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Introduction

Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus
Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used
in some medicines.[1] It is most commonly used as a drug, and is a valuable cash crop for
countries such as Cuba, India, China, and the United States. Tobacco is a name for any plant
of the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae family (nightshade family) and for the product
manufactured from the leaf and used in cigars and cigarettes, snuff, and pipe and chewing
tobacco. Tobacco plants are also used in plant bioengineering, and some of the 60 species are
grown as ornamentals. The chief commercial species, N. tabacum, is believed native to
tropical America, like most nicotiana plants, but has been so long cultivated that it is no
longer known in the wild. N. rustica, a mild-flavored, fast-burning species, was the tobacco
originally raised in Virginia, but it is now grown chiefly in Turkey, India, and Russia. The
alkaloid nicotine is the most characteristic constituent of tobacco and is responsible for its
addictive nature. The harmful effects of tobacco derive from the thousands of different
compounds generated in the smoke, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as
benzpyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, radioactive polonium-210, tobacco-
specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), phenols, and many others.

In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or


dipping tobacco. Tobacco had long been in use as an entheogen in the Americas, but upon
the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item
and a widely-abused drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern
economy of the United States until it gave way to cotton. Following the American Civil War,
a change in demand and a change in labor force allowed for the development of the
cigarette. This new product quickly led to the growth of tobacco companies. There are more
than 70 species of tobacco in the plant genus Nicotiana. The word nicotiana (as well as
nicotine) is in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a
medicine to the court of Catherine de Medici.

Because of the powerfully addictive properties of nicotine, tolerance and dependence


develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed of tobacco consumption are believed to
be directly related to biological strength of nicotine dependence, addiction, and tolerance.[4][5]
The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3
of the adult population.[6] The World Health Organization(WHO) reports it to be the leading
preventable cause of death worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million
deaths per year.[7] Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, but
continue to rise in developing countries.

Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames
or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is
an annual crop, which is usually harvested mechanically or by hand. After harvest, tobacco
is stored for curing, which allows for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids.
This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties that are usually attributed to
the "smoothness" of the smoke. Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of
consumption, which include smoking, chewing, snuffing, and so on. Most cigarettes
incorporate flue-cured tobacco, which produces a milder, more inhalable smoke. Use of low
pH, inhalable, flue cured tobacco is one of the principal reasons smoking causes lung cancer
and other diseases association with smoke inhalation.

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Chapter I
In this chapter, you will learn about Tobacco History and Factors Influencing Tobacco Production in
Company. Those lines will be explained in terms of about history tobacco, soil, and climate.

Tobacco History The “prehistoric history” of tobacco begins in Central America


before the birth of Christ. The natives some carvings of priests
smoking as a part of sunworships. Nicotiana tabacum is a sub
tropical plant in origin, and it’s special taste and aroma have been
known in central America for perhaps two thousand years –
certainly for the last fifteen hundred. The first picture of tobacco
smoking is thought to be the old man of Palenque, carved in stone
in Mexico. The temple in which the carving was found dates from
about 600 A.D.

The written history of tobacco begins on october 12, 1492, when


Christopher Colombus reached the beaches of San Salvador in the
West Indies. The natives brought fruit, wooden spears, and
“certain dried leaves” which gave off a distinct fragrance.

Later voyagers found that the use of tobacco was quite common
in the New World and evidence suggested that it had been for
hundreds of years. It appears that tobacco was being cultivated in
North and South America from Northern Canada to the lower
boders of Brazil; and it was consumed in the form of cigars,
cigarettes, snuff, chewing, and pipe smoking.

The word “ tobacco” originally was applied by the natives to the


tube or pipe in which the leaf was smoked. In Mexico, estern U.S
and Canada the tobacco grown and uses was Nicotiana rustica, a
small – leaved type very high in nicotine content and so bitter it
was generally smoked in a pipe. Wild tobaccos of severals species
grew west of the Cardillers, in North and South America mainly
in the temperate zones. It, too was harsh and small leaved; yet the
natives smoked it. Tall, broad leaved tobacco, N.Tabacum was
being grown in northern and estern South America and Central
America. Nicotiana tabacum probably originated in Brazil or
Central America.

The spaniards began culture of tobacco in Haiti in 1531 with seed


obtained in Mexico and production was extended to other
neighboring islands. Culture was begin in Cuba in 1580 and was
soon extended to the Guianas and Brazil. Tobacco was introduced
in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the last half of the sixteenth
century. Thus, the use of tobacco had become established in
nearly all parts of the world before it’s culture was begin at
Jamestown, thereby providing a wide foreign market. The
Spanish settlers in The Spanish settlers in the West Indies were
already engaged in exporting the leaf.

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Factors Influencing
Tobacco Production

Soil Flue-cured tobacco is grown on a wide range of soil types;


however, it does best on sandy loam and loamy sand, with 10 to
14 inches of topsoil above a yellow to red, well-drained clay
subsoil. The more sandy soils generally produce a lower yield and
often a less desirable quality because of the difficulty in
maintaining sufficient moisture and fertilizer nutrients in the soil.
The soils with finer texture, such as clay loams and clays usually
produce good yields, but often the nitrogen level is so high the
quality of the leaf is adversely affected.

Some have thought that varieties with a low nicotine level and
poor balance of chemical constituents would be greatly improved
when produced on the heavier soils of the Piedmont area which
normally has less rainfall as compared to the coastal plains area.
Tests conducted in N.C. over a three-year period (1956-1958)
suggested that a variety, inherently undesirable chemically, is no
improved when produced in different environments although the
levels of specific constituents can be altered in this way.

- Sub Soiling
Flue-cured tobacco is not commonly grown on soils that have a
true hard pan layer; however, a compaction layer is sometimes
developed 10-15 inches at the plow sole, particularly on certain
soil types commonly found in the Coastal Plains. Also, in some
deep sandy soils a hard sandy layer develops between the AP and
A2 layers which tobacco roots do not readily penetrate. A large
majority of the tobacco roots can be found in the top ten to twelve
inches of soil regardless of whether or not there is a noticeable
compaction layer. This restriction of root systems is probably
associated with several factors such as low pH, calcium and
phosphorus below the plow layer, and physical barriers.

Surveys by county agents indicate the ripping (sub-soiling) of


tobacco soils in North Carolina in-creased from approximately 15
percent of the acreage in 1981 to 22 percent in 1982. In some soils,
particularly in the coastal plain, a tillage (or hard) pan my form
about 10-15 inches deep. This pan may restrict root development,
which can also decrease the uptake of water and nutrients from
soil below the hard pan. Since rate of nitrogen fertilization greatly
affects tobacco quality, the rate used on ripped tobacco quality,
the rate used on ripped tobacco land may need close regulation
because deeper root system may absorb more of the applied
nitrogen and other nutrients than would restricted root systems
on nonripped land.

The results of ripping and nitrogen rates on tobacco yield and


quality are shown in table 11. The nitrogen rate variable was
obtained in each test by varying the rates of sidedress nitrogen.

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Substantial yield responses to ripping were obtained in 6 of 11
tests in the relatively dry 1981 season, and in 5 of 12 tests in the
wetter 1982 season. Ripping has improved yields on Piedmont as
well as on Coastal Plains soils, but the improvement generally has
been greater and more consistent in the Coastal Plain, where soils
with hard pans are more predominant. In these tests, soils
classified in the Norfolk, Wagram, Tomotley, and Marlboro series
generally have been responsive to ripping; soils classified as
Goldsboro and Cecil have not responded to ripping.
Ripping tended to improve leaf quality in 1981, especially in the
Coastal Plain, but had no consistent effect in 1982. The improved
quality and yields in 1981 probably occurred because plants in
subsoiled plots were subjected to less moisture stress during dry
periods, particularly on the lighter-textured Coastal Plain soils.
Rainfall was adequate to excessive at most test sites in 1982.
However, the generally higher yields obtained with ripping in
1982 indicate that better access to soil moisture may not be the
only beneficial effect of ripping on some soils. It should be noted
that increasing nitrogen rate in 1981 tended to reduce quality
index whether or not ripping was used. However, ripping was as
effective in increasing yields as was adding more nitrogen; and
the yields increase was not associated with a quality reduction
which often occurs when excessive nitrogen is used. Therefore, on
some ripped soils, nitrogen rate may be reduced without
reducing yield, and leaf quality may be increased.

Since the results obtained with ripping are dependent on soil


type, yields may not be increased as much as those shown in table
1.1. When subsoiling is done, it should be just deep enough to
break the hard layer. Do not apply fertilizers or fumigants so they
are deposited below the hard layer.

Table 1.1 : Effects of Ripping and Nitrogen Rate on Tobacco yield and quality in 23 on-
Farm Tests, in 1981 and 1982 conducted by G. F. peeding.

1981 1982 2-yr. Avg.*


Yield Yield Yield
N Rate Ripped lbs / A QI** lbs / A QI lbs / A QI

Suggested – 20% No 2515 40 2222 31 2360 35


Yes 2701 41 2355 32 2518 36
Suggested – 20% No 2662 38 2302 31 2471 34
Yes 2757 40 2393 31 2564 35
Suggested – 20% No 2654 36 2347 31 2491 33
Yes 2803 38 2496 29 2640 33
*Averages of tests conducted in Alamance, Alexander, Beaufort, Columbus, Guilford
(2), Greene, Johnston (2), Lenoir, Martin, Nash, Person (2), Pitt, Rockingham, Surry,
Wake, Wayne (2), Warren, Wilson, and Vance Cos.
*Two-year average. Quality Index is a 1-99 rating based on government grades. Higher
values indicate better quality.

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- Soil Erosion
Two factors that must be dealt with many tobacco soils are
erosion and drainage. Many tobacco soils, especially those in
Piedmont area, have enough slope that water erosion is a major
problem. The surface soils are sandy loams and loamy sands and
are quite subject to erosion, but as the use of larger equipment
becomes more general, use of terraces has become less popular.
Short rows, which are usually necessary with terraces, are not
practical with multirow equipment. In recent years, parallel strips
and parallel terraces are becoming more popular on tobacco
farms as a means of controlling water erosion and eliminating the
necessity of having short rows.

In the large fields, and especially those with a sandy topsoil, wind
erosion can be a major problem during the spring when there is
little or no soil cover. Damage may come from the loss of soil
from the fields; however, the most serious loss usually is
associated with actual plant damage. The small plants are tender
and are quite subject to sand abrasions or burn. This type damage
may result in slow early growth or in extreme cases the plants
may be killed or wounded for disease causing organisms to enter.
Also, in some cases blowing sand may cover or partially cover
newly transplanted plants, which results in slow growth or death
of the plant. Some temporary protection against wind erosion can
be obtained from cultivation or irrigation immediately prior to the
windy period, but some form of windbreak is the only
dependable insurance against this hazard. A hedgerow of thickly
planted evergreen trees running perpendicular to the prevailing
wind will good wind protection. For additional protection, a strip
of small grain, preferably rye, every four to eight rows of tobacco,
perpendicular to the wind, is quite effective. The small grain can
be destroyed after the danger of damaging winds has passed.
Some growers have found that it is advisable to plant the strips of
small grain wide enough to justify harvesting the grain, but is
more often limited to a band only a few inches wide.

- Drowning
Drowning in tobacco is caused by free water accumulating in the
root zone to the extent that air, or more specifically oxygen, is not
available to the roots. A lack of oxygen in the soil causes the roots
to die; therefore, the plants cannot pick up enough water to keep
the leaves turgid so they wilt and in extreme cases die. The extent
of damage to the roots is dependent upon how high the “ponded”
water comes up on the root system and how long it stays there.
This type of “ponding” of water in the root zone can come from
poor surface drainage causing fields to be flooded, but more
frequently it occurs when large quantities of water enter the soil,
but cannot easily pass through the hardpan layer or into a poorly
drained, impervious clay subsoil.

The rate and degree of recovery from drowning is dependent

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upon many factors including severity of damage, freedom from
diseases and whether following drowning. If essentially all of the
root system is killed up to the soil surface there is a little or no
chance of recovery. However, if only the lower 20-25% of the
roots are damage, recovery may be good if favorable weather
follows the drowning. Favorable weather for good recovery
means warm, but not excessively hot temperatures, with frequent,
light rains to keep the top 6 to 8 inches of soil reasonably moist, so
that the top roots can function most efficiently.

The first precaution against water damage is to select fields that


have good surface and subsurface drainage. On fields with poor
or questionable internal drainage tile would probably be a good
investment.

The second precaution is to plant on a high row ridge and


maintain a good ridge throughout the cultivation period and than
build up an even larger ridge at the last cultivation. The row ridge
serves at least two purposes in avoiding water damage. The ridge
will give a “house-top” effect which will shed some of the excess
water to the row middles and then help drain it out of the fields.
This will reduce the amount of water that pass through the
fertilized zone, which in turn reduces leaching.

Also, if the plants are on a large, high ridge, a larger portion of the
roots will be above the openings in the row middles, which means
more of the root will be above the soil which in waterlogged and
therefore, less roots will be killed by ponded water in the soil.
High row ridges may be especially helpful on soils that have poor
internal drainage and are subject to drowning. Roots damaged
when drowning occurs have increased susceptibility to invasion
of root disease-causing organisms; and the excess water favors the
development of water “loving” organisms such as those that
cause Granville Wilt.

- Rotations
Where possible, tobacco should be planted in rotation with other
crops primarily as a means of helping to control tobacco diseases
by denying the causal agent a suitable plant on which it can feed
and multiply for as long a period of time as possible. Certain
crops which are suggested to rotate with tobacco to help with the
management of specific diseases are shown in Table 63 in the
Disease chapter

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Figure 1.1 : A well planned rotation is essential for the control
Of tobacco diseases. Since tobacco is a high income crop, the
rotation should be directed toward co is a high income crop, the
Rot the best advantage for tobacco.

Source : Principle of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

For best disease control it is suggested that the cropping system


be shifted from time to time rather than following a definite
pattern. In other words, “rotate the rotation”.

One of the problems of growing tobacco in rotation with other


crops is controlling the quantity of nitrogen available to the
tobacco. Except on the deep, sandy soils that are highly leachable,
legumes to immediately precede tobacco are not recommended
because of the unpredictable quantity of nitrogen that will be left
for the tobacco crop. It is impossible to determine how much
nitrogen is left in the soil from the legume; therefore, it is almost
impossible to know how much to adjust the quantity of nitrogen
being applied to the tobacco crop. Also, the fertilization of other
crops in the rotation may need to be considered in fertilizing the
tobacco crop. On soils normally used for tobacco there is seldom a
significant quantity of applied nitrogen carried over from one
year to the next, except under abnormally dry conditions.
However, under continuous application of large quantities of
nitrogen, such as are often used on corn, on soils with a relatively
shallow topsoil, the general fertility of the soil may be increased
enough to be reflected in the following tobacco crop. By growing
continuous tobacco it is usually easier to control the quantity of
nitrogen available to the tobacco than when it is grown in rotation
with most other crops.

The desire to increase the tobacco acreage on a given farm and to


use fields located more conveniently to barns and water supplies,
creates a stronger interest in planting continuous tobacco. Since
soil structure and buildup of organic matter are not major
considerations in managing tobacco soils, if diseases can be
controlled satisfactorily by other techniques, tobacco can be
successfully grown without the aid of rotation. By using more
resistant varieties, chemicals, and practicing early stalk and root
destruction for disease control, about one-third of the U.S. crop is
being grown in fields planted to continuous tobacco.

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It is generally not thought practical to attempt to build up the
organic matter content of the sandy soils in southeastern U.S.
commonly used for flue-cured tobacco; however, turning under a
reasonably heavy quantity of crop residue prior to planting a
tobacco crop will improve the physical condition and the water-
holding capacity of the soil.

If extremely large quantities of crop residue are to be turned


before a tobacco crop, it should be at least partially incorporated
into the soil during the fall. Excessive quantities of undecayed
vegetation make land preparation and tobacco transplanting
difficult. The decaying process for large quantities of crop residue
requires large quantities of nitrogen. If the decomposition process
is occurring at the time the tobacco crop needs the nitrogen, the
tobacco might suffer temporary nitrogen deficiency. This would
again suggest that the residue should be incorporated in the soil
during the fall rather than immediately preceeding the time
tobacco is transplanted. It is also better to have the vegetation
incorporated into all the soil in the plow layer rather than have it
all at the bottom of the plow layer. A thick layer of crop residue at
the bottom of the plow layer may form a partial barrier for
upward moving water during drought periods. The question is
sometimes raised as to whether the use of a cover crop during the
winter between two tobacco crops would be advantageous. First,
a leguminous cover crop would leave an undesirably large
quantity of nitrogen in the soil. Second, a winter cover crop of
small grain would give no more protection against erosion than if
the field was left rough from the stalk and root destruction of the
previous tobacco crop. Very little, if any, reduction in nematodes
has been found from the use of the cover crop and no consistent
improvement in the tobacco crop has been measured. These
factors suggest that cover crops per se have very little to offer in a
tobacco production program. Also, population of wireworms and
cutworms may be increased as a result of a cover crop.
Climate
Tobacco originated in a subtropical area, but with the help of man
is being grown as far north as about 600 N latitude and as far
south as 400 S latitude. Flue-Cured tobacco must have at least 120
frost-free days for field growth if optimum maturity is slowed
down by low temperatures, moisture stress, or any other factor,
120 days may not be long enough for full maturity to be reached.

