just a state of mind and can just be shaken off by simply opening up. For me, it’s

something more serious than that and it should be dealt with more care and more prudence in the

context of our society today. - Mr. Basañes, SHS Faculty Member


For me depression is a very serious case, so some of the students, see depression as a joke.

Pero most of the students or most people rather, take it seriously. - Ms. Inocencio, SHS Faculty

Member

Of course, I believe that it exists. Meron kasing criteria para masabi mong depressed ang

isang tao. Kumbaga sa sakit, ‘di ba. Halimbawa, influenza. Ano ba yung mga sintomas non?

Hindi man natin nakikita, Kasi of course, meron din symptoms, lack of appetite, low energy,

suicidal thoughts, etc. Depende rin kung critical depression din or depressed mood. Magkaiba

kasi ‘yon. I believe yes, that it actually exists. Kasi kung hindi sya nag-eexist , ba’t mo isya pag-

aaralan ‘di ba? - Mr. Balin, SHS Guidance Counselor and Psychometrician

(Of course, I believe that it exists. But there is a criterion for you to consider if a person

is depressed or not. For example, influenza, flu? What are the symptoms of this? There are

symptoms that we cannot see with naked eye. Because of course, there are symptoms like, lack of

appetite, low energy, suicidal thoughts, etc. It depends if it’s critical depression or depressed

mood, there’s a difference between the two. I believe yes, that it actually exists. If it doesn’t exist,

then why do we need to study about it?)

Oo naman. Tingin ko nage-exist talaga ang depression. Anyway, ano ‘yan – psychological

concept ‘yan. Nangyayari ‘yan sa isang tao, nasosobrahan na sa stress. Dahil sa sobrang stress,

nagkakaron siya ng pakiramdam na mentality – hindi ako alam kung tamang tawaging mentality

– pero, nagkakaroon siya ng pananaw na parang lahat ng tao nado-down siya, sobrang nado-down

siya. - Mr. Jaca, SHS Faculty Member


(Yes, Of course. I think depression really exists. Anyway, it’s a psychological concept. It

usually happens to a person whose very stress. Due to the stress, they are having a mentality, I

don’t know if it’s right to call it a mentality, but they feel down.)

Do you believe that there are students here in our school that are experiencing

depression? Not necessarily clinically depressed.

I think that there are a lot of students exhibiting various behaviors that can be a ground

for a possible case of depression. Again, I also know a few students who are clinically diagnosed

with depression and honestly speaking, I would like to have myself checked as well. I just don’t

have the luxury of time and effort to have myself checked by a psychiatrist. Maybe soon enough,

I will. - Mr. Basañes, SHS Faculty Member

Yes of course, I know some of them. - Ms. Inocencio, SHS Faculty Member

Yes, kasi nga it’s in the things where everyone wants to be… I don’t know, pero di ko

alam kung bakit dumadami ‘yong cases ng depression. Even the guidance will tell us na mas

marami compared sa dati. Maybe there are a lot of things that needs to be done in order for the

adolescents to really know how to face the challenges and difficulties in life. – Mr. Medina, SHS

Assistant Principal

(Yes, it’s in the things where everyone wants to be… I don’t know, why cases of depression

are very rampant nowadays. Even the Guidance will tell us that compared in the past, cases of
the depression today are very high. Maybe there are a lot of things that needs to be done in order

for the adolescents to really know how to face the challenges and difficulties in life.)

To what I see, meron. There are. There are students but what I think is that they can handle

the situation. – Mrs. Bulaoro, SHS Guidance Counselor

Mahirap magbigay pero tingin ko, wala. Tingin ko, stress lang ‘yong iba talaga. – Mr.

Jaca, SHS Faculty Member

(It’s hard to say, but I think there are none. I think they’re just stressed not depressed)

How do you identify a student if he or she is depressed or not?

I have a read a couple articles and journals about depression. Given that I am also

exhibiting some factors or some behaviors that border to anxiety and/or depression, I kind of get

how to connect with those students. Now if you are asking for certain guidelines, if you’re asking

for a certain way that I get to notice, actually, I can’t give you a valid answer. I just feel it. There’s

something wrong with this person. This is me being someone who has experienced a lot, and this

is me coming from a different generation than you have. So, I think I am able to feel more than a

regular member of your generation. – Mr. Basañes, SHS Faculty Member


A student who is alone. Who wants me time. The students who, if you ask them, they

don’t want to socialize and me time, me alone. and if you’re jolly before and all of a sudden you

become serious – Mrs. Segismundo SHS Principal

They are quiet sometimes, and sometimes they are very active. But suddenly, they will

switch moods, they will become quiet all of a sudden. – Ms. Inocencio, SHS Faculty Member

Again, in a professional point of view, kung merong sasabihin ang student sa assessment

or interview na “Sir, minsan I feel sad” tapos doon palang, kung meron mang sintomas o sign ng

depression, iproproseso pa natin, baka kasi mamaya malungkot lang pala siya, or baka malungkot

siya na may mas malalim pang pinanggagalingan . – Mr. Balin, SHS Guidance Counselor and

Psychometrician

(Again, in a professional point of view, If the student will say in an interview or

assessment, “Sir, I feel sad.” From there, if there are signs or symptoms of depression, we will

process it, because maybe it’s just sadness, or maybe they are sad but there is a deeper reason.)

