Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

KOg; gjpg;GupikAilaJ

,yq;if fzf;fl
P L
; njhopyE
; l;gtpayhsu;fs; fofk;
; r – 2016 A+iy
AA1 guPli
(AA13) tpahghuk; kw;Wk; fzf;fl
P b
; w;fhd nghUspay;
(Economics for Business and Accounting)
2016–07-23
• guPlr
; hu;jj
; pfSf;fhd mwpTWj;jy;fs; (jaTnra;
jaTnra;J ftdkhf thrpf;fTk;): gpw;gfy;
[1.45 – 5.00]
(1) mDkjpf;fg;gl;l Neuk; : thrpj;jy; - 15 epkplq;fs;
vOJjy; - 03 kzpj;jpahyk;
gf;fq;fs; : 07
(2) vy;yh tpdhf;fSf;Fk; tpilaspf;Ff. tpdhf;fs; : 06

(3) tpilfs; ahTk; jug;gl;l tpilg; Gj;jfj;jpy; guPli


; rf;F tpzz ; g;gpj;j
xNu nkhopapy; kl;Lk; vOjg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
(4) vy;yh nrad;Kiwfs; kw;Wk; fzpgG ; fis rku;gg ; pf;fTk;. VjhtJ vLNfhs;fs;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;bUg;gpd; mtw;iwj; njspthff; Fwpg;gpLf.
(5) epuw;gLj;jg;glhj fzpg;ghd;fspd; ghtid mDkjpff ; g;gl;Ls;sJ.
(6) tiuGj; jhs;fs; toq;fg;gLk;.
(7) nray;Kiw tpsf;f tpidr;nrhy; gl;bay; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. xt;nthU tpdhtpYk; xU
tpidr; nrhy; cs;slq;fpapUf;fpwJ. (OTQ’s jtpu;ej ; ). guPlr; hu;jj
; pfs; nray;Kiw tpsf;fg;
gl;baypy; jug;gl;l tpidr;nrhy; tiutpyf;fzj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; tpdhf;fSf;F
tpilaspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
(8) 100 Gs;spfs;

gFjp A
Nehf;fr; Nrhjid tpdhf;fs; (OTQs)
,UgJ (20) fl;lha tpdhf;fs;
(nkhj;jk; 40 Gs;spfs;)

tpdh 01

,y. 1.1 Kjy; 1.10 tiuAs;s tpdhf;fSf;fhf ePqf ; s; njupT nra;j tpilapd; ,yf;fj;ij
cq;fsJ tpilg;Gj;jfj;jpy; tpdhTf;Fj; jug;gl;l ,yf;fj;Jld; vOJf.

1.1 gpd;tUtdtw;Ws; “nghUshjhu tsk; xd;wpd; (an economic resource) Xu; mk;rkhf
miktJ vJ?

(1) ,aw;ifapdhy; jug;gl;l xU tsk;


(2) re;ju;gg
; r; nrynthd;iwf; (opportunity cost) nfhz;Ls;s xU tsk;
(3) epuk;gypy; kpifahfTs;s xU tsk;
(4) mur Jiwapdhy; (public sector) kl;LNk epuk;gy; nra;af;$ba xU tsk;
1.2 “Fiwe;J nry;Yk; vy;iyg;gad;” vd;gjdhy; fUjg;gLtJ ahJ?

(1) egu; xUtu; jug;gl;l gz;lnkhd;iw mjpfkjpfkhf EfUk;NghJ mg;gz;lj;jpd;


vy;iyg; gadhdJ Kbtpy; tPor
; r
; pailfpwJ.

(2) egu; xUtu; jug;gl;l gz;lnkhd;iw mjpfkjpfkhf EfUk;NghJ Vida gz;lq;fspd;


vy;iyg;gadhdJ Kbtpy; tPor ; r
; pailfpwJ.
(3) egu; xUtu; jug;gl;l gz;lnkhd;iw mjpfkjpfkhf EfUk;NghJ gz;lj;jpd; nkhj;jg;
gadhdJ khwhjpUf;fpwJ.
(4) egu; xUtu; jug;gl;l gz;lnkhd;iwf; Fiwthf EfUk;NghJ mg;gz;lj;jpd; vy;iyg;
gad; Kbtpy; tPor; r
; pailfpwJ.