Flue-cured tobacco can tolerate short durations of temperatures


just above the frost point and a high of at least 110 OF without
seriously affecting the plants: however, the crop seems to perform
best with night temperatures of 65-70 OF and day temperature of
85-90 OF.

Plants subjected to average daily temperatures below 60 OF make


very limited dry matter accumulation. Plants grown under low

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temperatures tend to have shorter than normal internodes and the
upper leaves are long and narrow. Low temperatures during the
first four to five weeks after transplanting contribute to flowering
with fever than normal leaves.

During the period from about four weeks after transplanting until
topping time the evapotransporation rate is about one inch per
week. During the early and late parts of the growing season the
rate is somewhat lower than for mid-period. Thus, if rainfall is
depended upon to supply the crop needs for water, the ran
should be frequent enough and in sample quantities to prevent
the soil moisture level from becoming sufficiently low to seriously
restrict plant development. On the sandy and sandy loam soils
most commonly used for flue-cured tobacco production, about 1
to 1.5 inches of rain during a week to ten-day period are usually
adequate for maximum tobacco growth.

Even though a continuous supply of soil moisture at levels


sufficient to create no moisture stress will promote faster plant
growth, some moisture stress for short periods of time are not
considered serious. In fact, there is some information which
suggests that slight moisture stress prior to the time the crop is
knee-high might be beneficial to the crop.

A slight moisture shortage during this period tends to encourage


root penetration, which may help plant growth later. Also, some
people believe that slight moisture stresses, early in the growing
season, encourage the production of those constituents that are
associated with aroma, and good smoking qualities of the leaf.

- Hail
Tobacco leaves are easy to bruise, tear, and break, and since the
leaves are the marketable part of the plant a small hail storm can
be quite damaging to tobacco. In fact, it is not uncommon for a 10
to 15 minute hail storm to completely destroy a crop.

Even though hail can damage or completely destroy tobacco


plants during any period of growth, this crop has the ability to
make remarkable recovery through the use of suckers. In most
cases, even though the leaves are destroyed by hail the roots are
not damaged: thus, by cutting off the stalks a few inches above
the soil a sucker will develop which will produce leaves of
marketable quality.
When hail destroys tobacco within two or three weeks after
transplanting, the grower has the opportunity of planting the crop
again and producing a crop from the suckers. Of these two
choices, the data in table 9 suggest that growing a crop from the
original plants could be expected to be best. From these tests it is
interesting to note that when the plants were cut off as late as six
weeks after transplanting

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Figure 1.2 : Hail damage may range from sligth to complete
destruction, but the actual loss is usually not as great as it first
appears.

Source : Principle of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

The value of the crop was more than half that of the check plots.
In these tests extra nitrogen when the crop was planted late or cut
off was not profitable.

The degree of success of growing a crop of tobacco from suckers


after hail destruction is dependent upon many factory, such as
length of growing season after hail, the age of the crop when
destroyed, growing conditions after the plants are cut off, and
freedom dieses. Two problems that have been observed after
tobacco is cut off are :

(1) If the roots are damaged by nematodes, wireworms,


fumigants, fertilizer salts, herbicides, or drowned the suckers
fail to make adequate growth.
(2) During the operation of cutting off the stalks, if some plants
are infested with mosaic this disease is spread to a very large
percent of the plants in the field. The spread of mosaic may be
kept to a minimum by using an abrasive hand soap and
dipping the knife and hands in a phosphate-containing soap
solution or milk periodically to inactivate the mosaic virus.

The degree of hail damage may range from slight to complete


destruction: therefore, the extent of damage must be considered
along with the age of the crop and condition of the root system
when deciding whether or not to cut off the crop after hail
damage. A rule of thumb that might be used in reaching a
decision on whether or not to cut off the plant is that “if the crop
can be expected to produce 50 percent or more of a normal crop
from salvaging leaves on the plant or still in the bud, don’t cut
off”. However, in the more severely damaged crops it will
probably be advisable to cut the plants off and attempt to grow a
crop from suckers.

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Regardless of the size of the crop when it is cut off, there will be
extra work in growing a crop from sucker. After the plants are cut
off the crop will need at least one and possibly two cultivations to
control the grass and weeds until the suckers get large enough to
shade the soil. Whether a herbicide was applied and whether
applied broadcast or band applied should be considered. Most
plants will start producing two to five suckers all but one should
be removed by hand. If two or more suckers per plant are left on
the stalk the leaves will be small and of low quality.

Table 1.2 : Recovery of Flue-Cured Tobacco After Simulates Hail Destruction 1/ 5 tests
1968

Treatment Yield / A Value / A Price / cwt.


(lbs.) ($) ($)

Check 2260 1514 66.78


(Percent of check) (%) (%) (%)
Check + 15 lbs. N 101 100 98
Delayed planting
1 week 96 93 97
2weeks 91 87 95
3weeks 87 80 92
5 weeks 55 45 83
5 weeks + 15 lbs. N 57 45 81

Cut-off
2 weeks 92 88 95
4 weeks 86 80 93
6 weeks 64 56 88
8 weeks 33 28 66
8 weeks + 15 lbs. N 32 27 66

1/ Tests conducted by Dr. W. G. Woltz, N. C. Stat University

Other simulated hail studies (Table 1.3) using hail adjustment procedures in effect in 1970-71
show reductions in yield and value were grossly overestimated when compared to actual
reductions. Adjustments have been changed to be less liberal; however, the procedures
continue to overestimate actual losses.

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Table 1.3 :Effects of simulated damage on yield, value, and price of flue cured tobacco.11
locations 1970-71

Yield Value Price % Reduction


Treatments Lbs / A $/A $ / cwt. in value

Control 2553 1891 76.44 0

12.5% damage, 2477 1891 76.02 3


10-leaf stage

25% damage, 2407 1834 75.97 6


10-leaf stage

25% damage, 2391 1833 76.37 6


Topping stage

50% damage, 2195 1665 75.54 15


Topping stage

L.S.D. .05 91 72 .49


.01 121 96 .66
C.V. % 6 6 1

Tests conducted by S. N. Hawks, Jr., W. K. Collins, and B. U. Kittrell

The hail studies have practical implications in regards to crop


insurance and insect management programs.

The studies clearly show tobacco can withstand considerable leaf


“damage” without any decrease in yield or price. This indicates
that it would be wise or a given amount of money spent on hail
insurance to take excess over 10 percent insurance. In this case, the
grower would self-insure the first 10 percent of “damage” which is
no actual damage unless associated with a major loss which in this
case a large insurance policy could be bought for a given amount of
money. And, with major loss the value of unused quota would be
present to carry forward for use the next year or possibly lease and
transfer during the current crop year.
The hail studies provide additional confidence in the use of
thresholds to determine when to apply chemicals for insect
management. Tobacco can withstand considerable populations of
insect without any decrease in yield or quality. Tobacco has an
amazing ability to compensate for apparent leaf losses.

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Summary
The written history of tobacco begins on october 12, 1492, when Christopher Colombus
reached the beaches of San Salvador in the West Indies. The natives brought fruit, wooden

The “prehistoric history” of tobacco begins in Central America before the birth of Christ.
The natives some carvings of priests smoking as a part of sunworships. Nicotiana tabacum is a
sub tropical plant in origin, and it’s special taste and aroma have been known in central
America for perhaps two thousand years – certainly for the last fifteen hundred. The first
picture of tobacco smoking is thought to be the old man of Palenque, carved in stone in
Mexico. The temple in which the carving was found dates from about 600 A.D.

spears, and “certain dried leaves” which gave off a distinct fragrance.
Flue-cured tobacco is grown on a wide range of soil types; however, it does best on sandy
loam and loamy sand, with 10 to 14 inches of topsoil above a yellow to red, well-drained
clay subsoil. The more sandy soils generally quality because of the difficulty in maintaining
sufficient moisture and fertilizer nutrients in the soil. The soils with finer texture, such as
clay loams and clays usually produce good yields, but often the nitrogen level is so high the
quality of the leaf is adversely affected.

Some have thought that varieties with a low nicotine level and poor balance of chemical
constituents would be greatly improved when produced on the heavier soils of the
piedmont area which normally has less rainfall as compared to the coastal plains area. Tests
conducted in N.C. over a three-year period (1956-1958) suggested that a variety, inherently
undesirable chemically, is no improved when produced in different environments although
the levels of specific constituents can be altered in this way.

A slight moisture shortage during this period tends to encourage root penetration, which
may help plant growth later. Also, some people believe that slight moisture stresses, early in
the growing season, encourage the production of those constituents that are associated with
aroma, and good smoking qualities of the leaf.

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Quiz 1
Short Answer Questions

Answer the following questions briefly.

1. What factors influence the production of tobacco?

2. What is causing drowning in tobacco?

3. How to control erosion at Tobacco Farm?

4. What is the function of the rotation of the tobacco plant with other crops?

5. What the problems of growing tobacco in rotation with other crops?

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Chapter II
In this chapter, you will learn about Taxonomy and Morphology Tobacco. Those lines will be
explained in terms of about burley tobacco, oriental tobacco, virginia tobacco.
Taxonomy Scientific Classification :
Kingdom : Plantae
Class : Magnoliopsida
Ordo : Solanales
Family : Solanaceae
Genus : Nicotiana
Species : N. Tabacum

There are 4 type Tobacco :

Burley Tobacco Within the classification of Light Air-Cured, Burley tobacco is by


far the most significant in terms of use. Originally, Burley was
produced as a dark heavy type of tobacco. Records suggest that
current varieties of Burley are derived from the White Burley
mutant obtained in Ohio, USA in 1864. Although dark heavy
Burley is still being produced and used in pipe tobacco blends, it
is diminishing in world trade. On the other hand, the Light Air-
Cured Burley is of growing importance because of the growing
popularity of US blended cigarettes, in which it forms a key
component.

Figure 2.1 : Burley Tobacco Plant

Source: Tobacco Encyclopedia, 1984.

Like Flue-Cured, a short water stress period of 3 weeks following


planting out is desirable to encourage extensive and deep root
growth. Adequate rains are required subsequently for a steady
uninterrupted vegetative growth until topping. Thereafter,a
tailing off of rainfall will contribute to proper ripening. Excessive
rainfall towards the maturity phase can be deleterious to crop
quality, yield and curing. Unlike Flue-Cured, Burley which is air-
cured requires a distinct dry period during the curing season.
Unduly high humidity during curing will extend curing time
leading to barn rot. Thin-bodied fluffy Burley is desirable. Where

Tobacco Characteristics 15 7/7/2017


growing conditions allow, this can be achieved by increasing
plant population density.

Compared to Flue-Cured, Burley varieties, with their more


upright leaf disposition, allows for higher plant density by
reducing the between plant spacing in a row. Most Burley crops
are grown at higher population densities of between 20,000 to
30,000 plants/ha.

Taking into account the nutrients available in the soil, a sound


fertilization program should ensure adequate supply of both the
major and minor nutrients. Among the major nutrients, nitrogen
is the most important. A Burley crop normally requires 2-3 times
as much nitrogen as a Flue-Cured crop to produce the same yield.
An optimum rate of nitrogen fertilization specific to the growing
environment is desirable as under or over fertilization with
nitrogen can both negatively impact on yield and/or quality.

Flavor style Flue-Cured is topped early (bud stage) and low (16-
20 leaves per plant) to produce a thick, heavy and flavorsome
tobacco. Unlike Flue-Cured, Burley is normally topped later (early
flowering) and higher (20-22 leaves/plant) to produce a thinner,
more fluffy,and more stretchy style that is desirable for Burley
tobacco. Such a style of Burley is very absorbent and is considered
a good “drinker” of the casings that are often applied on Burley
tobaccos during processing.

Like all tobacco plants, Burley leaves ripen from the bottom to the
top of the plant. Compared to Flue-Cured, a Burley leaf is
considered ripe at an earlier stage of senescence and a higher
degree of over-ripeness is tolerable. This wider tolerance for
ripeness allows for the traditional harvesting method called stalk
cutting. Stalks are cut below the bottom-most leaf when the
bottom leaves are full yellow (fully ripe) and the top leaves have
completely filled out, and fully expanded with a leaves of a
Burley crop grown in the tropics have yellow tinge (early
senescence). The bottom the tendency to ripen fast. Under such
situations, it may be advisable to reap the 4-6 bottom leaves,
allowing more time for the top leaves to fill out and ripen before
stalk cutting the remaining leaves. These bottom leaves can either
be stitched or tied to a curing stick for air-curing under shade.

The bottom ends of 5-8 stalk cut plants are then spiked through a
1.5 m long stick. The plants are then left to wilt in the field for a
couple of days. This wilting process will reduce the weight
(moisture) somewhat and minimize breakage when transferring
from the field to the curing barn.

In the barn, the sticks of stalk cut plants are evenly spaced out on
tiers with the plants hanging upside down. The leaves gradually
dry out turning from light green to yellow and finally to various

Tobacco Characteristics 16 7/7/2017


shades of brown. This natural drying process (no artificial heat)
under shade is referred to as air-curing. It is important to time the
planting of a Burley crop so that curing takes place during the
drier part of the year. High humidity during curing can reduce
the final yield and quality of a well-grown crop. Without artificial
heating, the rate of drying can be controlled by manipulating:

1. The density of tobacco in the barn by adjusting the number of


stalks/stick and the spacing of the sticks on a tier;
2. The top and side ventilators where available.

The objective of air-curing is to gradually dry the leaf to produce


a cured product of uniform tan to light brown colors without
allowing the leaf to rot. Too fast a drying rate will result in a less
desirable light brown leaf with a yellowish tinge.

The color of the final cured product ranges from shades of light
tan through reddish to brown colors with a clear absence of a
yellow tinge. It is the extended air-curing process that results in
the oxidation of almost all sugars in the leaf. A well-cured Burley
leaf normally contains less than 1% sugar with no traces of
yellow.

Depending on weather conditions, the whole air-curing process


normally takes 4-6 weeks by which time the stems should have
dried out. When all the stems have completely dried out, the
sticks are unloaded at a suitable time of the day when leaves are
at the right condition for handling (12%-14% MC). The stalks are
then removed from the sticks and each stalk is stripped off its
cured leaves for grading and packing.

Oriental Tobacco As with all commercial tobacco varieties, Oriental tobacco


varieties belong to the species N. tabacum. Literature suggests
that current day varieties evolved from tobacco varieties brought
in from the Americas about 300 years ago. The so-called Turkish
cigarettes containing 100% Oriental tobacco were once popular in
Oriental tobacco producing countries like Turkey, Bulgaria,
Greece, and Yugoslavia.

However, with the growing popularity of US blended cigarettes,


very few brands in Europe now contain 100% Oriental tobaccos.
The result of this is a gradual decline in production from 946
million kg in 1976 down to 485 million kg in 2002. This decline
has persisted over the past five years as illustrated in Table 1.6.
From the same table, the largest producer of Oriental is Turkey,
accounting for more than a third of the world’s production in
recent years. Greece, Macedonia, and Bulgaria are significant
producers. Some attempt at diversifying the source from the
Mediterranean countries has been made in recent years with some
success. Today, Thailand and China -Yunnan are exporters of
Oriental albeit in relatively small quantities.

Tobacco Characteristics 17 7/7/2017


High aroma Oriental is normally produced under nutrient and
moisture stress. The Mediterranean climate with its wet winter
and hot dry summer is ideal for raising Oriental. Crops planted
out in spring grow rapidly on residual soil moisture from winter
rains. Occasional showers are received during the early growth
phase but the crop grows into the hot dry summer under severe
moisture stress. Harvesting and curing of the crop normally take
place in July and August when temperatures are high and
sunshine hours are long.

High winter rainfall results in eroded soils with a thin topsoil and
low nitrogen reserves along hill slopes where aromatic Oriental is
normally grown. The low moisture and low soil fertility with little
fertilizer used put a lot of stress on the growing plants. Such
plants are characterized by small leaves with lengths ranging
from 8-25 cm and width ½- of the length. Midribs and veins are
fine with a stem content of only 5% by weight compared to 25%
for Burley and Flue-Cured. Oriental is used in the whole leaf form
for blending in the primary because of its small size and low
content of thin stems.

As Oriental is grown under nutrient and moisture stress, the


plant (Figure 2.2) is characteristically narrow with very small
leaves. To maximize yield per unit area, high plant population is
the norm. Plants per hectare vary tremendously from as low as
250,000 in Greece to as high as 415,000 in Turkey as seen in the
data below.

Figure 2.2 : Oriental Tobacco Plant

Source: Grading System Izmir Oriental, 1998.

This plant population density is about 10-16 times higher than a


Burley or Flue-Cured crop respectively. Despite the higher
population, yields ranging between 700-1,200 kg/ha are far lower
than Flue-Cured or Burley yields which reach up to 2,000-3,000 kg
per hectare respectively.
Traditionally, no fertilizers are used. If used at all for boosting

Tobacco Characteristics 18 7/7/2017


yield, rates are very conservative relative to Flue-Cured or Burley.
Nutrient rates commonly used are shown in the following.

Traditionally, crops are not irrigated. For the same reason as


fertilizer usage, farmers irrigate conservatively once or twice
when conditions are too dry. Over irrigation will produce bigger
Oriental leaf with lower aroma, which is less marketable.

Almost all Oriental crops are not topped. Left un-topped, the
plants grow to heights ranging from 60-150 cm with 20-30
harvestable leaves per plant.