How do I identify that? Siguro, changing of behavior. ‘Yon ang lagi kong sinasabi sa

advisers or sa teachers, ‘If you saw a student na parang ng ligalig, masaya, maingay, papansin

and then biglang nag-shift into silent type. Tapos biglang ina-isolate niya ‘yong sarili niya sa

ibang tao. Kunyari, may program – Intrams. Nanonood ang tao ng basketball, ng volleyball, tapos

siya, ayaw niya. Gusto niya sa classroom. Or biglang nawalan ng appetite sa pagkain. Puwede
naman na biglang naging mahiyain. Ito na ‘yong mga signs na puwedeng may pinagdadaanan

‘yong bata na it can lead to depression. – Mrs. Bulaoro, SHS Guidance Counselor

(How do I identify that? Maybe on sudden changes of behavior. That is what I am always

telling the advisers or teachers, ‘If you saw a student that was hyper, happy, loud, attention seeker

then suddenly he/she shift to being silent. Then he/she isolates herself/himself from others. For

example, there's a program --Intrams. Everybody is watching basketball and volleyball but that

student he/she does not participate. The students want to stay in the classroom. Or he/she lost

her appetite. Maybe he/she became a shy type person. These are the signs that the child is

experiencing something that may lead to depression.)

What are the steps you take after knowing that a student has some possibilities that

they are experiencing depression?

I’m the kind of person who puts a lot of effort in my follow-ups. I try my best to do my

own little investigation. So, for example, if I have a student who exhibits these behaviors, I don’t

necessarily interact with the student directly. I try to do it indirectly by asking his of her friends

and basing from the records from the guidance office. I should know because I have students who

are like this. I do try my best to partner with the guidance office that we have for the Senior High

School because they also have a record of the past cases that this student may have had during

his or her stay in the Junior High School. So, I am backed up with my first-hand observation and

the documents available in the Student Affairs Office. – Mr. Basañes, SHS Faculty Member
Actually, I’m afraid to talk to that student, because I’m not really good in counseling,

that’s not my forte. Kasi when you experience depression, it’s a very serious case. Pero as much

as I can, I talk to that person pero not really deep kasi natatakot ako baka lalong ma-trigger. I just

ask lang and I let her explain, I let her tell ‘yong mga happy stories niya before para lang ma

lessen. – Ms. Inocencio, SHS Faculty Member

(Actually, I’m afraid to talk to that student, because I’m not really good in counselling,

that’s not my forte. When you experience depression, it’s a very serious case. But as much as I

can, I talk to that person but not in a deep conversation, because I’m afraid that it could get

worse. I just ask and explain, I let her tell happy stories, to lessen.)

First, we have the conference and after that kind of conference, the students will undergo

counselling regularly and the support system should be in place. If we can probably seek for

professional health. If the cases are into physical harm one, way of that is to consult professional

health because it might be too late if we don’t detect because there are some students who are in

denial from being depressed. Because they can answer all the questions in the psychiatric test, so

the result might give us that they are not affected. And the teachers will be informed in the cases

and the lesson that you have, the valuing that you have, even in Math and also the collaborative

effort. – Mrs. Segismundo, SHS Principal

Monitoring. We do follow-up interview or parents conference sa bahay. Kasi sila ang

unang-unang makaka-monitor. Kapag dito naman, ang niri-reach out namin ay si adviser or si

teacher. – Mr. Balin, SHS Guidance Counselor and Psychometrician


(Monitoring. We do follow-up interview or parents conference at home. Because they are

the first who can monitor. Here at school, we reach out to their advisers and teachers.)

First, we give counsleling sessions. 1 – 2 days. Tingnan natin kung kaya kasi titingnan

din natin kung ano ‘yong sagot ng bata sa’yo. Kasi lahat confidential. Minsan ang bata sasabihin

na, ‘Hindi, miss, kaya ko pa naman, eh.’ But if we think hindi talaga kaya, I recommend the

student also to the psychometrician to give tests- Mrs. Bulaoro, SHS Guidance Counselor

(First, we give counselling sessions. 1 – 2 days. We’ll see if they can do it. We’ll observe

their answers. All of it would be confidential. Sometimes, students will say “No Miss, I can do

it.” But if we think that there’s more to that, I recommend the student also to the psychometrician

to give tests)

Currently, do we have programs specifically for depression?