1.3 Fwpg;gpl;l nghUnshd;wpd; tpiyahdJ &.16/- ,ypUe;J &.20/- ,w;F cau mg;nghUspd;
Nfs;tpf; fzpak; (quantity demanded) 80 myFfspypUe;J 60 myFfSf;F tPor ; r
; pailfpwJ.
mg;nghUspd; Nfs;tpapd; tpiy nefpo;rr ; p (Price elasticity of demand),

(1) 0.75 (2) 1.0 (3) 0.8 (4) 1.25

1.4 mbg;gilg; nghUshjhug; gpur;rpidfs; epyTtjw;Ff; fhuzk;>

(1) tUkhdj;jpd; mjpfupg;Gld; Efu;Tk; mjpfupf;fpd;wik.


(2) nghUshjhu tsq;fspd; ,lkhw;wg;glh epiy (non-transferability).
(3) vy;yhj; NjitfisAk; epiwNtw;Wtjw;F tsq;fs; NghjhjpUf;fpd;wik.
(4) NkNyAs;s ahTk;.

1.5 gpd;tUtdtw;Ws; Neupy; tupfspd; xU gpujp$ykhf miktJ vJ?

(1) tupiar; nrYj;Jfpd;w egu; Rikiaj; jhq;Ffpd;wik


(2) Nrfupg;gjw;F murhq;fj;jpw;F ,yFthf ,Uj;jy;
(3) tupr; Rikapd; gfpu;tpy; cs;s rkj;Jtkpd;ik
(4) tup Va;gG
; r; nra;a KbahJ

1.6 ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fpapd; xU njhopw;ghL my;yhjJ gpd;tUtdtw;Ws; vJ?

(1) nghUshjhu kw;Wk; tpiy ];jpuj;jd;ik (stability)


(2) nghJf; fld; (Public debt) Kfhikj;Jtk;
(3) ntspehl;Lr; nryhtzp Kfhikj;Jtk;
(4) nghJkf;fsplkpUe;J itg;Gfis Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;

2|Page
1.7 2015 Mk; Mz;bw;fhd ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fpapd; Mz;lwpf;iff;fpzq;f> 2015 Mk;
Mz;bw;fhd nghUshjhu tsu;rr
; p tPjkhdJ>

(1) 8% (2) 7.5% (3) 6.2% (4) 4.8%

1.8 nkhj;jj; Njrpa tUkhdk; (Gross National Income) fzpf;fg;gLk; tpjkhtJ>

(1) nkhj;j cs;ehl;L tUkhdk; + ntspehl;bypUe;J ngw;w Njwpa fhuzp tUkhdk;


(2) nkhj;j cs;ehl;L tUkhdk; + khdpaq;fs; – tUkhd tup – gfpug;glhj tpahghu
,yhgq;fs;
(3) jdpegu; tUkhdk; + tUkhd tup + gfpug;glhj tpahghu ,yhgq;fs;
(4) fhuzp tUkhdk; – khdpaq;fs; + tUkhd tup + Nrkpg;Gfs;

1.9 “jpwe;j nghUshjhuk;” vd;gjdhw; fUjg;gLtJ ahJ?

(1) cyfpd; gpw gFjpfSld; ,ize;jpaq;fhj nghUshjhuk;.


(2) cyfpd; gpw gFjpfSld; ,ize;jpaq;Fk; nghUshjhuk;.
(3) murhq;fk;> Vw;WkjpfSf;F my;yhJ ,wf;FkjpfSf;Ff; fl;Lg;ghLfis tpjpj;Js;s
nghUshjhuk;.
(4) re;ijj; jpirKfg;gLj;jy; (Market – Orientation) ,y;yhj nghUshjhuk;.