Like Flue-Cured and Burley, the leaves ripen from the bottom to
the top of the plant. Hence leaves are picked in successive
primings starting at the bottom of the plant, progressing upwards
as the leaves mature. Oriental is harvested at about 6 weeks after
planting. Three to five leaves are picked at each priming. Leaves
harvested at the same priming are called a “hand” and they
should exhibit the same degree of maturity. At the harvesting rate
of 3-5 leaves per priming, it will take 6-7 primings to complete
harvesting a crop. Like the Flue-Cured crop in the USA, growers
are reducing the number of primings through a crop to reduce
labor hours.

After priming, the leaves are threaded on to strings using an


improvised needle to sew through the midrib, about 1.5 cm from
its base. Natural cotton strings are normally used. Stringing is a
laborious process as it involves handling 5-10 million small leaves
per hectare compared to about 250,000 to 600,000 big
leaves/hectare for Flue-Cured or Burley.

The string of leaves is then stretched across wooden frames and


allowed to wilt for 2 days before exposing it to direct sunlight for
sun-curing (Figure 2.3). Depending on weather conditions, the
curing process takes 7-15 days. At the end of sun-curing when all
the midribs have dried out, the strings are bulked for another 10-
15 days. When weather conditions allow the leaves to pick up
adequate moisture, the leaves are then baled for sale.

Tobacco Characteristics 19 7/7/2017


Figure 2.3 : The String of Oriental Tobacco Leaves

Source: CDP Collection, 2003.

Colors of the final cured leaf can vary from dull lemon at the
bottom through yellow brown to rich dark brown at the top. Very
often a tinge of green is noticeable especially in the upper leaves.
Upstalk leaves, though smaller, are preferred because of their
higher aroma intensity.

One can expect a moisture stressed crop to be high in nicotine.


Contrary to expectation, Oriental tobaccos are relatively low in
nicotine, because they are grown very close together, with
negligible fertilizers on poor soils and without topping.

Nicotine averages around 1% and rarely exceeds 2%. Although


nicotine is noticeably higher up the stalk, nicotine differentiation
by stalk position is less obvious than for Burley or Flue-Cured.
Sugars averaging around 10% are between the 1% for Burley and
15% for Flue-Cured.

Virginia Tobacco or Flue-Cured tobacco is sometimes referred to as Virginia tobacco


Flue-Cured or Virginia Flue-Cured tobacco because of past dominance in
world trade of this tobacco type originating from Virginia, USA.
With the widespread cultivation of Virginia varieties worldwide,
this tobacco type is now commonly and appropriately referred to
as Flue-Cured tobacco. The name is derived from the flues used
for curing this tobacco type. By definition, an English or Virginia
cigarette uses exclusively Flue-Cured tobaccos in the blend.
However, other cigarette types like a modified Virginia or a
typical US blended cigarette will contain varying proportions of
Flue-Cured tobacco as well.

Tobacco Characteristics 20 7/7/2017


Figure 2.4 : Flue-Cured Tobacco Plant

Source: Tobacco Encyclopedia, 1984.

Flue-Cured tobacco can be grown in a wide variety of soils.


However, good quality Flue-Cured can only be produced in light
sandy loams which should not be too fertile as soil nitrogen
depletion is necessary to allow for proper leaf ripening during
harvesting. As tobacco roots are susceptible to oxygen starvation
during flooding, sandy loam soils are ideal because of their free
drainage. Soil chloride content in excess of 40 ppm will result in
high leaf chloride content which retards burn rate. The industry
norm is to use tobacco with leaf chloride content not exceeding
1%.

Ideally, a Flue-Cured crop should be subjected to moisture stress


during the first 3 weeks of growth followed by adequate rains for
the crop to grow normally. Just after topping, a period of
relatively dry weather is desirable for the leaf maturity phase.
Excessive rain during leaf harvesting will lower the potential
yield and quality of the crop.

Most Flue-Cured crops are planted on ridges to reduce the risk of


flooding and enhance root growth for improved anchorage and
nicotine as nicotine is synthesized in the roots. Plant population
density has a significant impact on the quality desired. To grow a
high flavored, high nicotine, and bodied Flue-Cured crop like in
the USA and Brazil, cropping to a low density of 14,000 to 16,000
plants/ha is normally practiced. Higher densities ranging from
25,000 to 30,000 plants/ha are normally used to produce low
nicotine, low flavor, and thin-bodied filler crops in Philippines,
Italy, and China.
As with other crops, a balanced nutrition is essential. Of all the
elements, nitrogen plays the major role in determining quality.
Nitrogen should be available to the crop during the growth
phase. As the crop ripens, towards the leaf harvesting phase, soil
nitrogen should near depletion. Rich soils or soils with high
organic matter will continuously release nitrogen to the crop,

Tobacco Characteristics 21 7/7/2017


extending the leaf ripening phase to the detriment of leaf quality.

Flue-Cured tobacco is normally topped early by removing the


flower buds, leaving 16-20 leaves on the plant. This standard
practice has several advantages as follows:
- Increasing leaf size and thickness;
- Resulting in a significant yield increase;
- Increasing nicotine by increasing root mass; roots being
the sites for nicotine synthesis;
- Improving flavor and taste characteristics of the tobacco.

A tobacco leaf is ready for picking only when it is ripe. A ripe leaf
is characterized by a pale green to slight yellow color at the
bottom of the plant to nearly full yellow at the top. As leaves
ripen sequentially from the bottom to the top of the plant, it is
normal to start harvesting 2-3 leaves from the bottom of the plant
progressing upwards until the last top-most leaf is picked. In low
labor cost situation, Flue-Cured is primed by hand as is
traditionally done. However, in USA and Canada, where labor
cost is high, mechanical harvesters are used to harvest a 16 leaf-
crop within 3 passes and increasingly in a single pass. While
mechanical harvesting reduces labor hours significantly, it
inevitably does not ensure that all leaves are picked at optimum
ripeness.

Harvested leaves should be loaded into the curing barn


preferably on the day they are picked. The conventional way is to
either manually or mechanically tie the leaves on to 1.5 m long
sticks. The sticks carrying 80-120 leaves each are spaced out
equally on tiers in a barn. The conventional barn depends on
updraft of warm air generated by the flue pipes on the floor. The
flue pipes serve to duct hot air into the barn to provide indirect
heating to cure the tobacco. Fuel sources for heating can vary
from wood, briquetted waste material, gas, diesel, kerosene, or
fuel oil. Bulk barns which allow for higher density packing in the
barn use fans to forcefully circulate hot air through the tobacco
mass during the curing process. Bulk barns, popularized in the
1980s, can reduce labor significantly and the product is
comparable to that cured conventionally.

Whether conventional barns or bulk barns are used, the flue-


curing process goes through 3 distinct phases:

1. Yellowing phase
Maintaining a high relative humidity (80%-90%), the temperature
is gradually raised from 30-350C. Ventilation of moist air out of
the barn is controlled until almost all the leaves have yellowed.

2. Fixing color phase


At the end of the yellowing phase, the color is fixed by increasing
the temperature to 400C at which point, enzymes responsible for

Tobacco Characteristics 22 7/7/2017


all biochemical changes are killed. By carefully increasing the
ventilation and the temperature gradually to 710C, the yellow
color is maintained and the lamina is gradually dried out.

3. Stem drying phase


The highest temperature of 710C is maintained to dry out the
stems. Temperatures higher than 740C are both unnecessary and
undesirable as sugars in the leaf will caramelize, turning the
yellow leaf to an undesirable red color.
At the end of the curing process which normally takes about 120
hours, the leaf moisture content is as low as 5%, too brittle to
handle. After all the stems have dried out, the heat supply is cut
off and the tobacco is allowed to condition usually overnight to
13%-14% moisture before unloading for grading and subsequent
packing.

It is the flue-curing process that degrades the green chlorophyll


exposing the yellow pigments that gives Flue-Cured tobacco the
characteristic yellow color. As starch begins to hydrolyze into
sugars at leaf senescence, tobacco will be high in starch and low in
sugars if harvested prematurely. Conversely, tobacco will be low
in starch and high in sugars if harvested ripe. It is because Flue-
Cured tobacco is harvested ripe that most of the carbohydrate is
in the form of sugars which will gradually oxidize to water and
sugar if the leaf is kept alive. Since enzymes are killed by the high
temperature at color fixing phase, much of the sugars are
retained. This explains for the relatively higher sugar content in
Flue-Cured than in Air-Cured tobaccos. Flue-Cured tobacco, if
properly harvested and cured, normally contains 10%-20% sugars
and less than 5% starch.

Domestic Tobacco Indonesia, with a population of 220 million is one of the largest
producers and consumers of tobacco in the world. Annual
consumption of cigarettes is 195 billion, 90% of which are clove
flavored cigarettes called kretek.

Table 1.6 shows Indonesia’s annual tobacco production by types


over the past 8 years. Annual production is volatile, fluctuating
between a bumper crop of 226 million kg in 1996 to a disastrous
production of a mere 96 mil kg in the La Nina year of 1998.

Tobacco Characteristics 23 7/7/2017


Table 2.1 : Indonesian Tobacco Production (MT) by Types – 1996 to 2003

To distinguish among the various native tobaccos produced largely for domestic
consumption, the industry had conveniently classified them into types according to the
place they are produced in (Table 2.1). These types can broadly be classified into 4 groups:

Tobacco Characteristics 24 7/7/2017


Rajangan Rajangan sometimes referred to as ‘sliced’ tobacco or pre-cut is
actually rag cut from fresh tobacco which is subsequently sun-
cured. This group, comprising 13 types, is the largest accounting
for about 58% of total production.

The ranking of the five Rajangan types in order of annual


production volume is the same as the ranking based on
Company’s annual purchase volume. Indonesia has a monsoon
climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season begins
from late November to end of March during which the prevailing
Northeast monsoon brings in an average of 28 cm of rain per
month. This is then followed by an extended dry period from
June to October with monthly average rainfall of 4 cm (Table 2.2).

Table 2.2 : Rainfall (mm) for Major Native Tobacco Growing Areas (Monthly
Average 1978/1987)

This weather pattern is ideal for growing tobacco. The tobacco


crop can be planted out at the tail end of the monsoon season
(May/June) when soil moisture is high. It then grows on residual
soil moisture supplemented by occasional showers during the
drier months of June/July. Harvesting and curing of the crop is
ideally timed with the driest months of August/September. A
ready source of irrigation water is helpful in ensuring yield
should the dry season be extreme or extended.

Table 2.3 shows the tobacco crop season for the seven major types
bought by Company.

Table 2.3 : Tobacco Crop Season by Type

Tobacco Characteristics 25 7/7/2017


The main rotation crop for tobacco is wetland rice. This popular
rice/tobacco rotation is ideally suited for Indonesia’s monsoon
climate as tobacco can be grown during the dry season for quality
and rice during the wet season for yield. In addition, flooding of
the field during the rice season helps kill off nematodes which are
known to infest tobacco plant. Such tobaccos are often described
as tembakau sawah (rice field tobacco). The following diagram
illustrates how the various stages of the Indonesian tobacco crop
fit into the rainfall pattern.

Tabel 2.4 : Indonesian Tobacco Season

The final harvest of tembakau sawah must be done by end


September to be in time for the succeeding rice crop which is
planted out in October. Upland tobacco often referred to as
tembakau tegal (hill tobacco) has a more flexible planting season.
Generally, upland tobacco crops are of better smoking quality and
lower chloride although yield may be lower.

As no records were kept, the parentage of most Rajangan varieties


is unknown. Names of varieties are localized and they differ from
type to type. Table 2.5 summarizes the known variety names of
the five major Rajangan types.

Tobacco Characteristics 26 7/7/2017


Table 2.5 : Varieties of Major Rajangan Types

The majority of farmers does not raise their own seedlings, but
instead buy them from small-scale commercial seedling
producers. Seedlings are planted out 34–45 days after sowing.
Rajangan is normally planted out in twin rows on a ridge. Plant
spacing is highly variable. It can be as close as 40 cm between
plants in a row with an average distance of 60 cm between rows
for Rajangan Madura. This gives a high population of 42,000
plants/ha. For Rajangan Bondowoso, spacing can be as wide as 80
cm between plants in a row and an average of 100 cm between
rows, giving a low population of only 12,500 plants/ha.

Across most Rajangan growing areas, farmers normally plant on


the flat. One to two weeks after planting, a low ridge is formed by
hilling soil around the plants. This process of weeding and hilling
thup the soil is repeated around the 5
week after planting to form a higher ridge. Conservative
irrigation at frequent intervals are often done by watering two
rows of plants simultaneously using two buckets tied to a
shoulder—mounted pole.

In most Rajangan growing areas, only nitrogen and phosphorus


are used widely, while potash is rarely applied. If used, the
amount of potash applied is very conservative. The most common
sources of nitrogen are ammonium sulphate (AS), and urea.
Triple super phosphate (TSP) is the source for PO . NP rates are
highly variable 25 from place to place. In a study commissioned
by Company (Profile of Tobacco in Java and Madura, dated 1990),
average rates reported were as follows.

Tobacco Characteristics 27 7/7/2017


Table 2.6 : Rates of Nutrients Used in Growing Rajangan Tobacco

Not surprisingly, Madura has the lowest nicotine among the five
Rajangan types because of the conservative nitrogen fertilization,
high plant population, and moisture stress. These factors, which
are similar to the Oriental crop, give Rajangan Madura a faint
Oriental note, a characteristic which distinguishes it from the
other Rajangan types. Topping height varies from 17-20 leaves per
plant. Almost all Rajangan farmers will top at early flowering (60-
80 days after transplanting) followed by 3-5 rounds of hand
suckering.

Days from transplanting to first harvest vary from 60-90 days.


Normally, 3-5 rounds of harvesting are done. The first harvest of
the lower 3-6 leaves is normally cured as Krosok because they do
not cut well. These leaves are threaded through bamboo skewers
and hung up for air curing. Subsequent harvests are then sorted
out by stacking them up on their butt ends. After they have
wilted and yellowed sufficiently, -¾ of the midribs from the butt
ends of individual leaves are removed before rolling up across the
leaf length. Rolling up in this direction maximizes the strand
length for slicing. Cut rag width is highly variable as no standard
cut width is imposed by the industry. It can vary from as wide as
0.3 mm for Rajangan Garut and 2.0 mm for Rajangan Madura.

Cutting is normally done in the night or early morning. In the


case of sugar Rajangan like Pakpie Ploso, ordinary sugar (sucrose)
is sprayed on the freshly cut Rajangan at the rate of 2 kg
sugar/100 kg fresh cut rag. The freshly cut tobacco is then spread
thinly (1 cm thick) on widig (woven bamboo slat) for sun-drying.
To accelerate drying within 2-3 days, the bamboo slats are placed
at an angle of about 45 to the ground to face the morning sun and
re-orientated in the afternoon to face the evening sun. After
drying, the cut rag is then allowed to condition overnight before
rolling up at the right condition into bundles and packed for
subsequent sale.

Krosok Native Krosok is the local term for whole leaf. The term “Krosok Native”
refers to whole leaf air- or sun-cured tobaccos to distinguish them
from whole leaf Flue-Cured. About half the annual production
from this group is actually the bottom leaves from Rajangan
types. The fragile bottom leaves are not suitable for cutting and

Tobacco Characteristics 28 7/7/2017


hence they are air-cured as Krosok. These include Krosok
Madura, Krosok Paiton, Krosok Jawa and Krosok Weleri. The
other half of the production coming mainly from Kasturi is made
up of sun-cured leaves from the bottom to the top of the plant.
The Krosok Native group accounts for 13% of annual production.

Within this group, Company buys 8 types on a regular basis. Of


the eight types, Krosok Madura, Krosok Paiton, Krosok Weleri,
and Krosok Jawa are considered low nicotine fillers because they
are the bottom leaves of the same Rajangan types. The other four
are all high nicotine types (Krosok Hang Ploso, Krosok Boyolali,
Krosok Kasturi, and Krosok Lumajang). Among them, Kasturi is
the major type by volume. The following discussion will
concentrate on Kasturi.

Krosok Kasturi which accounts for 40% of the national production


of the Krosok Native group is the largest volume type within this
group. Unlike the filler Krosok Native types, Krosok Kasturi
grades are derived from all stalk positions of the Kasturi crop.
Most of Kasturi production is used locally with small quantities
exported. Areas where Kasturi is grown include Jember,
Bondowoso, Probolinggo, and Malang. Unlike most Rajangan, it
is grown in rotation with maize or vegetables in upland soils.

Sowing, done in early February is about 3 months earlier than


most Rajangan crops. Staggered planting of this crop extends the
crop season from February to August. The two popular varieties
are known locally as Mawar and A-30. Generally, farmers raise
their own seedlings which are planted out about 40 days after
sowing. Planting distance is variable. With an average planting
distance of 65 cm between plants and 90 cm between rows, the
average plant population is about 17,000 plants/ha.

Normally, a small quantity of animal manure (2 MT/ha) is placed


in the planting hole. After planting on the flat, ridges are built up
twice, i.e., about 20 and 45 days after planting. Fertilizer rates are
variable with averages shown below.

