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1. Easy

Bevex, an artificial sweetener used only in soft drinks, is carcinogenic for mice, but only when it is
consumed in very large quantities. To ingest an amount of Bevex equivalent to the amount fed to the
mice in the relevant studies, a person would have to drink 25 cans of Bevex-sweetened soft drinks per
day. For that reason, Bevex is in fact safe for people.

In order for the conclusion that Bevex is safe for people to be properly drawn, which of the following
must be true?

(A) Cancer from carcinogenic substances develops more slowly in mice than it does in people.

(B) If all food additives that are currently used in foods were tested, some would be found to be
carcinogenic for mice.

(C) People drink fewer than 25 cans of Bevex-sweetened soda per day.

(D) People can obtain important health benefits by controlling their weight through the use of artificially
sweetened soft drinks.

(E) Some of the studies done on Bevex were not relevant to the question of whether or not Bevex is
carcinogenic for people.

2. Hard

An undergraduate degree is necessary for appointment to the executive board. Further, no one with a
felony conviction can be appointed to the board. Thus, Murray, an accountant with both a bachelor's
and a master's degree, cannot be accepted for the position of Executive Administrator, since he has a
felony conviction.

The argument's conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

a. Anyone with a master's degree and without a felony conviction is eligible for appointment to the
executive board.

b. Only candidates eligible for appointment to the executive board can be accepted for the position of
Executive Administrator.

c. An undergraduate degree is not necessary for acceptance for the position of Executive Administrator.

d. If Murray did not have a felony conviction, he would be accepted for the position of Executive

e. The felony charge on which Murray was convicted is relevant to the duties of the position of Executive
3. Hard

Philosopher: An action is morally right if it would be reasonably expected to increase the aggregate well-
being of the people affected by it. An action is morally wrong if and only if it would be reasonably
expected to reduce the aggregate wellbeing of the people affected by it. Thus, actions that would be
reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them are
also right

The philosopher’s conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Only wrong actions would be reasonably expected to reduce the aggregate well-being of the people
affected by them.

(B) No action is both right and wrong.

(C) Any action that is not morally wrong is morally right.

(D) There are actions that would be reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being
of the people affected by them.

(E) Only right actions have good consequences

4. Medium

The government provides insurance for individuals' bank deposits, but requires the banks to pay the
premiums for the insurance. Since it is depositors who primarily benefit from the security this insurance
provides, the government should take steps to ensure that depositors who want this security bear the
cost of it and thus should make depositors pay the premiums for insuring their own accounts.

Which of the following is assumed by the argument?

(A) Banks are not insured by the government against default on the loans the banks make.

(B) Private insurance companies do not have the resources to provide banks or individual with deposit

(C) Banks do not always cover the cost of the deposit-insurance premiums by paying depositors lower
interest rates on insured deposits than the banks would on uninsured deposits.

(D) The government limits the insurance protection it provides by insuring accounts up to a certain
legally defined amount only.

(E) The government does not allow banks to offer some kinds of accounts in which deposits are not
5. Medium

A new government policy has been developed to avoid many serious cases of influenza. This goal will be
accomplished by the annual vaccination of high-risk individuals: everyone 65 and older as well as anyone
with a chronic disease that might cause them to experience complications from the influenza virus. Each
year’s vaccination will protect only against the strain of the influenza virus deemed most likely to be
prevalent that year, so every year it will be necessary for all high-risk individuals to receive a vaccine for
a different strain of the virus.

Which one of the following is an assumption that would allow the conclusion above to be properly

(A) The number of individuals in the high-risk group for influenza will not significantly change from year
to year.

(B) The likelihood that a serious influenza epidemic will occur varies from year to year.

(C) No vaccine for the influenza virus protects against more than one strain of that virus.

(D) Each year the strain of influenza virus deemed most likely to be prevalent will be one that had not
previously been deemed most likely to be prevalent.

(E) Each year’s vaccine will have fewer side effects than the vaccine of the previous year since the
technology for making vaccines will constantly improve.