1.10 ,yq;if kj;jpa tq;fpapd; gzf; nfhs;ifapd; (Monetary policy) xU gz;Gj;juf; fl;Lg;ghL
(qualitative control) gpd;tUgtw;Ws; vJ?

(1) eatpzf;fk; (Moral Suasion)


(2) jhuhs re;ij eltbf;iffs; (Open Market Operations)
(3) epajpr;rl;l xJf;f tPjk; (Statutory Reserve Ratio)
(4) tq;fp tPjf; nfhs;if (Bank Rate Policy)

gpd;tUk; 1.11 Kjy; 1.15 tiuapyhd $w;Wf;fs; xt;nthd;Wk; “rupah” my;yJ “jtwh” vd;gijf;
Fwpg;gpLf. njupT nra;j tpilia (rupah / jtwh) mjd; tpdhTf;Fupa ,yf;fj;Jld; ckJ
tpilj;jhspy; vOJf.

1.11 epiwNghl;br; re;ijapd; fPo>; gz;lnkhd;wpd; jdp toq;Feu; (single supplier) xUtu;
,Uf;fpd;whu;.

1.12 vy;iyr; nryT (MC) tisapahdJ ruhrupr; nryT tisapia (Average Cost curve) mjd;
,opTg; Gs;spapy; (minimum point) ,ilntl;LfpwJ.

3|Page
1.13 msTj;jpl;lj;jpw;F jpUk;gy;fs; mjpfupj;jy; (Increasing returns to scale) vd;gjd; fUj;jhtJ>
jug;gl;lnjhU tpfpjj;jpy;> cw;gj;jpf; fhuzpfs; midj;Jk; mjpfupf;fpd;wNghJ rupahf
mNj tpfpjj;jpy;> cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l ntspaPLk; mjpfupf;Fk; vd;gjhFk;.

1.14 xU epjp ,ilaPll


; hsu; (financial intermediary) vd;gtu; jug;gl;lnjhU tl;b tPjj;jpy; fld;
toq;FeuplkpUe;J (Lender) itg;Gfisf; ftu;eJ
; > mtw;iw fld; thq;FNthUf;F
(borrowers) cau;ej
; tl;b tPjnkhd;wpy; kPs toq;Ftjd; %yk; fld; toq;Feiu fld;
thq;FgtNuhL ,izf;fpd;w xU epWtdkhf ,Uf;fpd;whu;.

1.15 epWtdnkhd;wpd; fpuakhdJ gpujhdkhf> epiyahd fpuak; (fixed cost) khWq; fpuak;
(variable cost) Mfpa ,Utif fpuaq;fisAk; cs;slf;Ffpd;wJ.

tpdh ,y. 1.16 Kjy; 1.20 tiuapyhd tpdhf;fspd; ,ilntspfis epug;Gtjw;F> milg;Gf;Fs;
jug;gl;bUf;Fk; nrhy; / nrhw;fisj; njupTnra;f. ePqf
; s; njupTnra;j nrhy; / nrhw;fis ckJ
tpilg; Gj;jfj;jpy; tpdhTf;Fupa ,yf;fj;Jld; vOJf.

1.16 gz;lnkhd;wpdJ epuk;gy; tisap ,lg;gf;fkhf ,lk;ngau;ifapy; Nfs;tp tisapapy;


khw;wNkJk; epfohjNghJ> gz;lj;jpd; rkepiy tpiyahdJ (equilibrium price)
…………………… (mjpfupf;fpd;wJ / Fiwfpd;wJ).

1.17 nghUl;fspdJk; NritfspdJk; tpiyfs; mjpfupf;fpd;wNghJ gzj;jpd; ngWkjp


…………………… (caUk; / tPor; r; pailAk;).

1.18 nkhj;j cs;ehl;L cw;gj;jpia (GDP) mstpLtjw;F elg;G Mz;L re;ij tpiyfs; gad;
gLj;jg;gLk;NghJ mJ …………………… (ngausT GDP / nka; GDP) vdg;gLfpwJ.