Application Time Fertilizer type (kg/ha)


At Planting TSP (100)
10 Days After Planting Urea (60) + AS (60)
45 Days After Planting Urea (100) + AS (100)

Excluding nutrients derived from animal manure, the total


nutrients applied are averagely about 100 kg N and 46 kg PO per
hectare. 2 5

Topping is done about 80 days after transplanting. At an average


of 15 leaves per plant, topping is usually low for Indonesian
tobacco. About 5 rounds of hand suckering at weekly intervals

Tobacco Characteristics 29 7/7/2017


are carried out. With the high N-fertilization, low topping and
clean suckering, it is not surprising that Kasturi nicotine is high,
averaging about 3.3% each year.

Harvesting 3-4 leaves each time, a farmer goes through his crop
in 4-5 harvests. After harvesting, the leaves are sorted out based
on maturity. A 30-cm bamboo skewer is threaded obliquely
through the butts of leaves. These skewered leaves are then
wilted for about 3 days by either hanging them on bamboo racks
under plastic shed or
stacking them on top of each other. After wilting, the yellow
leaves are then hung on racks, exposed to direct sun for sun
curing. During the mid day, the skewers are rotated on the racks
to accelerate the drying. The sun-curing process continues for
about a week until all the midribs have completely dried up. The
skewered leaves are unloaded and stacked up for conditioning. In
the right condition (about 13% moisture), the individual leaves
are released from the skewer and graded out for sale.

Krosok FC This group consists of all Flue-Cured production from various


growing areas. Accounting for 19% of the total, it is grown mainly
on Lombok island with small volumes scattered all over East Java,
Central Java, and Bali. The Lombok Flue-Cured crop had
expanded over the years because of its highly acceptable quality
both domestically and in the export market.

Referring to Table 1.7, of the ten types listed under the Krosok FC
group, Krosok Lombok FC takes up 67% in this group. A study of
the statistics shows a growing trend in Lombok’s annual
production, while all the other nine types have registered
declining volumes during the same period. Local users shifting to
the significantly better quality of Lombok FC is the primary
reason for the recent upsurge in the Lombok crop. More recently,
overseas buys are also attracted to the Lombok FC quality.
Although 3% of the production is currently exported, this figure is
likely to increase as cigarette manufacturers in neighboring
ASEAN countries will be increasing the usage of Lombok FC in
anticipation of enjoying preferential ASEAN duties when the
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) becomes a reality in 2008.

Of the six domestic Krosok Flue-Cured types that Company buys,


Lombok FC accounts for 90% of the company annual usage. The
significantly better quality of Lombok FC is undoubtedly due to
the successful implementation of a suitable agronomic package
among receptive growers. The following discussion will be
restricted to Lombok FC because of its growing importance.

Recognizing the potential of Lombok FC, Company through its


supplier, Sadhana, implemented a Leaf Improvement Program
(LIP) in 1995. From what was then a filler crop with an average
weighted nicotine of about 1.5%, it is now considered a flavor

Tobacco Characteristics 30 7/7/2017


crop with an average weighted nicotine of about 2.5% with
distinct nicotine differentiations between stalk positions.

Most of Lombok FC is grown on the east of the Lombok island.


Company started with 250 hectares in 1995 and the crop size has
grown steadily to the current 3,500 hectares, accounting for 35%
of the total Lombok FC crop. About 24,000 hectares of land in
Lombok island is considered suitable for the growing of FC. At 2
MT per hectare yield, the ultimate potential on Lombok island is
estimated at 50,000 MT.

Several FC varieties are grown on Lombok island. However,


Company farmers are supplied with hybrid seeds sourced from a
professional seed company overseas. As the hybrid seeds are
male sterile, farmers are not able to produce their own seeds. By
this approach, Company is able to ensure the quality consistency
of the tobacco produced by the company’s own farmers.

Farmers with crop size averaging 1.5 hectare each are taught to
raise their own seedlings. Sowing is normally done in mid March
and the seedlings are planted out about 60 days later in mid May.
Compared to Rajangan seedlings, which are planted out about 45
days after sowing, Lombok FC seedlings are older and bigger at
the time of planting out. Clipping and hardening of seedlings are
done to ensure strong seedlings with large root systems are
planted out.

Twin row planting on ridges is practiced. At plant spacing of 120


cm 100 cm 50 cm, the average plant population is 18,000
plants/hectare. High and broad ridges are formed before planting
out. The high and broad ridges are maintained during cultivation
to eliminate weeds and encourage root growth.

Unlike most Rajangan growing areas where little or no potash is


used, the average fertilization rate used by Company farmers is as
the following.

In addition to the above inorganic fertilizers, guano, which is a


rich source of PO is applied in the hole before planting. To ensure
high 2 5 yield, all farmers irrigate. Most farmers irrigate using the
traditional 2-bucket system. Company has introduced drip
irrigation successfully to the more progressive farmers.

Topping, normally carried out about 50 days after planting, is


high at an average of 20 leaves plant. Early topping is practiced
followed by two rounds of clean suckering, either manually done
or using a chemical suckericide like Pendimethalin.

Tobacco Characteristics 31 7/7/2017


Harvesting normally begins in mid July about 60 days after
planting. About 3-4 leaves are picked during each harvest.
Depending on crop growth, the harvesting season stretches from
60-75 days after planting.

Curing is carried out in a conventional Flue-Cured barn built out


of bricks. Barn size is variable with capacities to cater for crop
sizes ranging from 2,000-2,400 plants/hectare. The most common
fuel used is kerosene. For details on curing, refer to p.1-11.
Average cured leaf yield for Company FC farmers hovers around
2,000 kg/ha, about twice as high as the average yield for
Rajangan.

Other Under this group are various specialist tobaccos like air-cured
cigar tobaccos (Vorsten-landen, Besnota, TBN and Deli) and
Dark Fire-Cured (Boyolali). The average annual production of 16
million kg or 9% of the nation’s total is mainly for the export
market.

Morphology The structure of a tobacco is divided into some parts. Those are
stem, leaves, flowers, capsules, and seeds.

Stem It is a herbaceous annual. However,Nicotiana rustica is found


sometimes to behave like a perennial. The plant height ranges
from 90 cm to 240 cm in tabacumand 50 cm to 140 cm in rustica.

The inter-nodes may be very short presenting a rosette


appearance or even as long as 20-24 cm.

The stems are usually round covered with glandular hairs with a
tendency to produce branches near the base known as "Suckers".

The plants of rustica are more robust and densely growing than
that of tabaccum. If there are few leaves, the plant has an open
appearance, but if they are numerous, the plants have a bushy
appearance.

Leaves The size of leaves may vary from 15 cm to 100 cm or even more in
length. They may be narrow, long and drawn out like a whip,
elliptical or broadly ovate with a marked variation even in the
same plant.

The leaf angle varies from an upright to horizontal with dropping


at the base, in the centre or at any point of the leaf.

The leaf base may be sessile or petiolate differing in the


development of wings having a breadth 5-6 cm. Sometimes in
some sp. the auricles are also observed.
The lateral veins may be perpendicular to the midrib as in
'wrapper tobacco or may make acute angle with various

Tobacco Characteristics 32 7/7/2017


intergrades as in 'Now' .The types to phyllotaxy normally
observed are 1/3, 2/5, 3/8 and rarely 5/13.

Flowers The tobacco has a terminal receme panicle which may be compact
to very lax with a short or long peduncle. The inflorescence in
main axis always flowers first and the side branches thereafter in
order from top towards bottom.

The flowers are usually 5 cm in length and vary in their colour


from pink, yellow, purplish, or white. The shape varies from
funnel to flute.

The development of green colour differs in its intensity both


inside and outside the Corolla tube. The corolla may be wheel
shaped with acute apices to pentagonal shape and obtuse tips.
Calyx is usually tubular but in few types leaf is globular and
inflated.

Capsules The capsules vary in size, shape and nature of apex, blunt or
conical. The shape may be elliptical, ovoid or conical.

Seeds Seeds are spherical or broadly elliptic with variation in degree of


ridging on the seed coat. The colour varies from dark brown to
light brown.

Summary

Tobacco Characteristics 33 7/7/2017


There are 4 type Tobacco : Burley Tobacco, Oriental Tobacco, Virginia Tobacco, and
Domestic Tobacco

Burley Tobacco : Within the classification of Light Air-Cured, Burley tobacco is by far the
most significant in terms of use. Originally, Burley was produced as a dark heavy type of
tobacco. Records suggest that current varieties of Burley are derived from the White Burley
mutant obtained in Ohio, USA in 1864. Although dark heavy Burley is still being produced
and used in pipe tobacco blends, it is diminishing in world trade. On the other hand, the
Light Air-Cured Burley is of growing importance because of the growing popularity of US
blended cigarettes, in which it forms a key component.

Oriental Tobacco : As with all commercial tobacco varieties, Oriental tobacco varieties
belong to the species N. tabacum. Literature suggests that current day varieties evolved
from tobacco varieties brought in from the Americas about 300 years ago. The so-called
Turkish cigarettes containing 100% Oriental tobacco were once popular in Oriental tobacco
producing countries like Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, and Yugoslavia.

Virginia Tobacco : Flue-Cured tobacco is sometimes referred to as Virginia tobacco or


Virginia Flue-Cured tobacco because of past dominance in world trade of this tobacco type
originating from Virginia, USA. With the widespread cultivation of Virginia varieties
worldwide, this tobacco type is now commonly and appropriately referred to as Flue-Cured
tobacco. The name is derived from the flues used for curing this tobacco type. By definition,
an English or Virginia cigarette uses exclusively Flue-Cured tobaccos in the blend. However,
other cigarette types like a modified Virginia or a typical US blended cigarette will contain
varying proportions of Flue-Cured tobacco as well.

Domestic Tobacco : Indonesia, with a population of 220 million is one of the largest
producers and consumers of tobacco in the world. Annual consumption of cigarettes is 195
billion, 90% of which are clove flavored cigarettes called kretek.

Quiz 2

Tobacco Characteristics 34 7/7/2017


Short Answer Questions

Answer the following questions briefly.

1. What is the genus name of tobacco?

2. What are 4 type tobacco?

3. How to control the rate of drying without artificial heating?

4. What is another name of virginia tobacco?

5. What are the kinds of domestic tobacco?

Chapter III

Tobacco Characteristics 35 7/7/2017


In this chapter, you will learn about tobacco cultivation in terms of collecting seed and tobacco
nurseries, planting, maintenance, harvesting, and post harvesting.

Cultivation Of In modern tobacco farming, Nicotiana seeds are scattered onto the
Tobacco surface of the soil, as their germination is activated by light, then
covered in cold frames. In the Colony of Virginia, seedbeds were
fertilized with wood ash or animal manure (frequently
powdered horsemanure). Coyote Tobacco (N. attenuata) of the
western U.S. requires burned wood to germinate.[1] Seedbeds were
then covered with branches to protect the young plants from frost
damage. These plants were left to grow until around April. Today,
in the United States, unlike other countries, Nicotiana is often
fertilized with the mineral apatite to partially starve the plant
for nitrogen, which changes the taste of the tobacco.

After the plants have reached a certain height, they are


transplanted into fields. This was originally done by making a
relatively large hole in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, then
placing the small plant in the hole. Various mechanical tobacco
planters were invented throughout the late 19th and early 20th
centuries to automate this process, making a hole, fertilizing it, and
guiding a plant into the hole with one motion. The cultivation of
tobacco usually takes place annually. The tobacco is germinated
in cold frames or hotbeds and then transplanted to the field until it
matures. It is grown in warm climates with rich, well-drained soil.
About 4.2 million hectares of tobacco were under cultivation
worldwide in 2000, yielding over 7 million tonnes of tobacco.

Sowing Tobacco seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as
their germination is activated by light. In colonial Virginia,
seedbeds were fertilized with wood ash or
animal manure (frequently powdered horse manure). Seedbeds
were then covered with branches to protect the young plants
from frost damage, and the plants were left alone until around
April.

In the 19th century, young plants came under increasing attack


from certain types of flea beetles, Epitrix cucumeris or Epitrix
pubescens, which destroyed half the U.S. tobacco crops in 1876. In
the years afterward, many experiments were attempted and
discussed to control the flea beetle. By 1880, growers discovered
that replacing the branches with a frame covered with thin fabric
effectively protected plants from the beetle. This practice spread,
becoming ubiquitous in the 1890s.

Today, in the United States, unlike other countries, tobacco is often


fertilized with the mineral apatite to partially starve the plant
fornitrogen, which changes the taste. This (together with the use of
licorice and other additives) accounts for the different flavor of
American cigarettes from those available in other countries. There
is, however, some suggestion that this may have adverse health

Tobacco Characteristics 36 7/7/2017


effectsattributable to the content of apatite.

After the plants have reached a certain height, they are transplanted
Transplanting into fields. This was originally done by making a relatively large
hole in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, then placing the small
plant in the hole. Various mechanical tobacco planters were
invented throughout the late 19th and early 20th century to
automate this process, making a hole, fertilizing it, and guiding a
plant into the hole with one motion.

Tobacco can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method, the


Harvest entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the
ground with a sickle. In the nineteenth century, bright tobacco
began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as
they ripened. As the plants grow, they usually require topping and
suckering. "Topping" is the removal of the tobacco flowers while
"suckering" is the pruning out of leaves that are otherwise
unproductive. Both procedures ensure that as much of the plant's
energy as possible focuses on producing the large leaves that are
harvested and sold. "Cropping," "Pulling," and "Priming" are terms
for removing mature leaves from tobacco plants. Leaves are
cropped as they ripen, from the bottom to the top of the stalk. The
first crop of leaves located near the base of the tobacco stalk are
called "sand lugs" in more rural southern tobacco states. They are
called "sand lugs" because these leaves are close to the ground and
get splashed with sand and clay when heavy rains hit the soil. Sand
lugs weigh the most, and are most difficult to work with. Their
weight is due to their large size and the added weight of soil; slaves
lugged each stack to the "stringer" or "looper," typically a female
slave, who bundled each stack of leaves. Eventually workers
carried the tobacco and placed it on sleds or trailers.

As the industrial revolution approached America, the harvesting


wagons that transported leaves were equipped with man powered
stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In
modern times large fields are harvested by a single piece of farm
equipment, though topping the flower and in some cases the
plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand.

Some farmers still use "tobacco harvesters." They are not very
efficient yet highly cost effective for harvesting premium and rare
strains of tobacco. The harvester trailers for in-demand crops are
now pulled by gasoline fueled tractors. "Croppers" or "primers"
pull the leaves off in handfuls and pass these to the "stringer" or
"looper," which bundles the leaves to a four-sided pole with twine.
These poles are hung until the harvester is full. The poles are then
placed in a much larger wagon to be pulled by modern farm
tractors to their destination. For rare tobaccos they are often cured
on the farm. Traditionally, the slaves who cropped and pulled had
a particularly tough time with the first pull of the large, dirty, base
leaves. The leaves slapped their faces and dark tobacco sap, which

Tobacco Characteristics 37 7/7/2017


dries into a dark gum, covered their bodies, and then soil stuck to
the gum. There was one perk however: nicotine in tobacco acts as a
powerful insecticide. Slaves could enjoy a bug free day of forced
labor when harvesting tobacco. The croppers were men, and the
stringers, who were seated on the higher elevated seats, were
women and children. The harvesters had places for one team of ten
workers: eight people cropping and stringing, plus a packer who
moved the heavy strung poles of wet green tobacco from the
stringers and packed them onto the pallet section of the harvester,
plus a horseman. Interestingly, the outer seats were suspended
from the harvester - slung out over to fit into the rows of tobacco.
As these seats were suspended it was important to balance the
weight of the two outside teams (similar to a playground see-saw).
Having too heavy or light a person in an unbalanced combination
often resulted in the harvester tipping over especially when turning
around at the end of a row. Water tanks were a common feature on
the harvester due to heat and danger of dehydration.

Tobacco can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method, the


entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the
ground with a sickle. In the nineteenth century, bright tobacco
began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as
they ripened. As the plants grow, they usually require topping and
suckering. "Topping" is the removal of the tobacco flowers while
"suckering" is the pruning out of leaves that are otherwise
unproductive. Both procedures ensure that as much of the plant's
energy as possible focuses on producing the large leaves that are
harvested and sold. "Cropping," "Pulling," and "Priming" are terms
for removing mature leaves from tobacco plants. Leaves are
cropped as they ripen, from the bottom to the top of the stalk. The
first crop of leaves located near the base of the tobacco stalk are
called "sand lugs" in more rural southern tobacco states. They are
called "sand lugs" because these leaves are close to the ground and
get splashed with sand and clay when heavy rains hit the soil. Sand
lugs weigh the most, and are most difficult to work with. Their
weight is due to their large size and the added weight of soil; slaves
lugged each stack to the "stringer" or "looper," typically a female
slave, who bundled each stack of leaves. Eventually workers
carried the tobacco and placed it on sleds or trailers.

As the industrial revolution approached America, the harvesting


wagons that transported leaves were equipped with man powered
stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In
modern times large fields are harvested by a single piece of farm
equipment, though topping the flower and in some cases the
plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand.