If you’re asking for a specific program, I don’t really think so that there is a valid program

today but we are a young department. The department is trying its best and that’s what I

appreciate. Yes, we don’t have a program as of the moment, but I’m pretty sure given the

researches that we have like this that we will be having that kind of program soon enough which

is something that’s somehow boosts my appreciation of the department. It is trying. - Mr.

Basañes, SHS Faculty Member


Yes, siguro everyday ata e, guidance counselors pull out some students and talk to them

randomly and then titignan nila if that kid is depressed. – Ms. Inocencio, SHS Faculty Member

(Yes, I think every day, guidance counselors pull out some students and talk to them

randomly and then they’ll check if that kid is depressed.)

Alam ko, meron kasi madalas silang kinakausap ‘yong estudyante tapos kina-counsel nila.

Alam ko, meron, saka knowing Ms. Bulaoro and Mr. Balin naman, maayos naman sila. Talagang

tutok sila sa students. ‘Yon nga lang sa dami ba naman tapos dalawa lang sila. – Mr. Jaca, SHS

Faculty Member

(I know there is, cause usually they talk to the students, they undergo counselling. And

knowing Mrs. Bulaoro and Mr. Balin, they’re good, you know that they are focused on the

students. But ofcourse, with the numbers of students, while it’s just the two of them.)

So far kasi, more on general pa yung approach. – Mr Balin, SHS Guidance Counselor

and Psychometrician

(So far, it’s more on general approach)

Do you believe we need a program to prevent/address this issue?

There is a high need for us to have this kind of program. I have been hearing news that I

can’t tell because it’s off the record. I can’t tell it now but I’ve been hearing news about our

previous students having this kind of case and it’s really disturbing much as it is alarming. So, I
think as a department, we are trying to work on it and kudos to our department for recognizing

the importance of mental health issues and concerns because at least, we’re not going backwards.

- Mr. Basañes, SHS Faculty Member

‘Yong programs natin, for me, kahit gaano kadami, it’s not enough. Kung puwede

dagdagan siya ng dagdagan kasi puwedeng the program that I gave for you is enough for you but

not for the other students. - Mrs. Bulaoro, SHS Guidance Counselor

(Our programs, no matter how plenty they are, it’s not enough. If possible, increase the

number of programs, cause it’s possible that the program that I gave you is not enough fo you,

but for other students it’s enough.)

No, it’s not enough. Kasi depression always depend on the person itself. Counseling is

not enough eh. Let’s say ang problema ng bata is family and their family hindi nakipag-cooperate.

So non-sense yung counseling. – Ms. Inocencio, SHS Faculty Member

(No, it’s not enough. Cause depression always depends on the person itself. Counseling

is not enough. Let’s say the problem is the student’s family, and their family, they don’t cooperate.

Counselling would be non-sense.)

Yes, of course. That’s already themed to be put, because we have a lot of students who

are experiencing that. Siguro, people have to understand what are the causes of their depression
so that they would know na hindi pala arte-arte lang. So that they would know the difference. –

Mr. Medina, SHS Assistant Principal

(Yes, of course. That’s already themed to be put, because we have a lot of students who

are experiencing that. Maybe people have to understand what are the causes of their depression

so that they would know that it’s not just ”arte-arte”. So that they would know the difference.)

Oo. Actually, hindi lang siguro sa depression. Siguro sa lahat ng aspects. Siguro nga,

maganda na may isang subject tayong about lang siya sa mental health ng mga estudyante. Kasi

ang Personal Development, more on developmental stages pa siya. Hindi ba pwedeng tutok lang

sa mental health ng isang Senior High. Tingin ko, dapat magkaroon tayo ng gano’n. – Mr. Jaca,

SHS Faculty Member

(Yes. Actually, Not just about depression. Maybe it could cover all aspects. Maybe it’s

better to have one subject about the mental health of the students. Personal Development is more

on developmental stage. Can’t it be more focused on the mental health of the Senior High School

students, I think we need to have something like that.)

The respondents believe that depression actually exists. Based on the interviews done, 4

out of 5 of the respondents believe that there are students that are experiencing depression here
in Pasig Catholic College. They have a different identification of a depressed student, but the

common identification is, the changes in behavior. The steps done by the respondents after

identifying a depressed student is usually, counselling.

Also 5 out of 5 of the respondents believe that the Senior High School Department needs

a program specifically for Depression. The Department may have a program about depression

but most of the respondents believe that it’s not enough to address the issue properly.