1.19 …………………… (FWfpa gz epuk;gy; (M1) / gztpay; mbg;gil) vd;gJ nghJkf;fs;


itj;jpUf;fpd;w ehzaj;jpd; $l;Lnkhj;jj;jpidAk; (aggregate of the currency) nghJ
kf;fshy; tzpf tq;fpfspy; itf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; Nfs;tp itg;GfisAk; Fwpf;fpwJ.

1.20 …………………… (tprhy gzg; ngUf;fp (Broad Money Multiplier) / tprhy gz epuk;gy; [M2])
vd;gJ FWfpa gzepuk;gypd; $l;Lnkhj;jj;jpidAk; (aggregate of Narrow Money Supply)
nghJkf;fshy; tzpf tq;fpfspy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;s fhy kw;Wk; Nrkpg;G itg;GfisAk;
Fwpf;fpd;wJ.

(xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; 02 Gs;spfs; tPjk;> nkhj;jk; 40 Gs;spfs;)

The following data should be used

\
gFjp A KbT

4|Page
gFjp B
ehd;F (04) fl;lha tpdhf;fs;
(nkhj;jk; 40 Gs;spfs;)

tpdh 02

(a) (i) ,yq;ifapy; ePqf


; s; fhzf;$ba nghUshjhu Kiwikapd; tifiaf; $Wf. (01 Gs;sp)

(ii) NkNy (i) ,y; Fwpg;gpl;l nghUshjhu Kiwikiaf; nfhz;bUg;gjw;fhd fhuzq;fs;


%d;widf; (03) Fwpg;gpLf. (03 Gs;spfs;)

(b) nghUshjhunkhd;wpYs;s mbg;gilg; nghUshjhug; gpur;rpidfis tpgupf;Ff. (06 Gs;spfs;)


(nkhj;jk; 10 Gs;spfs;)

tpdh 03

(a) (i) “xl;Lnkhj;j murhq;fg; ghjPlb


; d; gw;whf;Fiw” vd;gjdhy; fUjg;gLtij tpgupf;Ff.
(03 Gs;spfs;)

(ii) murhq;fg; ghjPlL ; y; %yq;fs; (sources) %d;wpidf; (03)


; g; gw;whf;Fiwf;fhd epjpaPll
Fwpg;gpLf. (03 Gs;spfs;)

(b) mur Jiw Kaw;rpfspd; (Public Enterprises) mD$yq;fs; ehd;fpidf; (04) Fwpg;gpLf.
(04 Gs;spfs;)
(nkhj;jk; 10 Gs;spfs;)

tpdh 04

(a) gzj;jpd; njhopw;ghLfs; %d;wpid (03) tpgupf;Ff. (06 Gs;spfs;)

(b) tzpf tq;fpnahd;wpd; gpujhd njhopw;ghLfs; ehd;fpidf; (04) $Wf. (04 Gs;spfs;)
(nkhj;jk; 10 Gs;spfs;)

tpdh 05

(a) ru;tNjr tu;j;jfj;Jld; njhlu;Gila tu;j;jf khw;WtPjk; (Terms of trade) vd;gjdhy; fUjg;
gLtJ ahJ? (04 Gs;spfs;)

(b) (i) ; p (Economic Growth) vd;gjd; fUj;ij tpgupf;Ff.


“nghUshjhu tsu;rr (03 Gs;spfs;)

(ii) nghUshjhu tsu;rr; papd; %d;W (03) ed;ikfisf; Fwpg;gpLf. (03 Gs;spfs;)
(nkhj;jk; 10 Gs;spfs;)
gFjp B KbT
5|Page
gFjp C
xU fl;lha tpdh
(nkhj;jk; 20 Gs;spfs;)

tpdh 06

(A) tpahghu cyfpNy> NknyOfpd;w (emerge) gy;tifr; re;ijf; fl;likg;GfSf;fpzq;f>


epWtdq;fs; NtWgl;l re;ijr; #o;epiyfspd; fPo; njhopw;gLfpd;wd. xt;nthd;Wk; jk;ik
Vida fl;likg;GfspypUe;J NtWgLj;jpf; fhl;lf;$ba Fwpg;gpl;l rpy gz;gpay;Gfisf;
(certain characteristics) nfhz;ljhd gy re;ijf; fl;likg;Gfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

nghUshjhunkhd;wpd; mbg;gil re;ijf; fl;likg;Gfshf> epiwNghl;b> jdpAupik>


jdpAupikahd Nghl;b kw;Wk; rpyUupik Mfpa ehd;fpidf; fhz KbAk;.