Some farmers still use "tobacco harvesters." They are not very
efficient yet highly cost effective for harvesting premium and rare
strains of tobacco. The harvester trailers for in-demand crops are

Tobacco Characteristics 38 7/7/2017


now pulled by gasoline fueled tractors. "Croppers" or "primers"
pull the leaves off in handfuls and pass these to the "stringer" or
"looper," which bundles the leaves to a four-sided pole with twine.
These poles are hung until the harvester is full. The poles are then
placed in a much larger wagon to be pulled by modern farm
tractors to their destination. For rare tobaccos they are often cured
on the farm. Traditionally, the slaves who cropped and pulled had
a particularly tough time with the first pull of the large, dirty, base
leaves. The leaves slapped their faces and dark tobacco sap, which
dries into a dark gum, covered their bodies, and then soil stuck to
the gum. There was one perk however: nicotine in tobacco acts as a
powerful insecticide. Slaves could enjoy a bug free day of forced
labor when harvesting tobacco. The croppers were men, and the
stringers, who were seated on the higher elevated seats, were
women and children. The harvesters had places for one team of ten
workers: eight people cropping and stringing, plus a packer who
moved the heavy strung poles of wet green tobacco from the
stringers and packed them onto the pallet section of the harvester,
plus a horseman. Interestingly, the outer seats were suspended
from the harvester - slung out over to fit into the rows of tobacco.
As these seats were suspended it was important to balance the
weight of the two outside teams (similar to a playground see-saw).
Having too heavy or light a person in an unbalanced combination
often resulted in the harvester tipping over especially when turning
around at the end of a row. Water tanks were a common feature on
the harvester due to heat and danger of dehydration.

Conventional

Tobacco Characteristics 39 7/7/2017


nurseries systems
- Near water resource
Location of Seedbed - Not a former tobacco seedbed previous season
- Not a former plant family (family solanaceae), example :
Tomatoes and Peppers
- Need land seedbed about 100 m2 for 4 seedbed (Capacity 1 ha)
- Dimensions seedbed, are : length 25 m, width 110 cm, height 30
cm and distance between seedbed is 80 cm

Figure 3.1 : Seedbed Site Preparation

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

- Cover plastic with size length 26 m and width 160 cm


Material and - Tobacco seeds many 9.6 gram (2.4 gram/seedbed)
Equipment - NPK fertilizer much 12 kg (3 kg/seedbed) and KNO3 fertilizer
much 1 kg (250 gr/seedbed)
- Nematisida (Petrofur) much 400 gr (100gr/seedbed)
- Fungisida (Ridomil MZ)
- Herbisida (Command)
- Insektisida (Metindo)
- Seeding Boom and Gembor
- Grasscutter
- Small Basket
- Soft Soap
- Rope Yarn
- Plengkung bamboo length 240 cm, width 3-4 cm much 100 unit
(25 unit/seedbed)
- Peg the bamboo size 30 cm much 182 unit (32 peg/seedbed)
- Rice husk much 2 sack ( 1 sack for 2 seedbed)

- NPK fertilizer was spread evenly over the surface of the beds
Basic fertilization and then buried as deep as 5 cm at the hoe way
and sterilization - Petrofur spread evenly atasa seedbed surface and buried as
beds (7 HBS) deep as 5 cm by hoeing. Petrofur Application can be done
simultaneously with the application of NPK fertilizer by mixing
first and Petrofur NPK fertilizer
- Application command at a dose of 3 ml / liter or 45 ml / tanks
(1 tank for 3 beds). Sprinkle 10 beds hype before and after
application of command
- Close beds with plastic cover. Give ballast (stone / wood) on
the edge of the plastic cover when not to fly in the wind. Make

Tobacco Characteristics 40 7/7/2017


sure that the plastic cover good condition (no rips / holes) so
that helped create the effect of solar heating in the beds.

- 3 days before soaking the seeds should be distributed in the


Spread Seed following manner :
1. Seeds wrapped in cloth. Each pack contains 1.2 grams of
seed.
2. Seeds that have been wrapped soaked with water for 24
hours and water. The water should be changed every 6 hours
3. Seed drained for 48 hours and kept humidity
4. Seeds ready to be deployed when it broke (visible in white)

- Attach 25 pieces Plengkung New Article How to plug it in every


1 m sides Foreign beds. Tie a rope connecting each position The
Middle Plengkung to add strength to sustain plastic covers
Illustrations.
- Flush seedbed moist air to New Article (± 20 blown) just before
seedbed can spread or scatter dilebarin day before.
- Flush seedbed New Article Ridomil MZ-blown solution as
much as 1 per seedbed (dose of 3 grams / liter or 1 tbsp / hype)

Figure 3.2 : Using the Current Seeding Boom Seeding at Seeding

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

- Spread seeds evenly over the surface of the beds by using a


seeding boom. How the application as follows:
1. Replace the blown boom seeding properly. Make sure the
hole - the hole seeding boom down.
2. If needed add bamboo slats mounted crosswise to strengthen
the position of seeding boom with yells
3. Fill with water blown about - about half
4. Put a little liquid soap and stir - stir until slightly foamy
5. Enter 1.2 g (1bungkus) seed into the hype while flushing with
water until full gembornya
6. Spread the seeds evenly over the surface of the beds while
stirring - stirring. Stir randomly (do not play)

Tobacco Characteristics 41 7/7/2017


7. Spread carried two people, one person holding yells while
stirring and one person in charge of maintaining flatness
seeding position boom
8. Repeat deployment for a pack of seeds the other end of the
different beds

- Spread evenly over the surface of the husk beds


- Flush surface with a solution of metindo beds as much as 1
heralded a seedbed (dose of 2 g / liter or 1 tbsp / hype)
- Replace the plastic cover over the Plengkung that cover the
entire surface of the beds. Attach straps are crossed in
accordance with the position marker.

- Sprinkling
Treatment 1. 0-10 HSS: 3 times a day 8 yells / beds
2. 11-20 HSS: 2 times a day 12 blown / beds
3. 21-30 HSS: 2 days 16 blown / beds
4. > 30 HSS beds are not watered
5. Watering view weather conditions

- Hardening
1. 0-10 HSS: plastic cover is closed
2. 11 -20 HSS: plastic cover is opened from 11:00 am to
3. > 21 HSS: plastic cover open from dawn to dusk
4. At night or rainy conditions plastic cover is closed

Figure 3.3 : Management flush and cover openings

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

- Population Seed
1. Clean grass and weeds growing in the beds (14 HSS)
2. Calculate the seedling population with target of 50 seeds /
squarefeet (16 HSS) after weeds cleared.
3. Perform thinning seedlings when the population more than
50 seeds / seedlings squarefeet or move to a rare meeting.

Tobacco Characteristics 42 7/7/2017


Figure 3.4 : Population (seeding rate) 50 seedlings per feet2

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

- Control Pest and Disease


1. Spray when there are beds with Metindo worm attack or
other pests (dose of 2 g / liter or 1 tablespoon per 15 liter
tank sprayer contents)
2. At 18 HSS spray beds with Ridomil MZ (dose of 2 g / liter or
1 tablespoon per 15 liter tank sprayer contents) to prevent
stem rot disease
3. Spraying Ridomil MZ then performed when there is an
attack by the stem rot disease (dose of 3 g / liter or 1.5
tablespoons per sprayer tank size of 15 liters)

- Supplementary Fertilizer
1. The type of fertilizer used is KNO3. Dosage and
supplementary fertilizer application as follows:
Time (HSS) Dose (gr/bedengan)
Next Fertilizer I 20 125
Next Fertilizer II 28 125

 KNO3 fertilizer divided into 3 equal parts


 Add 1 part in 1 KNO3 fertilizer yells water, stir - stir until
completely dissolved fertilizer
 Pour evenly fertilizer solution to the surface of beds
 Repeat until all the work is finished KNO3
 Rinse with 12 blown water so as not to bias inherent in the
leaves and the roots penetrate

- Clipping
 At age 25 HSS clipping seedlings should order uniforms.
How clippings as follows:
1. Prepare peraltan for clipping (grass shears, baskets and a
solution of liquid soap)
2. Clean scissors scissors by dipping into a solution of soap.
Furthermore scissors dyeing should be done every 10
minutes
3. Scissors leaves - leaves of seedlings were closed leaf - leaf
and collect pieces of leaves - the leaves into the basket.
Remove pieces of leaves - the leaves are collected far from

Tobacco Characteristics 43 7/7/2017


the location of beds. Ensure uniform seedling height after
clipping.
 Clipping is then performed according to the conditions when
seeds or seedlings growing too fast.

Figure 3.5 : Clipping for good seed quality

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco


Unplug Seeds
- Ideal for seedlings lifted at age 45 HSS.
- 2 days before the seeds removed, beds sprayed with Confidor
or orthene (dose 0.5 grams / liter of water 0.5 tbsp / 15 liter
tank sprayer contents).
- Before the seeds removed, beds, doused with plenty of water or
wet soil dileb up so easily removed seeds and roots are not
broken.
- Select seeds that uniform standards and criteria for healthy age
45 -50 days, large trunks and hard, uniform height ± 12 cm,
yellowish-green leaf color good rooting.
- Remove the seed by holding the tip of the leaf and pull up all
the roots from ending.
- Remove the seeds according to the amount required for the
plant at the time (to adjust planting capacity).
- Seeds are left in the seedbed doused again with water so they
can grow.

Figure 3.6 : Seed quality standards

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Tobacco Characteristics 44 7/7/2017


Seedlings System
Para-Para

Materials and - The size - its is 12.5 m x 1 m


Equipment - The number of - the required for planting one hectare is 8
pieces.
- Materials needed for breeding with the - the are as follows:
1. Plastic cover (white plastic milk) with a length of 13 m and a
width of 160 cm by 8 sheets
2. Mercy tobacco seed varieties as much as 9.6 grams (1.2 grams
/ beds)
3. NPK fertilizers were 12 kg (1.5 kg / beds)
4. KNO3 fertilizer 1 kg (125 g / beds)
5. Petrofur much as 400 g (50 g / beds)
6. Fungicide (Ridomil MZ)
7. Herbicides (Command)
8. Insecticides (Metindo and Confidor)
9. Seeding Boom, yells and liquid soap
10. Grass shears and a small basket
11. 2 bags of rice husks as fertilizer (1 sack for 4 beds)
12. Rope Yarn
13. Burlap sack as many as 80 pieces
14. Media spread as follows.
Media Material Ratio
Soil (have sand) 1
Husnk Charcoal 1
Organic Fertilizer 1
Cocopeat 3
15. Bamboo
Quantity
Size Function
Shape
Length Width
Lath 280 3 96 Plengkung
Lonjoran 60 Kaki para –para
192
Lonjoran Penyangga
1250 16
sesek
Lath Penyangga
110 4 96
sesek
Lath 60 4 384 Siku penyangga
Lath 110 10 16 Penyangga
Lath 1250 10 16 media samping
Board Alas karung
1250 100 8
goni

Tobacco Characteristics 45 7/7/2017


Figure 3.7 : Assembly Frame Para-Para

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Make Seedbed - Make Para-Para


 All of the bamboo rafts that have been prepared so formed
the - the size 12.5 x 1 m.
 Sprinkle mixture evenly spread media as thick as 8 cm above
the - the. Let dry for 2-3 days.

- Basic fertilization and sterilization beds


 Sprinkle fertilizer NPK (dosage 1.5 kg / beds) and Petrofur
(dose of 50 g / beds) evenly and cover with a mixture of 2 cm
thick media.
 Application command at a dose of 3 ml / liter or 1 tank of 15
liters for 3 beds. Flush beds got wet with water as much as ±
6 gembor / beds after application command
 Cover tightly with plastic cover beds for 7 days

Figure 3.8 : Ready beds Coverage After Sterilization

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Spread Seeds - Follow the instructions of conventional breeding systems.


- The number of seeds that spread is 9.6 grams (1.2 grams / beds)

Tobacco Characteristics 46 7/7/2017


Figure 3.9 : Seedbed conditions after stocking

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Treatment - Sprinkling
 0-10 HSS: 3 times a day 4 gembor / beds
 11-20 HSS: 2 times a day 6 gembor / beds
 21-30 HSS: 2 days 8 yells / beds
 > 30 HSS beds are not watered
 Watering view weather conditions

- Hardening
 Follow the instructions of conventional breeding systems

- Population Seeds
 Follow the instructions of conventional breeding systems

- Control Pest and Disease


 Follow the instructions of conventional breeding systems

- Supplementary fertilizers
 Follow the instructions of conventional breeding systems
 The type of fertilizer used is KNO3. Dosage and
supplementary fertilizer application as follows:
Time Dose (gr/
(HSS) bedengan)
Next Fertilizer I 20 62.5
Next Fertilizer II 28 62.5

- Clipping
 Follow the instructions of conventional breeding systems

- Unplug Seeds
 Follow the instructions of conventional breeding systems

Land Preparation
Sorting Criteria Land - Not a former plant family as tomatoes or peppers solanaceae.
- Close to sources of water (rivers, lakes, swamps, etc.)
- Close to shelter farmers and labor resources.
- Not have a history of disease or viral pests.

Tobacco Characteristics 47 7/7/2017


Soil Processing & - Processing is done by plowing the soil as deep as 30-40 cm.
Preparation Plant piracy carried out 30 days before planting. Sprinkle dolomite
Hole (1500 kg / ha) and farmyard manure (1000 kg / ha) evenly on
the land prior to the hijacking. Perform piracy to cook and loose
soil and blend so that there is no stagnant water in case of rain.
- Land that has been made flat ridges - ridges with a length of 10
m. Ridges are created by plowing the land for any distance 170
cm. leave it open and dry.
- Create a circumferential gutter and drains, including sewer
middle (cut). Gutter width and circumference of 30 cm in 40 cm.
- Planting hole made dengancangkul accordance with spacing of
100 x 70 x 45 cm. blak and bersimpul use rope to make it
straight

Figure 3.10 : Tillage with Piracy

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Figure 3.11 : Plowing any distance 170 cm to form ridges (double


row)

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Planting
Planting and - Select a standard and uniform seedlings with criteria 45-50 days
Embroidery old, healthy, big and tough stems, uniform height ± 12 cm,
yellowish-green leaf color, good rooting.
- Planting the wet cropping system is to irrigate (LEB) of land by
the water is absorbed evenly throughout the land. Leb done the
day before planting in the afternoon.
- If the water in the soil is limited, use a dry system that is
planting the planting hole with water to wet (1 liter / holes)
- Planting seedlings carefully, lest the trunk depressed. Make

Tobacco Characteristics 48 7/7/2017


sure the roots fused with the ground.
- Promptly stitching when there were dead, no more than 10 HTS

Figure 3.12 : Wet planting to ensure adequate water

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Fertilization and - Fertilization is done by immersing the roots fertilizer drill using
Dangir a hoe or flat
- The type and dose of fertilizer: (N: 110.5 kg / ha, P2O5: 100 kg /
ha, and K2O: 142.5 kg / ha)
1. ZA (21:00:00): 400 kg / ha
2. SP36 (00:36:00): 250 kg / ha
3. ZK (00:00:50): 200 kg / ha
4. KNO3 (13:00:45): 50 kg / ha

Time Dose Fertilizer (kg/ha)


(HST) ZA SP36 ZK KNO3
Fetilizer I 1-5 200 250 100 -
Fertilizer II 25 200 - 100 50

- Fertilizer buried near the root, about 10 cm on either side of the


tree by using a hoe or flat drill.
- At the age of 10-15 days after planting done pendangiran I
- Fertilization II immediately after pembumbuan I or a maximum
of 1 day before irrigation I
- Pendangiran II performed immediately after watering I
- Pendangiran or mild pembumbunan performed 3-5 days after
irrigation for the benefit of aeration plants. Soil conditions
should be used as a benchmark in doing this pendangiran.

Stress periods and - Aim to stimulate root development and improve outcomes by
Watering not irrigating crops started finished planting up to 25 days later.
- Watering I do after a stressful period, high water I (35 HST)
- Watering III performed immediately after topping, and the
plants are not watered again until the harvest is complete

Tobacco Characteristics 49 7/7/2017


Figure 3.13 : Wet planting to ensure adequate water

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Control Pest and - Performed preventive or prevention


Disease - Use personal protective equipment and adequate equipment
(long sleeves, long pants, masks, gloves, boots and headgear)
- Routine 1 was conducted immediately after planting, a
maximum of 7 days after planting metindo sprayed with a dose
of 2 grams / liter or 1 tbsp / 15 liter tank, requiring 0.5 kg ha 1
metindo equivalent to 250 liters (16 tank solution)
- Control of pests and diseases is then performed if necessary
using the neem organic pesticide with a dose of 5 ml / liter, 2.5-
liter ngmembutuhkan 1 ha of neem equivalent to 500 liters (32
tank solution)
- Pests and diseases Pengendalia only use pesticides provided by
warehouses, You do not want to use pesticides that are not
recommended as Curacron, Dursban, etc.
- Control of pests and plant diseases, should be integrated as
follows:
1. Closely monitoring the attack Pests and Diseases in tobacco
planting area and the surrounding area with the IPM
function early.
2. If the pest or disease has reached approximately 10% of the
crop area, or approximately 5% of the area but occurred in
some plots, the use of pesticides is recommended.
3. Ensure that only pesticides recommended by the company
are used by farmers

Figure 3.14 : Application of Pesticides Safely

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Tobacco Characteristics 50 7/7/2017


Topping and - Plants ditopping / dipunggel after the number of leaves per
Suckering plant: 20 - 24 pieces
- Use tamex dengna dose of 25 ml / liter of water and 10 ml of
solution per tree.
- Giving tamex performed 5-7 days after topping dengna way
tamex solution poured in axillary panicles on two different
sides so that the solution can flow evenly tamex until the
bottom of the armpit leaves
- Sucker is already more than 1 cm should be cleaned first before
the given solution tamex
- Make checks again to address the sucker who missed / not
taxable tamex

Figure 3.15 : Application Tamex to control sucker

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Harvest and
Chopped

Harvest - Harvesting should be done in the morning hair dengna way


back to harvest the sun's rays.
- Make sure that the leaves are harvested are not touching the
ground directly. Use burlap as the base and wrapper leaves that
have been harvested
- Ensure that voleme harvest according to the capacity of the
workforce and post-harvest facilities are available.
- Harvesting is done when the leaves are showing signs that
cooking reduced the hairs on the leaves, the handle is white and
the angle between the stem and the base of the leaves are wide.
- 2-4 sandy leaves harvested before the first harvest (60-65 HST).
Sandy leaves chopped but not directly in the form of dried
krosok.
- Harvest first performed at the age of ± 70 days after planting,
picking 4-5 green leaves (semuruh)
- Harvesting both performed 7 days after the first harvest,
picking 4-5 green leaves (semuruh)
- The third harvest performed 7 days after the second harvest,
pick 4-5 leaves are green and yellow
- Harvest the four performed 8 days after the third harvest,
picking all the leaves left

Tobacco Characteristics 51 7/7/2017


- When the harvest had to use long sleeves gloves and headgear

Flatening - Separate the leaves by the level of uniformity of color (green,


yellow-green and yellow ready diflat. Leaves are still green
brooded until yellow.
- Put the leaves in the selected flattener conveyor machine for
diflat.
- Flattener process should start 4-6 hours before the Chopping.
- Stack as needed (adjust capacity machine chopped)
- Alas container flaten results using widig / carton / sack.

