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Netzwerke Prüfung

Warum Rechnernetze/ Why Computer Networks

 Gemeiname Nutzung von Ressourcen / Sharing of resources
 Kosteneinsparung /cost savings
 Hohe Zuverlässingkeit /higher reliability
 Kommunikation

Unterscheidungsmerkmale von Netzwerke /Distinguishing features

 Kommunikationsart
o Unicast: 1:1
o Multicast 1:group
o Broadcast 1:all
 Reichweite = reach
o Small home
o Small office/home office
o Medium to large
o World wide

o Local Area Network (LAN)

o Wide Area Network (WAN)
o Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
o Wireless LAN (WLAN)
o Storage Area Network (SAN)

 Vermittlungsart = transfer type

o Leitungsvermittlung (Circuit Switching): Eine fixe Leitung für die Dauer der
Übertragung, nachteile ist verschwendung der Brandbreite
o Paketvermittlung (Packet Switching): Datagramm Übertragung, Virtual Call
 Performance
o Datenrate: max glecihzeitig übertragbar Rohdaten Bit/s
o Latenz: Dauer der Übertragung von einem Rechner zum anderen

Bestandteile eines Netzwerkes (Components of a network)

o Die Geräte
o Endgeräte: Computers, netzwerkdruckern, VoIP telefone, Telepresence Endpunkte,
Sicherheitskameras, mobile geräte
o Zwischengeräte: verteiler (Switch und lokales Funknetz), Internetfähiges Gerät
(Router), Sicherheitskomponenten (Firewall)
o Da Medium
o Copper, Fiber Optic, Wireless
o Die Services

Schichtenmodell (Internet Layer Model)

o Steuerung der Kommunikationsprozesses
o Viele Kompnenten von unterschiedlichen Herstellern
o Zerlegung der Aufgabenstellung in mehrere funktionale Aufgaben (Shichten)
o Kommunikation ist nur zwischen benachbarten Schichten über eine sogenannte Schnittstelle
o Beim Versenden einer Nachricht durchläuft diese alle Schicten, auch beim empfänger
o Aufgabe einer jeden Schicht ist es, den benachbarten Schichten Dienste anzubieten

Physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, application

Advantages of Computer Networks

 Shared resources
 Cost savings
 Higher reliability
 Communication

Defining Features

 Type of communication
o Unicast
o Multicast
o Broadcast
 Range
o LAN: local, binds some devices together
o WAN: wider geographic area and made of more networks.
 Transfer Type
o Circuit Switching: fixed connection for the length of the transmission, waste of
o Packet Switching: frame transmission. Cut it up into little bits.
 Performance
o Data rate: maximal amount of simultaneous data transfer, bits/sec
o Latency: length of time it takes to transfer data from one device to another.

Components of a network:

 Geräte
o End devices: computers, printers, security cameras
o In between: Switch, Router, Firewall
 Medium
o Copper, fiber optic, wireless
 Service

OSI model

 Simplifies a complex problem

 Single layers only communicate directly with their neighbours
 Makes futher standard development easier

Physical Layer: Bits

Data Link: MAC addresses, transfer data between devices and provide means to detect errors from
the physical layer.

Network: logical addresss, find the best route to send the dat packets

Transport: determines the tye of transport, TCP, UDP

Session Layer: Synchronisation between machines

Presntation: syntax of the information, coordination of data

Application: interface between user and networl.

The internet

Made up of many LANS and WANs around the world, a network of networks.

A network within the internet is known as an autonomous system.

 ^can be multiple subnets

 Managed by an organisation like and ISP
 There are about 110 000 AS registered

Startnet in 1969 with APRENET to bind 4 mainframe computers, US department of defense.

How to connect


 DSL (Digital subscriber line)

 Cable
 Cellular (radiowaves)
 Satellite
 Dial up


 Dedicated leased lines

 Metro ethernet
 Satteluite

Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies used in LAN, MAN and WAN networks.
Systems communicating over the the net divide a stream of data into smaller pieces called frames.

It works on the physical and data link layer of the OSI model.

Defined in the 802.2 and 802.3 standards.

Divided into 2 sublayers on the data link layer. Logical link control and Media Access Control.


Regulates communication between the network layer and the data link layer. Controls frame
synchronisation, flow control and error checking for the logical link


Provides flow control, and multiplexing for the transmission medium.

When sending data, MAC encapsulated higher-level framed into frames appropriate for the
transmission medium, adds a frame check sequence to identify transmission errors and then
forwards the data to the physical layer.

2 main actions:

 Data encapsulation
o Frame delimiting
o Addressing: header with a MAC address
o Error detection: trailer with Redundancy check (CRC)
 Media Access control
o Control of frame placement
o Media recovery

Types of networks

Bus System:

 no central node
 shared physical medium
 only one station can send at a time
 if one station breaks down, the others cant communicate
 needs a termination at the ends to avoid echos.