(a) jdpAupikapd; Ie;J (05) gpujhd gz;gpay;Gfisf; Fwpg;gpLf. (05 Gs;spfs;)

(b) FWq;fhy Xl;lj;jpy; jdpAupik epWtdnkhd;W vt;thW jdJ ,yhgj;ij cr;rg;


gLj;JfpwJ vd;gij tiuglnkhd;wpd; (graph) JizAld; tpgupf;Ff. (05 Gs;spfs;)

(B) (a) nkhj;j cs;ehl;L cw;gj;jp (GDP) kw;Wk; nkhj;jj; Njrpa cw;gj;jp (GNP) Mfpatw;Wf;
fpilNaAs;s NtWghl;il tpgupf;Ff.tanopolist could enjoy its short-run (04 Gs;spfs;)

(b) nghUshjhunkhd;wpd; Mz;nlhd;wpw;fhd Njrpa fzf;FfSld; (national accounts)


njhlu;Gila cj;Njrj; juTfis (hypothetical data) fPNo jug;gl;Ls;s ml;ltiz
fhl;LfpwJ.
kpy;ypad;
&gh
(1) njhopy; tUkhdk; 360,000
(2) thlif tUkhdk; 220,500
(3) Ranjhopy; tUkhdk; 190,500
(4) tpahghuj; Jiwapdhy; <l;lg;gl;l ,yhgk; 210,600
(5) tl;b tUkhdk; 162,000
(6) %yjdj; Nja;khdk; 130,600
(7) khdpaq;fs; 100,500
(8) Neupy; tupfs; 120,300
(9) ntspehl;bypUe;J Njwpa fhuzp tUkhdk; (94,000)

re;ij tpiyapy; nkhj;j Njrpa cw;gj;jpiaf; (GNP) fzpg;gpLf. (06 Gs;spfs;)


(nkhj;jk; 20 Gs;spfs;)
gFjp C KbT

6|Page
nray; tpidr;nrhy; gl;bay;
mwpT kl;lk; tpidr;nrhy; gl;bay; tiutpyf;fzk; (nghUs; tiuaiw)
nghUs; tiuiw nra;f /
jd;ik> tpahgfk; my;yJ nghUs; gw;wp tpgupj;jy;
tiutpyf;fzk; nra;f (Define)
tiuf (Draw) tupg;glk; my;yJ tiuglk; tbtpy; tiue;J fhl;Ljy;
milahsq; fhz;f / fUj;jpw;nfhz;l gpd;du; njupe;J nfhs;sy; my;yJ njupT
,dq;fhz;f (Identify) nra;jy;
epuw;gLj;Jf / gl;baypLf (List) njhlu;Ggl;l cUg;gbfis xd;wpd; fPo; xd;whf vOJJy;
ju;f;f uPjpahf my;yJ fhuz uPjpahf njhlu;Gfis
njhlu;GgLj;Jf (Relate)
epiyehl;ly;
$Wf / Fwpg;gpLf (State) jpl;ltl;lkhf my;yJ njspthf njuptpj;jy;
kl;lk; 01 fzpf;Ff / fzpg;gpLf
fzpj uPjpahf fzpg;gl
P b
; id Nkw;nfhs;sy;
fpufpj;jy; (Calculate / Compute)
Kbnthd;wpid milAk; Nehf;fpy; NtWgl;l tplaq;fis
Kf;fpa jftiy Muha;f (Discuss)
tpthjj;jpd; %yk; tpgukhf Ma;T nra;jy;
Qhgfg;gLj;jp
cupa cz;ikfis ntspf;fhl;b> njspthd tptuzj;ij
tpgupj;jy; tpgupf;Ff (Explain)
tpgukhfj; njuptpj;jy;
nghUs; tpsf;Ff / fUj;Jf;
tpsq;fpf; nfhs;sf;$ba tifapy; njspTgLj;jy;
$Wf (Interpret)
mwpit my;yJ mit rhu;ej; mDgtj;jpidf; nfhz;L>
Vw;gpirT nra;jy; (Recognize) nry;Ygbj; jd;ikia my;yJ mjd; ,y;yhikiaf;
fhl;Ljy;
gjpT nra;f (Record) cupa gjpTfis tpupthfg; gjpT nra;jy;
njhFf;Ff / RUf;fj;ijj; jUf gpujhd tplaq;fspy; (cz;ikfs; my;yJ ngWkjpfs;)
(Summarize) RUf;fkhd $w;wpidj; jUjy;