Figure 3.16 : Process flatening the Machine

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Choped and Drying - Chopping process done at night so that when the sun rises all
the chopped and eler is complete and can be directly dried
tobacco
- Rajaangan width is 1.5 mm
- Use burlap overlaid as a base and a temporary container that
has been shredded tobacco just before dieler
- Tobacco soon dieler evenly over widik. 1 widik enough for 2
pounds of tobacco chopped eler baaah
- Drying rack above tobacco made from bamboo
- The Chopping, where eler and drying must be clean.
- Drying tobacco that has been shredded for at least 2 days (until
dry) place that is free of shade

Figure 3.17 : Chopping Process Using Machine

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Tobacco Characteristics 52 7/7/2017


Figure 3.18 : Tobacco Dieler above Widiq

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Figure 3.19 : Drying in a Location That is not Shaded

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Process Bale - Preparation


 The dried leaves tambakau should dilemaskan first with
aerated. Do not be too humid because it will damage the
quality and moldy
 Fold the chopped tobacco that is dry and loose and enter into
the box

- Bale
 Box size: 90 x 60 x 60 cm
 Rules of dried tobacco leaf position so neat and undamaged
 Tobacco leaves should not be too pressed (pressed). Weight
per bale of about 40-50 kg
 Wrap the supplied cotton warehouse
 Temporary storage, tembaku bales placed on a pedestal
wood / pallets and covered with a tarpaulin that was not
moist snuff
 Send bales finished as soon as possible into the barn buying

Tobacco Characteristics 53 7/7/2017


Figure 3.20 : Process Bale

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Figure 3.21 : Bale Ready to Sell

Source : Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco

Non Tobacco Related - Ensure that the tobacco produced has no material other than
Material tobacco, including plastic, grass, other plants, feathers, animal
or other parts of the animals, rocks, dust, metal. All of the above
NTRM unwanted contained in tobacco, especially plastics.
- Relate to the post-harvest process must dipastika that farmers
do not use rope or plastic in harvesting, in the bond before the
chopped leaves, and in other crops prosespasca.
- Use rope or other plastic components must gdiganti with
materials that are natural and unnatural like jute rope, or a rope
from the trunk. It can be adapted to local conditions local.

Category NTRM
1A 1B 2A 2B 3 4
Experience the
Synthetic Organic Organic
"Control Metal Synthetic
"Controllable" "Processed" "Natural"
Limited"
- Styrofoam - Feather - Paper - Grass - Nail - Stone
- Nilon - Coocon - Cottonn - Wood - Boly - Gravel
- Rubber - Insect - Gunny - Gunny - Knive - Sand
- Plastic
- Leather
- Cigarette Stug

Tobacco Characteristics 54 7/7/2017


Summary
In modern tobacco farming, Nicotiana seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as
their germination is activated by light, then covered in cold frames. In the Colony of
Virginia, seedbeds were fertilized with wood ash or animal manure (frequently
powdered horsemanure). Coyote Tobacco (N. attenuata) of the western U.S. requires burned
wood to germinate.[1] Seedbeds were then covered with branches to protect the young plants
from frost damage. These plants were left to grow until around April. Today, in the United
States, unlike other countries, Nicotiana is often fertilized with the mineral apatite to
partially starve the plant for nitrogen, which changes the taste of the tobacco.

After the plants have reached a certain height, they are transplanted into fields. This was
originally done by making a relatively large hole in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, then
placing the small plant in the hole. Various mechanical tobacco planters were invented
throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries to automate this process, making a hole,
fertilizing it, and guiding a plant into the hole with one motion. The cultivation of
tobacco usually takes place annually. The tobacco is germinated in cold frames or hotbeds
and then transplanted to the field until it matures. It is grown in warm climates with rich,
well-drained soil. About 4.2 million hectares of tobacco were under cultivation worldwide in
2000, yielding over 7 million tonnes of tobacco.

Sowing : Tobacco seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as their germination is
activated by light. In colonial Virginia, seedbeds were fertilized with wood ash or
animal manure (frequently powdered horse manure). Seedbeds were then covered with
branches to protect the young plants from frost damage, and the plants were left alone until
around April.

Transplanting : After the plants have reached a certain height, they are transplanted into
fields. This was originally done by making a relatively large hole in the tilled earth with a
tobacco peg, then placing the small plant in the hole. Various mechanical tobacco planters
were invented throughout the late 19th and early 20th century to automate this process,
making a hole, fertilizing it, and guiding a plant into the hole with one motion.

Harvest : Tobacco can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method, the entire plant is
harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a sickle. In the nineteenth
century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as
they ripened. As the plants grow, they usually require topping and suckering. "Topping" is
the removal of the tobacco flowers while "suckering" is the pruning out of leaves that are
otherwise unproductive. Both procedures ensure that as much of the plant's energy as
possible focuses on producing the large leaves that are harvested and sold. "Cropping,"
"Pulling," and "Priming" are terms for removing mature leaves from tobacco plants. Leaves
are cropped as they ripen, from the bottom to the top of the stalk. The first crop of leaves
located near the base of the tobacco stalk are called "sand lugs" in more rural southern
tobacco states. They are called "sand lugs" because these leaves are close to the ground and
get splashed with sand and clay when heavy rains hit the soil. Sand lugs weigh the most,
and are most difficult to work with. Their weight is due to their large size and the added
weight of soil; slaves lugged each stack to the "stringer" or "looper," typically a female slave,
who bundled each stack of leaves. Eventually workers carried the tobacco and placed it on
sleds or trailers.

Tobacco Characteristics 55 7/7/2017


Quiz 3
Short Answer Questions

Answer the following questions briefly.

1. What Is a sowing?

2. What is a transplanting?

3. What is a tobacco cultivation?

4. What is needed for the best seedbed location?

5. What is needed materials and equipment for the cultivation of tobacco?

Tobacco Characteristics 56 7/7/2017


Chapter IV
In this chapter, you will learn about Pests and Diseases Tobacco.

Pests There is pests in tobacco, because more by insect. Insect have


plagued tobacco growers from the earliest days of commercial
production. There is a wide range of insects that attack flue-cured
tobaccoon the farm from the time the seed germinate until the
crop is harvested. There are also insect that attack the leaf in
storage after it has been cured, both on the farm and in the
manufacturers’s storage sheds. There are 13 type pests in tobacco:
Tobacco Flea Beetle [Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsh)], Midge
(Hydrobaenum spp.) and Crane Fly [Neolemnophila
ultima(Alch.)], Vegetable weevil (Listroderes costirostris obliquus
Klug), Cutworm, Budworms, Wireworms, Aphid, Hornworms,
Japanese Beetle, Stink Bugs, Grasshopper, Slugs, and Thrips.

Tobacco Flea Beetle Several species of fleas beetle attack flue-cured tobacco, but the
[Epitrix hirtipennis tobacco flea beetle is by far the most important. Adults are about
(Melsh)] 1/16 inch long with yellowfish-brown winge marked with a
darker area across them (they often appear nearly black). The
rows of fine punctures on the wing covers are quite distinct. They
overwinter in trash around fields and around old stalks in the
field. In the early spring they migrate to plant beds or others
suitable feeding sites. They attack seedlings and lay their eggs in
shaded areas on damp soil. The small white larvae which have
brownish heads remain in the soil for four or five weeks. They
tunnel into the stems and roots of plants and may cause them to
become unthrifty and in some cases die. Adults cause the major
damage by chewing small round holes in the leaves, giving them
a “shothole” appearance.

Tobacco Characteristics 57 7/7/2017


Figure 4.1 : Epitrix hirtipennis

Source : http://ipm.ncsu.edu/AG271/tobacco/tobacco_flea_beetle.html

Figure 4.2 : Epitrix hirtipennis

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Tobacco Characteristics 58 7/7/2017


Midge (Hydrobaenum These two insect cause similar damage and will be discussed
spp.) and Crane Fly together. Both adults are fragile mosquito-like, two-winged flies.
[Neolemnophila The adult crane flies are usually larger and less hairy than the
ultima(Alch.)] midge flies. The adults don’t cause damage to tobacco plants, but
the larvae feed on roots of young plants and dig burrows in the
top inch of soil. If the infestation is heavy enough at seed
germination time or soon there after, when the palnts have a very
limited root system, the damage might be severe. The overall
damage from these insects has been relatively light, however in a
few cases the damage has been mild to severe.

Vegetable weevil Adult weevils are about ¼ inch log and have a prominents snout.
(Listroderes costirostris They are dull greyish-brown with a light, V-shaped mark on the
obliquus Klug) back. Egg laying begins in the fall on turnips or collarda and
continues into the sparing on tobacco. Full-grown larvae are about
one-half inch long and are dirty green in color with dark mottled
heads. Both larvae and adults feed on leaves and stem of young
tobacco. The leaf damage is characterized by large reggededge
holes. The damage is usually confined to plant beds, but
occasionally appears on transplants in the field during cool
springs.

Cutworm Cutworms Are the larvae of stout, dull-colored moths that fly at
night. The eggs are laid in grass or weeds which means cutworm
infestations in tobacco are usually heavier when weeds or small
grain cover crops are turned just prior to transplanting the
tobacco. Cutworms cut plants off at about ground level and let
them wilt before feeding. They feed at night or on a cloudy day,
and may be found under clods or just under the soil surface
during the day.

A number of species feed on tobacco, but the most destructive


ones are listed above.

Cutworm damage is widespread but spotty and the degree of


damage is usually less than 5 percent of plants in a given field.

Figure 4.3 : Cutworms

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Tobacco Characteristics 59 7/7/2017


Budworms The Tobacco budworm is one of the most destructive insect pests
of tobacco. It winters as a brown pupa in the soil and emerges as a
grayish green or light brown moth in the spring about the time
tobacco is set. The female moths lay small white eggs on the
upper leaves. Tiny worms hatch and crawl into the bud where
they feed and cause ragged, distorted leaves. When full grown,
the worms burrow into the soil and pupate. Several generations
occur each year (four in North Carolina).

Figure 4.4 : Budworms

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Wireworms The tobacco wireworm is the most important of several kinds of


wireworms found on newly-set tobacco, however in some areas
the southern potato wireworm is the predominant one found on
tobacco. In the early spring the small, wire-like, yellow-brown
larvae burrows through the soil, feeding and tunneling in plant
roots and stems. Wireworms may kill or stunt newly set tobacco
causing uneven growth and increasing the need of replanting.
When full grown, the larvae are yellow-brown to brownish in
color and are about ½ and 2/3 inch long.

Wireworms are found throughout the flue-cured tobacco


producing area of the United States, but are most numerous in the
coastal plains to justify preventative type control measures
annually.

Figure 4.5 : Wireworms

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Tobacco Characteristics 60 7/7/2017


Aphid Aphids or “plant lice” were not of economic importance on flue-
cured tobacco until about 1946. Aphids then declined as a major
pest after 1948 but again became important from 1976 to the
present. They may be found on tobacco at any stage from the
plant bed until harvest is completed but populations usually peak
shortly after topping. The aphids that attack tobacco are soft-
bodied, sucking insect about the size of a cabbage seed. The adults
bear live young, which are called nymphs. Most of the nymphs
develop into green, wingless nymphs. Heavy aphids infestations
can results in reductions of both yield and quality. Aphids
damage tobacco by sucking the plant juices which a sooty mold
often develops. Heaviest aphid infestations usually develop
during coo, cloudy periods on tender succulent tobacco. Another
potential damage that this insect contributes to is the spread of
certain virus diseases.

Figure 4.6 : Aphaid

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Hornworms Hornworms are the best known and over the years have been the
most destructive insect pest of tobacco. The tobacco hornworm or

Tobacco Characteristics 61 7/7/2017


southern hornworm is more numerous in the southeastern United
States than the tomato or Northern hornworms. The tobacco
hornworm ha a red horn and straight diagonal white stripes on its
side, while the tomato hornworm has a black horn and V-shaped
stripes. The damage caused by these worms varies from slight to
complete defoliation.

Figure 4.7 : Hornworms

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Tobacco Characteristics 62 7/7/2017


Japanese Beetle These shiny metallic green and copper colored beetles emerge
from the soil in grassy areas during early summer. While they
seem to prefer certain weeds, they may attack tobacco. The adults
move about from area to area and deposit eggs in grass and sod
areas. The winter is spent as a grub in the soil.

Figure 4.8 : Japanese Beetle

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Stink Bugs These two species of stink bugs feed on a wide variety of wild and
cultivated plants, but are seldom of much importance on tobacco.
Both nymphs and adults insert their beak-like mouth parts into
plant tissues, particularly midveins of leaves, and feed on plant
juices. Leaves attacked often wilt badly and may develop a brown
area as a result of scalding while wilted.

Figure 4.9 : Stink Bugs

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Tobacco Characteristics 63 7/7/2017


Grasshopper The grasshopper is an insect of the suborder Caelifera in the
order Orthoptera. To distinguish it from bush crickets or katydids,
it is sometimes referred to as the short-horned grasshopper.
Species that change colour and behaviour at high population
densities are called locusts.

Figure 4.10 : Grasshopper

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Slugs Slug is a common name that is normally applied to


any gastropod mollusc that lacks a shell, that has a very reduced
shell, or has a small internal shell. This is in contrast to the
common name snail, applied to gastropods that have a coiled
shell large enough that the soft parts of the animal can retract
fully into it.

Slugs belong to several different lineages which also include


snails that have shells. The various families of land slugs are not
very closely related, despite a superficial similarity in the overall
body form. The shell-less condition has arisen many times
independently during the evolutionary past, and thus the
category "slug" is emphatically a polyphyletic one.

As well as land slugs, there are also many marine slugs and even
one freshwater slug genus (Acochlidium), but the common
name "slug" is most frequently applied to air-breathing land slugs,
while the marine forms are usually known as sea slugs. Land
gastropods with a shell that is not quite vestigial, but is too small
to retract into (like many in the family Urocyclidae), are known
as semislugs.

Slugs, like all other gastropods, undergo torsion (a 180° twisting


of the internal organs) during development. Internally, slug
anatomy clearly shows the effects of this rotation, but externally
the bodies of slugs appear rather symmetrical, except for the
positioning of thepneumostome, which is on one side of the
animal, normally the right hand side.

Tobacco Characteristics 64 7/7/2017


The soft, slimy bodies of slugs are prone to desiccation, so land-
living slugs are confined to moist environments and must retreat
to damp hiding places when the weather is dry.

Figure 4.11 : Slugs

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Thrips Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are tiny, slender insects with fringed
wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe)
+ pteron (wing)[citation needed]). Other common names for thrips
include thunderflies, thunderbugs, storm flies, thunderblights,
and corn lice. Thrips species feed on a large variety of sources,
both plant and animal, by puncturing them and sucking up the
contents. A large number of thrips species are considered pests,
because they feed on plants with commercial value. Some species
of thrips feed on other insects or mites and are considered
beneficial, while some feed on fungal spores or pollen. So far
around 5,000 species have been described. Thrips are generally
tiny (1 mm long or less) and are not good flyers, although they
can be carried long distances by the wind. In the right conditions,
many species can exponentially increase in population size and
form large swarms, making them an irritation to humans.

Tobacco Characteristics 65 7/7/2017


Figure 4.12 : Thrips

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Cultural Control There are several production practices which can be used to
reduce insect problems. These practices work to reduce the overall
level of an insect pest in a wide area, make individual fields less
attractive to insect pests or help the plant tolerate insect attack
with less loss. Most of these practices are also important in good
crop management as well.

1. Aphids spend the winter on such plants as colards, mustard,


and dock. These plants should be destroyed in the vicinity of
plant beds to reduce the movement of aphids from the winter
hosts to the beds. Likewise, any plant trash which can harbor flea
beetles should be destroyed. Neglected plant beds can serve as a
very good area for the development of insect pests which can
them move into the field.