Star system

 multiple computers connected to a central node

in bus and star system networks a protocol needs to be used to avoid collisions. Network may be
divided into several collision domains by bridges and switched.

This is a protocol used by the MAC sublayer for collision avoidance. It stands for carrier-sense
multiple access with collision detection.

Uses carrier sensing to defer transmissions until no ther stations are transmitting, and collision
detection in which transmitting station detects collisions by sensing transmissions from other
stations. It stops, sends a jam signal and waits for a random time interval before trying again.

MAC Address

A 48-bit Binary of 12 hexadecimal values.

First 3 denote the manufacturer, last 3 identify the particular device.

Used on computers, servers, printers, switches, and routers.


A frame is the packaged information on the data link layer. It consists of the

 preamble
 destination address
 source address
 type
 data
 frame check sequence

it must be between 64-1518 Bytes. Less than this indicates a collision frame or runt frame.

IP Addresses

IP Address is a unique address in the internet, there are IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Every device and
service In a network has a IP address. Those for firms do not change but for home use they change


32Bit long (4 blocks of 8 binary), converted to 4 decimal numbers.

To determine the Host part of an address, we use Subnet masks, which is a 32 bit number:

the 255 sections tell which parts of an address are from the network and the 0s which part is the
host address.

For the address we know that the first 3 parts are the network and the last part is
the host. The broadcast address is


 A: 8 bit, large firms

 B: 16bit medium sized firms
 C: 24 bit, small firms
 D: multicast address
 E: reserved for the furture

Special Use

 Loop back:

 Link local:


In a class B network you could have 65535 hosts, but it would be impossible to put them all together
due to collisions. So routers allow the network to be segmented which minimises collisions and
reduces the broadcast domain.

Classful addressing

A way to divide a network into smaller portions. A whole byte is borrowed.

 10.x.0.0/16
 In this case there are 256 possible sub nets (the x), and each of those has 65534 possible
 10.x.x.0/24
 In this case there are 65536 possible subnets ( and 254 possible hosts
per subnet.


Not enough IPv4 addresses anymore

IPv6 is a 128 bit address with 32 hexidecimal numbers

2 parts: subnet prefix and an interface ID

Dual Stack

Refers to using IPv4 and IPv6 in parallel on one server.


A way to send IPv& packets through an IPv4 network. It is packed into an IPv4 format and then
unpacked at the other end.

Domain Name System (DNS)

Responsible for translating names to IP addresses. The DNA datasbase is:

 Replicated
 Split/shared
 Secure
 Hierarchical

 Domain namespace and resource records

 Nameserver
 Resolver

The DNA structure begins at the root . and is read from right to left

Top Level Domains:

 Generic: .com, .net, .org

 Country: .at, .uk, .gb
 Infrastructure: .arpa

Names are given out by the Internet Corporation for Assigned names and Numbers (ICANN), and the
inner department for names and IPs is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

IANA coordinates the root DNS server and divides the 5 regional registries.

There are 13 global root servers.

Parts of name spaces can be delegated down the hierarchy to the regulation of different

The search is done by iterative or recursive queries. Usually the client makes a recursive request,
where it asks only the known DNS server for info, then the DNS server makes iterative requests from
the root down the hierarchy to find the information.

DNA information is stores in resource records:

 A Record – name to IP
 AAAA Record- name to IPv6
 Cname- one name to another name
 PTR pointer record- IP to a name
 MX- mail server of a domain

Network Components


A switch is a controller that enables networked devices to talk to each other using packet switching.
It is a multiport bridge that uses the hardware addresses (MAC) to process and forward data ta the
data link laye rof the ISO model.

A switch improves the bandwidth use in network segment by having a direct dedicated link. A
switch saves MAC addresses in a table.

There are no collisions in a switched network.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

ARP is used in the local network when a computer has an IP address it wants to send to but does not
know the MAC address.

ARP has a temporary cache of saved info, Requests and Replies.

When a device wants to find a device it:

 Sends a broadcast request to all devices on the network

 The device with the IP address sends back a reply with its mac address which is now saved in
the ARP Cache
 Now the original device can send the data to the other directly via the MAC address.


A router is a computer.

Switches create a network, routers connect networks. A router links computers to the internet, so
that users can share the connection. A router acts a dispatcher, choosing the best path for
information to travel. They work on layer 3 of the OSI model, and can work on various topological
network models. Routing is required when machines in different subnets need to communicate.

 The router processes the layer 2 protocol data, extracts the IP packet and sends to CPU
 CPU takes the packet header, the IP address of the target
 The CPU searches the routing table for the correct next-hop-information, and delivers the IP
packet the nextwork adapter
 The network adapter generates a layer 2 packet and sends
 Before a router can send information to a particular IP address, it must calculate the way
 There are static of dynamic routing tables
o Static: manually eneter the route or used directly connected lines
o Dynamic: learnt routing through protcols