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What Does Fascism

Look Like?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzH1iaKVsBM

Fascism is a political system that has an economic Fascist governments try to give all people jobs,
policy attached in which the State has all the power. mainly in the industries they need. They build roads,
A dictator (or a powerful group) is the head of state. hospitals and industries which help them rise to
He/she uses a strong army and a police force to keep power and fuel a sense of national pride. Providing
law and order within the country. The strong, jobs to citizens, increases the living standards of the
authoritarian leader is, at the beginning, admired by nation which further fuels national pride. Fascism
many people but… it is important to note that supports industry and business but only if they
fascism is usually an attractive option for citizens submit to the government’s rule.
who have been let down by their leaders or who
have experienced extreme poverty. In fascist countries, no other political parties are
tolerated. The government controls newspapers,
Modern fascism first appeared after World War I radio and television. There is no freedom of speech -
when Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy fascist nations must control the media to control
(1922). In Germany Adolf Hitler’s National Socialism thought, so censorship is vital. The media is also a
rose to power in 1933 but Fascism also appeared in vehicle for advertising the nation’s slogans, symbols,
Japan, Spain and Argentina, Brazil, Chile Austria, colours and message. Disinformation is just as
China, Portugal, Hungary, Rumania, Poland, and important as the provision of ‘party approved’
Finland, Yugoslavia…and a few more. information. Often radios and other forms of media
so that all citizens can afford to access their message.

Life in a Fascist Regime Often a fascist nation will single out one group and
victimise them. For example, Jews (a religious
Fascist governments control the way people live. group) or one particular nationality. Having
Those who criticise the government or do not obey scapegoats, helps to unify a nation and build a
are punished. They must leave the country, go to clearer national identity.
prison / re-education camps or are often executed.
The government rarely makes any apology for this as
the lack of protection for human rights is a powerful Rise of Fascism
tool used to gain control.
Fascism became a strong movement during the first
Fascist leaders want to make their nation strong and part of the 20th century for many reasons. Most
powerful. They claim that only the strongest and nations had no experience with democracy because
fittest in the population can survive. With the help of they had previously been ruled by a king or queen.
a strong army they go to war and expand their After World War I many Germans were disappointed
territory. This is fuelled by a strong sense of and angry because the war destroyed a lot of their
nationalism - national identity gone mad ‘uber- country or because some of their land was taken
patriotism. away from them. They felt that the Allies had been
School teachers and parents show children that only too vengeful in the Treaty of Versailles and no one
the state is important and always right. Pupils must stood up for them on the world stage.
exercise to stay healthy. Youth organizations are Italians were not satisfied with the way other
often created in which children admire the state and countries treated them after World War I either.
learn slogans and songs. They are trained to march Benito Mussolini emerged as a powerful leader who
and follow the beliefs of the ruling party - this is

F
promised the people that he would bring back pride
called indoctrination. and make Italy a well-respected state again. He
Fascism is created his own private army with their own
referred to as uniforms. Mussolini’s followers were aggressive and
started fights with other citizens and regular soldiers
RIGHT WING. in the streets. Finally, in 1922 Mussolini became
See how the F forms
dictator of Italy. Almost exactly the same situation
a right hand wing?
This might be a good
memory strategy.
occurred in Germany after Hitler came to power in ____________________________________________________
1933.
____________________________________________________
Dissatisfied with the very harsh terms of the Treaty
of Versailles, the German public suffered more than *** How can you tell if you are living in a fascist state?
any other nation in the economic depression of Stand on the street corner and criticise your leaders …
1929. The humiliating terms of the Treaty coupled loudly. If you aren’t arrested or shot, you probably aren’t
with the shocking devastation meant the prospect of living in a fascist state.
economic recovery was slight. When the Germans
saw very small profits from their industries go to the b. What are 6 characteristics of a fascist nation? The
French to pay off war debts, it didn’t take long for first one has been done for you.
the people to turn to an extremist to restore some
sense of pride. Despite the fact that Hitler had been 1. lack of human rights
on the campaign trail since 1923, it wasn’t until 1933
when he got his chance to take control of the nation. 2.___________________________________________________
In Germany’s case, the harsh treatment by the Allies ____________________________________________________
after WW1 played a large part, responsible for
Hitler’s meteoric rise to power. The Allies destroyed 3.___________________________________________________
the economy, that allowed extremism to flourish.
____________________________________________________
A fascist leader can be described as authoritarian, a
dictator in a totalitarian regime. 4.___________________________________________________
Opposing Fascism ____________________________________________________

The opposite of fascism would be a democratic 5.___________________________________________________


system of government, where everyone votes for
their leaders and are encouraged to be involved in ____________________________________________________
the governing process. There are clear rules for
6.___________________________________________________
governing (constitution) and breaking these rules
would result in a loss of office or prison sentence… ____________________________________________________
but not death. The system isn’t perfect but at least,
in a democracy, if the leaders are not doing their jobs c. In what way is Democracy different to Fascism?
properly, people just need to wait until the next
election to choose a new leader. ____________________________________________________

Want to learn more about Fascism? ____________________________________________________


Read Harry Potter. The Nazi SS
____________________________________________________
symbol was a lightning bolt, Death
Eaters are like the Secret Police, ____________________________________________________
Slitherin are like the Hitler Youth
and Mudbloods could be Jews or ____________________________________________________
foreigners.
____________________________________________________

a. Do your best to write a definition for Fascism. ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
d. Why might some people be attracted to fascism?