2. Transplanting date can have an effect on insect problems in the


field. Very early planted tobacco is more likely to be damaged by
budworms. Very late planted tobacco is more likely to be
damaged by hornworms.

3. Nitrogen fertilization levels may play a role in insect damage in


several ways. When the nitrogen rate is excessive, tobacco plants
are more attractive to hornworms. Sucker production is also
greater and this again makes the plant more attractive to some
pests. Finally, the crop tends to remain in the field where it is
exposed to insect attack for a longer time.

4. Early topping and good sucker control may reduce some insect
problems. Clean plants are less attractive to egg laying budworm
and hornworm moths and offer less high quality food to reduce a
new generation of these pests. Aphids colonies tend to thrive
longer on suckers than on maturing leaves. Their damage to the
sucker is not important but they are still producing honeydew

Tobacco Characteristics 66 7/7/2017


which can damage marketable leaves.

5. Grasshoppers often move into tobacco from nearby host plants.


Keep borders clean and avoid having grasshopper infested
meadow strips near tobacco.

6. Sucker and post harvest regrowth are important food sources


for late season generations of insect pests such as budworms and
hornworms. It is these generations which form the basis for the
next year’s pest population. Destroying the stalks and roots of
tobacco just after harvest helps eliminate the food source for pests
and reduces the overwintering generation. Destructionof plant
trash and turning the upper layers of the soil also help disrupt the
overwintering sites of flea beetles and budworms. To be most
effective early stalk and root destruction should be practiced by
all farmers over a wide area.

7. All good production practices which get the crop off to a good
start, keep it growning and get it out of the field in a reasonable
time will help the crop tolerate or avoid pest problems.

Beneficial Insect Beneficial insect are an important factor in controlling the


numbers of pests insect in tobacco and other crops. Beneficials
help control pest in two ways. Some act as predators and attack
and quickly kill the pest. Others are parasites which develop
within the pest and destroy it more slowly. Both types help to
reduce the numbers of of pests in the field (protecting this year’s
yield and quality) as well as reducing the number of pests which
survive to begin a new generation (reducing the insect pressure
on next year’s crop). The amount of free, natural control these
beneficials provide is often underestimeted. A small wasp,
campoletis, may parasitize and kill 70 to 80 percent of the
budworm in all fields. Another parasitic wasp, apariteles, attacks
hornworms and may destroy 90 percent or more of the worms in
a field in late seasons. Apanteles wasps form the small, white,
oval cocoons attached to the back of hornworms. Stilt bugs (thin
brown or grey bugs with very long, thin legs) feed on large
number of budworm and hornworm eggs. In addition to these
three common beneficials, there are many others of importance. In
fact, most tobacco pests are attacked by not one but a whole series
of predators and parasites.

Tobacco Characteristics 67 7/7/2017


Table 4.1 : Relative Toxicity Ranking of Some Commonly Used
Tobacco Insecticides to 3 Beneficial Insect.*

Beneficial Insect
Insecticides
Campoletis Stilt Bug Apanteles
Azodrin 11 6-10 8
Bactur, Dipel, Thuricide** 1 1 1
Dylox, Proxol 2 3 2
Guthion 10 5 7
Lannate, Nudrin 3 4 3
Malathion 8 6-10 6
Orthene 4 6-10 4
Parathion 9 - -
Penncap-M 6 6-10 -
Sevin 5 2 5
Supracide 7 6-10 -
*lower numbers indicate less mortality in toxicity tests.
**Bactospeine was not tested but should be similar to these products.

Source : Principle of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

To make the most use of this natural control, growers should


follow three steps:

1.Avoid the use of systemic insecticides which may reduce the


populations of beneficial as well as pest insect.

2.Avoid unnecessary treatment with spray insecticides after


transplant.

3.If an insecticide is necessary, consider the effect on beneficials in


making your choice of material (Table 4.1)

Using Soil-Incorporated It’s easy to make mistakes in the use of soil incorporated
Insecticides pesticides. Many such materials are available and practically
every one controls a slightly different group of pests. Too often
farmers use a particular material expecting control it is not
designed to give, or on the other hand, pay extra for types of
control they may not need. Before buying and using a soil-
incorporated material, be sure you know what it is designed to do
and what it isn’t. Table 4.2 list soil-incorporated insecticides and
the pests for which they are recommended.

Some soil applied chemicals are taken up by the plant and


provide preventive control of leaf or stalk feeding insects. Such
materials are called systemic chemicals. Before deciding to use
systemic insecticides . Before deciding to use syspoints.
1) Systemics offer some protection against loss or the need to treat
later.
2) They may provide some peace of mind.
3) Most systemics offer protection against only one or two insect

Tobacco Characteristics 68 7/7/2017


pests.
4) Protection is not season long.
5) Some systemics may reduce populations of beneficial insects.
6) If the pest does not occur, the systemic treatment will have been
(at least partially) an unneeded expensive. Most insect pests can
be adequately controlled with a foliar spray treatment once it is
certain control is needed.

Table 4.2 : Range of Uses for Soil Incorporated Pesticides.

Used for control of :


Contact Systemics Contact
Wire Bud Flea Horn
Material Aphids Nematode*
worm worm Beetle worm
Dasanit X X
Diazinon X
Di-
X X
Syston
Dyfonate X
Furadam X X** X X X
Mocap X X
Mocup
X X X
Plus
Nemacur X
Temik X X
Vydate X X
Orythene X
*Some of these product offer only fair nemetode control
**Aids in control of budworm, may not offer protection from heavy infestation

Source : Principle of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

No one insecticide is best for all tobacco pests or even for a single
pest under all conditions. If it is desided to use an insecticide in a
field, choose the one which best fits the conditions and needs
when the pest problem occurs. After determining the pest to be
controlled, choose an insecticide which works well against the
pest. If two or more insect are doing damage to a field, the best
choice would be an insecticide providing good control of all
insects. The effectiveness of insecticide sprays against four major
leaf-feeding insect is shown in Table 4.3.

Tobacco Characteristics 69 7/7/2017


Table 4.3 : General Effectiveness and Specificity of Control of 4
Tobacco pest

Insect Pest
Recommended
Horn- Flea
Insecticide Bud-Worm Aphids
Worm Beetles
Azodrin *** *** ***
Bactur ** ***
Dipel, Sok-BT ** ***
Guthion *** *** **
Lannate,
*** *** ** *
Nudrin
Malathion **
Orthene *** *** *** ***
Penncap-M *** *** ** ***
Sevin * *** **
Supracide *** *** **
Thiodan * ***
Thuricide ** ***
***Best control
**Good Control
*Fair

Tobacco Characteristics 70 7/7/2017


Diseases Deseases of flue-cured tobacco are a constant threat to the
successful production of this crop. There are many different
diseases that attack the crop and the degree of damage may range
from slight to complete destruction. Some diseases appear
infrequently whereas other are a problem every year in some
areas or on some fields. There are 13 type diseases in tobacco:
Nematode, Fungus, Bacterial, Virus, Physiological difficulties.

Nematode There are two major types of nematode damage in flue-cured


tobacco. The most prevalent and the most severe damage is
caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne). The other is
caused by lesion or meadow nematodes (Pratylenchus), referred
to as brown root rot.

Figure 4.13 : Nematode Damage

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

There are four closely related species of root-knot nematodes that


attack flue-cured tobacco M. incognita which is the most
prevalent, M. incognita acreta (new strain), M. arenaria, and M.
Javanica. Root-knot nematodes cause stunted plants with yelow
leaves. In more severe cases the leaves show excessive wilting
during the day or the plants might even die. The most distinctive
below-ground symtoms of root-knot nematode are the galls on
the roots. The galls vary in size from pinhead to many times the
thickness of the root on which the grow. The size and shape of
galls differ somewhat with different nematode species.

Lesion-nematode damage usually occurs in field in well defined


areas of irregular shape. Affected plants are stunted especially
during the early part of the growing season. In severe cases the
leaves may become wilted during the hot part of the day, and sow
some rimfiring. The pants may never become more than about a
foot tall. Affected roots may show different degrees of decay with
lesions varying in color from pale yellow to almost black. The

Tobacco Characteristics 71 7/7/2017


lesions may completely girdle the root so that the cortex tissues
slough off leaving only the vascular cylinder.

There are four methods of controlling nematodes in flue-cured


tobacco-rotation, chemical soil treatment, resistant varietas, and
early stalk and root destruction. All should be used in
combination. Crop rotation can be effective in reducing nematode
populations if the correct crops are used. Two or more alternate
crops should be included in the rotation, but a simple two-year
rotation is better then planting continuous tobacco. Alternate
crops which are resistant to the most prevalent nematodes should
be used, and if possible, alternate the crops in the rotation to
reduce the buildup of other nematode species.

A number of chemicals are available for soil treatments to control


nematodes. A soil fumigant treatment shoul be used where large
nematodes populations are known to be present and a contact
nematicide may be adequate for low to moderate nematode
infestations. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for
method, rate, and time of application.

Tobacco varieties are available which carry a high level of


resistance to one species of root-knot nematodes-M.incognita.
These varieties are not resistant to the other species of root-knot
nematodes nor the lesion nematodes. It has been observed the
some varieties are a littlemore tolerant to root-rot or lesion
nematodes than other varieties, but this slight degree opf
tolerance is seldom enough to consider as a commercial means of
control.

Exposure of nematode eggs and larva to direct sunlight for a few


hours is lethal; the egs and larvae are also killed when they are
dried. In addition to killing many nematodes and their eggs, early
stalk and root destruction by plowing or discing as soon as
harvest is completed eliminates their food supply which reduces
population buildup for future crops.

Fungus Fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that


includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British
English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These
organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate
from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that
fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls
of plants, which contain cellulose. These and other differences
show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms,
named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share
a common ancestor (a monophyletic group). This fungal group is
distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes(slime molds)
and oomycetes (water molds). The discipline of biology devoted
to the study of fungi is known as mycology, which is often
regarded as a branch of botany, even though genetic studies have

Tobacco Characteristics 72 7/7/2017


shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to
plants. There are 4 type Fungus in tobacco : Soil borne fungus
(Phytophthoro parasitica var. Nicotianae), Air Borne Fungus
(Alternaria tenuis), Fusarium Wilt, and Sore Shin

- Soil borne fungus (Phytophthoro parasitica var. Nicotianae)


It primarily affect roots and basal parts of the stem, hence the
common name “blank shank”. Young affected plants “damp
off” and the stem near the soil level becomes dark brown or
black. In tobacco plants one to two feet tall, the first symtom of
the diseases may be sudden wilting of the leaves. When the
plants are dug from the ground one or more of the large roots
will be black and dead, whereas the stalk may be free from
decay or discoloration. On older tobacco, the stalk may be
blanck a foot or more above the soil. Soon the leaves will wilt
and in a few days the plant will be dead. When the stems of
such plants are split through the lesion, the pith appears
brown to black and is usually separated into plate-like disks.
During rainy weather, large black lesions may appear on the
leaves as a result of leak infection.

Figure 4.14 : Fungal disease (soil borne)

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

- Sore Shin
Sore Shin which is caused by a soil-inhabiting fungus
(Rhizoctonia-solani) is widespread throughout the flue-cured
producing area, but the field damage is usually limited to less
than I percent of the plants in affected fields.

This diseases usually first appears in the plant bed. A decayed


area forms on the stems of affected seedlings and if conditions
are favorable for diseases development teh lesions enlarge
until the stem is girdled and the plants topple over. When
slightly diseased plants are set in the field during cool, wet
weather a poor stand may often result. The stems of diseases
plants break off easily at soil line. If the stalks of large diseased
plants are split open it will be seen that decayed pith has

Tobacco Characteristics 73 7/7/2017


become dry and brown in color, showing patches of light gray
fungus. The woody part of the stalk becomes hard and brittle.
Even though the plants may break over at the soil line or the
tops may turn yellow and die, the root system may remain
alive.

Disinfestation of the soil in plant beds helps prevent sore shin


in the beds; however, there is no satisfactory control in the
field. The disease does not usually do sufficient damage to
warrant concern.

Figure 4.15 : Sore Shin

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

- Fusarium Wilt
Fusarium Wilt is caused by a fungus (Fusarium oxysporum, f.
Sp. Nicotianae). This disease has been found throughout the
flue-cured area of the U.S., but is not considered of major
importance except in the eastern and border belts of north
carolina. Just why the disease causes damage only in restricted
areas is not clearly understood, especially since the casual
organism is widespread in the soil.

The most conspicuous symptoms of fusarium wilt are slow


yellowing and dwarfing of the leaves on one side of the plant.
Wilting is not noticeable and leaves may develop a pumpkin
yellow color and remain turgid for days. The leaves on the
affected side are dwarfed if infected prior to full development,
the midribs are curved, and frequently the top of the plant is
drawn over toward the diseased side. If a strip of the outer
bark of the stem is removed from the diseased of the plant, the
wood will be chocolate brown in color. Fusarium wilt is a
warm weather disease; little damage occurs in cool weather.

Tobacco Characteristics 74 7/7/2017


Figure 4.16 : Fusarium Wilt

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt


- Air Borne Fungus (Alternaria tenuis)
The severity of the diseases varies tremendously from year to
year because of climate, condition of the crop, varieties, and
possibly other factors.

Brown spot lesions first appear on the lower and older leaves.
First indications of infection are small water-soaked circular
areas which enlarge gradually, as the spots enlarge. The
centers die and become brown, leaving a sharp line of
demarcation between diseased and healthy tissue. There is
usually a haloof yellow tissue surround the brown lesion. The
spots, rangingup to one inch or more in diameter with
concentric marking, may fuse and render the entire leaf ragged
and worthless.

Figure 4.17 : Air Borne Fungus

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Bacterial Bacterial is the study of microscopic organisms, which are defined


as any living organism that is either a single cell (unicellular), a
cell cluster, or has no cells at all (acellular). This
includeseukaryotes, such as fungi and protists,
and prokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed
as living organisms, are also studied. Microbiology typically
includes the study of the immune system, or immunology.
Generally, immune systems interact withpathogenic microbes;

Tobacco Characteristics 75 7/7/2017


these two disciplines often intersect which is why many colleges
offer a paired degree such as "Microbiology and Immunology".
There are 4 type bacterial in tobacco : Hallow stalk, Frenching,
Wildfire, Angular Leaf Spot or Blackfire

- Hollow Stalk
Hollow Stalk is caused by a bacterium (Erwinia aroideae). This
diseases has probably occured in tobacco fields since coclonial
days, but it usually affects only scattered plants and seldom
causes much loss. Humidity is the most important factor
affecting development of this diseases. It develop most rapidly
during damp, cloudy weather.

Hollow stalk usually first appear soon after topping or


suckering especially if these practices are done by hand in
rainy weather. Although the diseases may begin at any stem
wound, it is most often seen in the pith at the break made in
topping. Soon after infection, a rapid browning of the pith
develops followed by a genera soft rotting and collapse of the
tissue. The top leaves wilt and the infection spreads
downward; the leaves droop and hang down or fall off,
leaving the stalks bare.

In an effort to prevent hollow stalk, topping and suckering


should not be done during damp, cloudy weather, when
conditions for the spread and development of the diseases are
ideal.

Figure 4. 18 : Hollow Stalk

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

- Frenching
Frenching was first reported in 1688 and is usually classified as
a physiological desease because several workers have showns
the disease is not infectious; however more recently plants
have developed franching symptoms when subjected to toxins
in the soil developed by a certain bacterium (Bacillus cereus).

Tobacco Characteristics 76 7/7/2017


Even though it was once belived this disease was associated
with poor soil drainage or excessive lime, it is genarlly
believed now that it results from a soil toxin.

Frenching is present in all flue-cured producing areas, but it


seldom causes much damage. Occasionally, all plants in
certain areas of a field may show frenching symptoms, but
usually only a few plants in any one field are involved.

The earliest symptoms of frenchingis chlorosis along the


margins of young leaves. This gradually spreads until the
entire leaf is involved except the midrib and veins which stay
green.
As the leaves develop, only the midrib elongates thereby
producing long, narrow strap-like leaves. In severe cases,
many suckers develop, resulting in dwarfed plants with
numerous strap shaped, long leaves.

To help prevent frenching, avoid the use of aklaline soils,


excessively heavy applications of lime, and poorly drained
soils.

Figure 4.19 : Frenching

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Tobacco Characteristics 77 7/7/2017


- Wildfire
Wildfire (Pseudomonas tabaci) occurs both in the plant bed
and in the field. Leaf symptoms are localized clorotic halos
one-half to one inch in diameter that surround a small brown
spot. Theses spots may fuse, forming large irregular dead
areas. Wildfire spreads rapidly during wet weather, especially
when leaves are water-soaked.

Figure 4. 20 : Wildfire

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

- Angular Leaf Spot or Blackfire


The lesions of blackfire or angular leaf spot (Pseudomonoas
angulata) are commonly angular and darker in color than
those resulting from wildfire. The spots are bound by veins
and range from 1/25 to 1/3 inch in diameter. In severe cases
the leaves become puckered and torn, and the centers of the
lesions fall out.

Figure 4.21 : Angular Leaf Spot or Blackfire

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Tobacco Characteristics 78 7/7/2017


Virus A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside
the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of
organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea.
There are 3 type virus in tobacco : Tobacco Mosaic, Ring Spot, and
Etch.