mwpT kl;lk; tpidr;nrhy; gl;bay; tpidr;nrhy; tiutpyf;fzk;


gpuNahfpf;Ff
Ff (Apply) eilKiwg; gad;ghl;bw;Ff; nfhz;L tUjy;
kjpg;gpLf (Assess) ngWkjp> jd;ik> ,aYik my;yJ juj;jpidj; jPu;khdpj;jy;
kl;lk; 02 vLj;Jf; fhl;Lld; tpgupf;Ff
gpNahfpj;jy; tpNrlkhf cjhuzq;fSld; epWTjy;
(Demonstrate)

fw;wijf; nfhz;L tiuglj; jhspy; tiuf (Graph) tiuglk; xd;wpd; %yk; fhl;Ljy;
NtW xd;wpid jahupf;Ff (Prepare) Nfl;fg;gl;l tplaj;jpid cupa Kiwapy; ntspf;fhl;ly;
mwptjw;F mwpitg;
gad;gLj;Jjy; / Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; xOq;F gLj;Jjy; my;yJ
Kd;Dupikg;gLj;Jf (Prioritize)
tpdhf;fisj; jPuj
; j
; y; tupirg;gLj;Jjy;
fzf;fpzf;fk; nra;f /
Ntnwhd;Dld; ,zq;Fjiy xg;Gtpj;jy;
,zf;fk; nra;f (Reconcile)
jPuf
; F
; f (Solve) fzpg;gL
P my;yJ tpsf;fq;fspd; %yk; jPuT
; fhzy;

mwpT kl;lk; tpidr;nrhy; gl;bay; tpidr;nrhy; tiutpyf;fzk;


jPut
; pid my;yJ ntspg;ghl;bidj; njupe;J nfhs;Sk;
gFg;gha;T nra;f (Analyze)
Nehf;fpy; tpgukhf Ma;T nra;jy;
kl;lk; 03
gFg;gha;T xw;Wikfis mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpy; guPlr
; pj;jy; /
xg;gpLf (Compare)
Ma;T nra;jy;
vz;zq;fSf;F
,ilapy; Ntw;Wikfis mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpy; guPlr
; pj;jy; /
NtWgLj;Jf (Contrast)
njhlu;Gfis Ma;T nra;jy;
Vw;gLj;jp xg;gpLjYk; Ngjg;gLj;Jf/tpj;
f tpj;jpahrg;gLj;Jf rpytw;iw NtWgLj;Jk; tpj;jpahrq;fisf; fhl;Ljy; /
NtWgLj;jYk; /
jpwe;j tpdhf;fisj; tifapLf (Differentiate)
/tifapLf tifg;gLj;jy;
jPuj
; ;jy; RUf;fkhff; fhl;Lf / Fwpg;gpLf Kf;fpa Fzhk;rq;fspd;/rpwg;gpay;Gfspd; njhFg;gpidj;
(Outline) jUjy;

7|Page