____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
What Does can slow down growth, production and
development.
Communism Look They symbol for Communism is the hammer
and sickle which are the symbols for (industrial)
Like? workers and (farm workers) peasants. The colour
associated with this movement is RED (coupled
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qra0hlO6hZk sometimes with gold). The red refers to the blood
shed by the working class in its struggle against
Communism is a system that organises an economy. capitalism.
It often goes with an authoritarian government but it
doesn’t have to. Opposing Communism
Simply put, communism is the control of all of the
Capitalism is also called a market economy, where
factors of production (the ways to make money).
the four factors of production are privately owned…
Land, labour, capital (investment money) and
by citizens. In a purely capitalist society, the
enterprise (the ideas and skills to run a business) are
individual must pay for everything in full; eg
all owned and performed by the government. In a
hospitals, education, using roads etc. That means
communist society, it is illegal to own your own
that the government does not provide these services
business or to own property or to see to invest in a
for the people, nor do they offer social welfare eg for
company. All farms, mines, industrial, manufacturing
unemployment. The ‘cut throat’ nature of capitalism
and distribution of good and services is done by ‘The
is what Communists oppose, especially when the
State’.
money earned by these ‘Captains of Industry’ can
The idea is that everyone in a given society receives sway government officials in order to protect the
equal shares of the benefits derived from labour. wealthy at the expense of the working class.
Communism is designed to allow the poor to rise up
Most countries are a mixture of the two economic
and gain financial and social status equal to that of
systems. Where the government encourages private
the middle-class landowners. In order for everyone
enterprise BUT also collect huge taxes so that they
to achieve equality, wealth is redistributed so that
can also provide for their less fortunate.
the members of the upper class are brought down to
the same financial and social level as the middle
class. The father of Communism is
named Karl Marx; the basis for
It is important to note that this system is often born the character Papa Smurf, the
out of a huge disparity in wealth; that is…too many similarities are obvious - even
poor people while most of the country’s wealth is the red clothes reference
held by a small percentage of the population. This is Communism. The series
usually a noble, ruling, royal class and it often ends in “The Smurfs” was written by a Communist as a way to
a violent revolution. highlight the dangers of Capitalism and the benefits of
In a Communist nation, it is important to control Communism. He wrote the character of Gargamel as
information and access to new technology. the gold greedy capitalist bad guy with suspiciously
Generally, the standard of living tends to decline in a Jewish facial features. In this cartoon, people are
Communist nation and access to the ‘temptations’ defined by their jobs, women are marginalised
from wealthier nations can drain the country of it’s (there is only one) and all the goods produced are
workforce…if they are allowed to leave. equally shared, regardless of in individual’s contribution.
This also has an Anti-Jewish feeling and regular spots by
Many believe that Communism is a disincentive for “Imperia”,(Imperialism) the evil, greedy queen and Azrael
people to work hard. If one accepts that human the cat who shares his name with a Jewish angel of
nature is driven by the desire to ‘get ahead’ or to rise death. Communism is referred to as LEFT WING.
in social or financial status, removing that reward,

e. What is Communism?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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f. In what ways is Capitalism different to Communism?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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g. Why might people from Democratic capitalist countries feel threatened by Communism?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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h. Why would the 1930s heighten the conflict between the two forms of economy?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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You would be surprised how many cartoons and children’s nursery rhymes have elements of extremist governments and
freedom limiting economies.
Baa Baa Blacksheep - explores the unfair tax structures of the medieval king Edward 1st.
Sing a Song of Sixpence - 2nd Verse - “The king was in his counting house counting out his money, the queen was in the parlour
eating bread and honey, …” This refers to what common folk imagined the rich, royalty did all day…nothing!!! A huge disparity of wealth
that led to plots of treason.
Jack and Jill - This poem originated in France. The characters refer to King Louis XVI, Jack, and his Queen Marie Antoinette, Jill. Jack
was beheaded (lost his crown) first, then Jill came tumbling after during the Reign of Terror in 1793. A spiteful revolution followed.
London Bridge Is Falling Down - This nursery rhyme refers to the rise and fall of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII of
England. Boleyn was accused of adultery and incest and was ultimately executed for treason. No human rights here.
Three Blind Mice - The vicious farmer's wife in this rhyme is believed to refer to Queen Mary I, the daughter of King Henry VIII. Mary,
a staunch Catholic, was so well known for her persecution of Protestants that she was given the nickname "Bloody Mary." No human
rights there either. When three Protestant bishops were convicted of plotting against Mary, she had them burnt at the stake.

Can you think of any more nursery rhymes that have an economic or extremist government overtones? Write your answers below.