- Tobacco Mosaic
Tobacco Mosaic is caused by a virus and has been recognized
since the early 1900’s in flue-cured tobacco. This virus is sap
transnissible and is easy to spread from one plant to another. It
can be spread by any agent which bruises an infected plant
and later rubs or touches a leaf of a healthy plant. Certain
commercial crops such as tomatoes and peppers as well as
certain weeds are susceptible to tobacco mosaic virus.

Tobacco mosaic symptoms are characterized by a mosaic


pattern of alternating light and dark green color. This motting
of color is more easily seen on the younger leaves. Under some
conditions the leaf symptoms may appear within 48 hours
after inoculation, but more often it takes six to ten days. Only
those leaves that develop after inoculation show the typical
symptoms even though the virus is rapidly spread to all parts
of the plants soon after introduction. Affected leaves may have
restricted growth and in some cases the entire plant may
become stunted if inoculation occurs while the plant is young.
Young leaves with extreme mottling may develop blisters or
“burned” section as they approach maturity during periods of
high temperatures and high light intesity. This is referred to as
mosaic burn.

Figure 4.22 : Tobacco Mosaic

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

- Ring Spot
Ring spot caused by a virus that is widespread throughhout
the flue-cured producing area, although it seldom causes
severe loss. It is sporadic in appearance. Some field may have

Tobacco Characteristics 79 7/7/2017


as much as 90 % of the plants infected, but more often it is
limited to a few isolated plants. The ring spot virus has a wide
host range and can infest many cultivated plants and native
weeds. Ring spot is recognized by the concentric line patterns
of chlorotic and necrotic tissue on the leaves. Frequently these
line patterns are circular and again they may parallel the veins
which results in an oakleaf pattern. A severely infected plant
or leaf may be dwarfed.

Ring spot is sap-transmissible and is probably spread in


handling plants at transplatting time. Also, there is evidence to
show that certain nematodes and insect can carry the virus
from one plant to another. Tobacco crops following or adjacent
to clovers, soybeans, lespedeze, alfalfa, horsenettle, ground
cherry, or poke weed are particularly likely to show ring spot
infection.

Figure 4. 23 : Tobacco Ring Spot

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

- Etch
Etch caused by a virus and is found throughout the flue-cured
tobacco producing area of the U.S. but seldom causes serious
damage to the tobacco crop.

Etch causes a mild mottling of the upper leaves with


alternating light and green color. The symptoms of etch
somewhat resemble those of mosaic, but chlorotic patterns
caused by etch are much smaller than those caused by mosaic
and etch seldom ever causes stunting

Weed should not be allowed to grow around the plant bed,


because some of them are susceptible to etch. Also, since
aphids are the principal insect vector of this diseases they
should be controlled in the plant bed and in the field. Certain
varieties seem to have more tolerance to etch than others.

Tobacco Characteristics 80 7/7/2017


Figure 4.24 : Tobacco Etch

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Physiological Difficulties - Weather Fleck (Physiological Leaf Spot, Ozone injure, or Air
Pollution Damage)

There are a number of non-parasitic leaf spots that occur on


flue-cured tobacco; however, the most common one is called
weather fleck or blight and is caused by high concentration of
ozone in the air.

This buildup of ozone is belived to be caused by certain


weather conditions warm, hazy, overcast skies with limited air
movement or from air polution from heavily industrialized
areas. It is often observed several days after “smog”
condutions and is usually more pronounced in low areas with
limited air circulation and poor water drainage. The flecks can
be observed within 24 hours after exposure to an elevated level
of ozone.

Weather fleck symptoms first appear as very small black spots


pinhead size or smaller. Within three days the spots become
brown and then turn white. On most plants only the lower
leaves are affected, but in severe in fections one-half or more of
the leaves may be affected. In mild cases the spots may be ¼ to
½ inch apart, but in severe cases the spots may almost touch
causing portions of the leaf or maybe the entire leaf to become
dried and worthless. In the U.S. there is seldom more than one
period during the growning season when weather fleck
develops on flue-cured tobacco, but in other areas, such as
southern ontario, there may be numerous outbreaks of this
condition especially about topping time and during harvest.
When weather conditions are desirable for fleck to appear, it is
usually worse on plants which are showing the effects of
deficient or excessive quantities of nitrogen.

No varieties have resistance to weather fleck but some show


more tolerance than others. The selection of varieties and the

Tobacco Characteristics 81 7/7/2017


use of the proper quantity of nitrogen can be used to keep
weather fleck to a minimum.

Figure 4.25 : Weather Fleck

Source : An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Diseases Management Diseases management, then must be planned in advance of the


crop year. Management decisions should include the careful
consideration of the diseases problems present and the degree of
severity at which these diseases manifest themselves. Only with a
combination of practices (management) can growers plan
effective diseases control that will last. This is known as the
integrated approach. There are several fundamental principles
upon which management practices can be built. A brief
discussion of each of these follows:

A. Crop Rotation
Crop rotation is a cultural practice that must be considered in
planning any disease management program. Crop rotation
affers many advantages, some of which are agronomic, and is
a practice that has been used by farmers since the beginning of
agricultural history. Although there may be valid reasons why
growers have difficulty in planning and prasticing rotation, the
benefits that can be derived in disease control are sufficiently
great to merit careful planning and consideration. Crop
rotation consists of:
- Length of Rotation
Because the principle of crop rotation in relation to diseases
control involves the denial of a suitable plant on which the
pest can feed, the longer the rotation the more beneficial the
effect that will be obtained. Thus, a four year rotation (three
alternate crops between tobacco) is more effective than a
two or three year rotation. Similarly, a three year rotation is
superior to a two year rotation. Nevertheles, a two year
rotation (one alternate crop between crops of tobacco)
provides significant disease reduction and is far superior to
continuously, growers are feeding populations of pests and

Tobacco Characteristics 82 7/7/2017


thereby contributing to their buildup and the possibility of
severe disease problems in the future.

Table 4.4 : Suggested Crops for Rotation as Related to Certain


Disease

Disease Suggeste Rotation Crops


Black Shank All crops grown in north carolina;
therefore, any alternate crop may be
used.
Granville Wilt Fescue
Soybeans
Red Top Grass
Corn*
Cotton
Milo
Root-Knot Small Grain
Fescue
Sudan Grass
‘Rowan’ Lespedeza
Mosaic Most crops can be used, except tobacco
and pepper. Horsenettle is a known
“carrier” and should be eliminated.
Black Root Rot Small Grain
Fescue
Corn
Other non-leguminous plants
*Recent research indicates that populations of granville wilt
bacteria may build up in corn roots, although corn plants develop
no symptoms.

- Selection of Alternate Crops


The value of crop rotation as a means of reducing disease is
naturally related to the selections of alternate crops to be
used in the cropping system. The use of crops not affected
by the causal agent, of course provides the best control.
Consult Tabel 4.4 for suggested crops to be considered
when certain diseases are present.

A rotational crop which is effective for one disease may


actually favor another disease. Thus, a knowledge of a
disease problems present is imperative and rotational crops
themselves should be changed periodically to prevent
continuos builup of one pathogen or another.

B. Stalk and Root Destruction


The destruction of roots and stalks from the previous year’s
crop is a cultural operation that must be followed whether or
not diseases have been observed. To be effective, this must be
accomplished as soon as possible after harvest is completed.

Tobacco Characteristics 83 7/7/2017


Efficient and thorough completion of these tasks will reduce
populations of several tobacco pests, including the root0knot,
mosaic, brown spot, blank shank, granville wilt, and
veinbanding disease, as well as several insect, grasses, and
weeds.

C. Additional Helpful Cultural Practices


There are certain operations during the normal culture of
tobacco that can enhance control of tobacco diseases. The
objective of these practices is to provide the plants with every
possible advantage to enable it to withstand attack by diseases
casual agents that may be present in its enviroment. If the
tobacco plant is always favored at the expense of the causal
agent, it will often survive even if attacked by a particular
microorganism. Certain of these cultural practices that will aid
in disease control are men tioned below as examples of things
that can be done during the culture of the crop that will make
disease control more successful.

1) The Formation of a High, Wide Bed (row)


The formation of a high, wide bed in the field is important
in providing tobacco root system with proper conditions for
their development. This practice enables growers to
converse moisture during the time of year that North
Carolina frequently is deficient in water. At the same time,
the formation of a high, wide planting bed wil help provide
drainage for root sytems in areas or fields that tend to
become water-logged. Most causal agentsthat affect the root
system of plants are favored by poor drainage or high
moisture content. The formation of high, wide bed usually
provides drainage which greatly favors the tobacco plant at
the expense of the disease causal agent.

2) Spacing
Tobacco plants which are spaced too close together often
suffer disease losses greater than those that are planted
wider a part in the row. This is especially true involving
above-ground disease such as brown spot and blue mold.
Close spacing provides a dense canopy so that moisture is
retained on lower leaves which favors infection and
development. Wider spacing provides for more sunlight,
for bettes aeration, and for better drying conditions for the
foliage on the bottom part of the plant. Tobacco mosaic will
also be less if plants area properly spaced.

3) Balanced Fertilization
Disease causal agents are generally favored by imbalaced
fertilizer application. Some pests, such as root-knot
nematodes, are favored by deficiencies such as of
potassium. On the other hand, other causal agents such as
blank shank fungus are favored by excessive fertilazation

Tobacco Characteristics 84 7/7/2017


such as with nitrogen. Usually, a healthy crop is one thet
has received balance fertilization not excessive and not
deficient.

4) Order of Cultivation When Disease Is Present


Should disease appear in only some field or certain parts of
a field, these should be cultivated last to reduce the chance
of spreading the disease organism to “clean” areas. After
cultivation, equipment should be washed with a detergent
at the same strength used to wash clothes.

5) Layby As Early As Possible


There are certain disease to which some measure of control
can be achieved by laying the crop by as early as possible.
Organism such as the Granville wilt bacterium and the
Fusarium wilt fungus require an opening into the plant
roots. Cultivation can cut roots there by providing an ideal
route for such organism to enter the plant. Early layby will
produce less root wounding because the roots have not
extended as far out into the middles as they will have later.
It is not unusual to observe very beneficial effects due to
early layby to disease such as Granville Wilt. In addition,
this prevents continuous and late passage of cultivation
equipment through the crop. This will help reduce the
incidance of such diseases such as mosaic. Therefore, there
are a number of advantages from a disease management
perspective that can be achieved due to early layby

D. Resistant Varieties
Varietal resistance provides a fulcrum for tobacco disease
control. This is evidenced by the fact that no fields are planted
to a variety that was not developed to be resistant to one
disease or another. The resistant variety is a necessary part of
control programs for both black shank and granville wilt, and
a very important aspect of programs designed to control root-
knot, mosaic, brown spot, and black root rot.

E. The Use of Chemical


The use of chemicals as aids in control of tobacco disease in
plant beds and the field has increased dramatically during the
past few years, and offers growers an additional weapon in
efforts to reduce losses. Initially, most chemicals were used in
Nort Carolina to control soil-borne nematodes; later, however,
multi purpose materials became available which assist in
control of black shank, blank root rot, and Granville wilt in
addition to nematodes and more recently a new fungicide was
introduced to control blue mold.

F. General
Good insect control may also reduce disease problems. For
example, there has been a close correlation of wireworm

Tobacco Characteristics 85 7/7/2017


damage and certain root diseases. Wireworm damage to the
roots and stems allows the entry of disease organism,
especially blank shank. Also, aphids are known to transmit
certain virus disease such as etch.

Tobacco Characteristics 86 7/7/2017


Summary
There are some pest and diseases which attack tobacco. Tobacco Flea Beetle [Epitrix
hirtipennis (Melsh)], Midge (Hydrobaenum spp.) and Crane Fly [Neolemnophila
ultima(Alch.)], Vegetable weevil (Listroderes costirostris obliquus Klug), Cutworm,
Budworms, Wireworms, Aphid, Hornworms, Japanese Beetle, Stink Bugs, Grasshopper,
Slugs, and Thrips. While diseases which are more damaging to tobacco than pests include
Nematode, Fungus, Bacterial, Virus, Physiological difficulties.

Tobacco Characteristics 87 7/7/2017


Quiz 4
Short Answer Questions

Answer the following questions briefly.

1. What are the kinds of pest in tobacco?

2. What are the kind of diseases in tobacco?

3. What are the kind of bacterial in diseases tobacco?

4. What are the kind of Virus in diseases tobacco?

5. What are the kind of Fungus in diseases tobacco?

Tobacco Characteristics 88 7/7/2017


Bibliography
An Introduction to Agronomy-Roque.ppt

Guidlines Cultivation of Tobacco 2012

Tobacco Encyclopedia, 1984.

Principle of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

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Answer key
Chapter 1
1. What factors influence the production of tobacco?
Soil and Climate
2. What is causing drowning in tobacco?
free water accumulating in the root zone to the extent that air, or more specifically oxygen, is
not available to the roots.
3. How to control erosion at Tobacco Farm?
parallel strips and parallel terraces are becoming more popular on tobacco farms as a means
of controlling water erosion and eliminating the necessity of having short rows.
4. What is the function of the rotation of the tobacco plant with other crops?
For helping to control tobacco diseases by denying the causal agent a suitable plant on time
as possible.
5. What the problems of growing tobacco in rotation with other crops?
controlling the quantity of nitrogen available to the tobacco.

Chapter 2
1. What is the genus name of tobacco?
Nicotiana
2. What are 4 type tobacco?
Burley Tobacco, Oriental Tobacco, Virginia Tobacco, and Domestic Tobacco.
3. How to control the rate of drying without artificial heating?
a. The density of tobacco in the barn by adjusting the number of stalks/stick and the spacing
of the sticks on a tier;
b. The top and side ventilators where available.
4. What is another name of virginia tobacco?
Flue-cured tobacco
5. What are the kinds of domestic tobacco?
Krosok FC, Krosok Native, and Rajangan.

Chapter 3
1. What Is a sowing?
Tobacco seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as their germination is activated by
light. In colonial Virginia, seedbeds were fertilized with wood ash or
animal manure (frequently powdered horse manure). Seedbeds were then covered with
branches to protect the young plants from frost damage, and the plants were left alone until
around April.

2. What is a transplanting?
After the plants have reached a certain height, they are transplanted into fields. This was
originally done by making a relatively large hole in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, then
placing the small plant in the hole. Various mechanical tobacco planters were invented
throughout the late 19th and early 20th century to automate this process, making a hole,
fertilizing it, and guiding a plant into the hole with one motion.
3. What is a tobacco cultivation?
In modern tobacco farming, Nicotiana seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as
their germination is activated by light, then covered in cold frames. In the Colony of
Virginia, seedbeds were fertilized with wood ash or animal manure (frequently
powdered horsemanure). Coyote Tobacco (N. attenuata) of the western U.S. requires burned

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wood to germinate. Seedbeds were then covered with branches to protect the young plants
from frost damage. These plants were left to grow until around April. Today, in the United
States, unlike other countries, Nicotiana is often fertilized with the mineral apatite to
partially starve the plant for nitrogen, which changes the taste of the tobacco.

4. What is needed for the best seedbed location?


- Near water resource
- Not a farmer tobacco seedbed previous season
- Not a former plant family (family solanaceae), example : Tomatoes and Peppers
- Need land seedbed about 100 m2 for 4 seedbed (Capacity 1 ha)
- Dimensions seedbed, are : length 25 m, width 110 cm, height 30 cm and distance
between seedbed is 80 cm
-
5. What is needed materials and equipment for the cultivation of tobacco?
- Cover plastic with size length 26 m and width 160 cm
- Tobacco seeds many 9.6 gram (2.4 gram/seedbed)
- NPK fertilizer much 12 kg (3 kg/seedbed) and KNO3 fertilizer much 1 kg (250
gr/seedbed)
- Nematisida (Petrofur) much 400 gr (100gr/seedbed)
- Fungisida (Ridomil MZ)
- Herbisida (Command)
- Insektisida (Metindo)
- Seeding Boom and Gembor
- Grasscutter
- Small Basket
- Soft Soap
- Rope Yarn
- Plengkung bamboo length 240 cm, width 3-4 cm much 100 unit (25 unit/seedbed)
- Peg the bamboo size 30 cm much 182 unit (32 peg/seedbed)
- Rice husk much 2 sack ( 1 sack for 2 seedbed)

Chapter 4
1. What are the kinds of pest in tobacco?
Tobacco Flea Beetle [Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsh)], Midge (Hydrobaenum spp.) and Crane Fly
[Neolemnophila ultima(Alch.)], Vegetable weevil (Listroderes costirostris obliquus Klug),
Cutworm, Budworms, Wireworms, Aphid, Hornworms, Japanese Beetle, Stink Bugs,
Grasshopper, Slugs, and Thrips.
2. What are the kind of diseases in tobacco?
Nematode, Fungus, Bacterial, Virus, Physiological difficulties.
3. What are the kind of bacterial in diseases tobacco?
Hollow Stalk, Frenching, Wildfire, Angular Leaf Spot or Blackfire.
4. What are the kind of Virus in diseases tobacco?
Tobacco mosaic, ring spot, and etch.
5. What are the kind of Fungus in diseases tobacco?
Soil borne fungus, Sore Shin, Fusarium Wilt, and Air Borne Fungus.

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