6. Easy

Feathers recently taken from seabirds stuffed and preserved in the 1880s have been found to contain
only half as much mercury as feathers recently taken from living birds of the same species. Since
mercury that accumulates in a seabird’s feathers as the feathers grow is derived from fish eaten by the
bird, these results indicate that mercury levels in saltwater fish are higher now than they were 100 years

The argument depends on assuming that

(A) the proportion of a seabird’s diet consisting of fish was not as high, on average, in the 1880s as it is

(B) the amount of mercury in a saltwater fish depends on the amount of pollution in the ocean habitat
of the fish

(C) mercury derived from fish is essential for the normal growth of a seabird’s feathers

(D) the stuffed seabirds whose feathers were tested for mercury were not fully grown

(E) the process used to preserve birds in the 1880s did not substantially decrease the amount of mercury
in the birds’ feathers
7. Medium

Atrens: An early entomologist observed ants carrying particles to neighboring ant colonies and inferred
that the ants were bringing food to their neighbors. Further research, however, revealed that the ants
were emptying their own colony’s dumping site. Thus, the early entomologist was wrong.

Atrens’s conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Ant societies do not interact in all the same ways that human societies interact.

(B) There is only weak evidence for the view that ants have the capacity to make use of objects as gifts.

(C) Ant dumping sites do not contain particles that could be used as food.

(D) The ants to whom the particles were brought never carried the particles into their own colonies.

(E) The entomologist cited retracted his conclusion when it was determined that the particles the ants
carried came from their dumping site.

8. Medium

Naturalist: The recent claims that the Tasmanian tiger is not extinct are false. The Tasmanian tiger’s
natural habitat was taken over by sheep farming decades ago, resulting in the animal’s systematic
elimination from the area. Since then naturalists working in the region have discovered no hard
evidence of its survival, such as carcasses or tracks. In spite of alleged sightings of the animal, the
Tasmanian tiger no longer exists.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the naturalist’s argument depends?

(A) Sheep farming drove the last Tasmanian tigers to starvation by chasing them from their natural

(B) Some scavengers in Tasmania are capable of destroying tiger carcasses without a trace.

(C) Every naturalist working in the Tasmanian tiger’s natural habitat has looked systematically for
evidence of the tiger’s survival.

(D) The Tasmanian tiger did not move and adapt to a different region in response to the loss of habitat.

(E) Those who have reported sightings of the Tasmanian tiger are not experienced naturalists.
9. Hard

When exercising the muscles in one’s back, it is important, in order to maintain a healthy back, to
exercise the muscles on opposite sides of the spine equally. After all, balanced muscle development is
needed to maintain a healthy back, since the muscles on opposite sides of the spine must pull equally in
opposing directions to keep the back in proper alignment and protect the spine.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) Muscles on opposite sides of the spine that are equally well developed will be enough to keep the
back in proper alignment.

(B) Exercising the muscles on opposite sides of the spine unequally tends to lead to unbalanced muscle

(C) Provided that one exercises the muscles on opposite sides of the spine equally, one will have a
generally healthy back.

(D) If the muscles on opposite sides of the spine are exercised unequally, one’s back will be irreparably

(E) One should exercise daily to ensure that the muscles on opposite sides of the spine keep the back in
proper alignment.

10. Medium

Scientists attempting to replicate certain controversial results reported by a group of experienced

researchers failed to get the same results as those reported. The conclusion drawn from this by the
scientists who conducted the replication experiments was that the originally reported results had been
due to faulty measurements.

The argument of the scientists who conducted the replication experiments assumes that

(A) the original experiments had not been described in sufficient detail to make an exact replication

(B) the fact that the originally reported results aroused controversy made it highly likely that they were
in error

(C) the theoretical principles called into question by the originally reported results were themselves
based on weak evidence

(D) the replication experiments were not so likely as the original experiments to be marred by faulty

(E) the researchers who originally reported the controversial results had themselves observed those
results only once
11. Medium

Educational television is a contradiction in terms. While a classroom encourages social interaction,

television encourages solitude. School is centered on the development of language, but television
depends upon constantly changing visual images. And in a classroom, fun is merely a means to an end,
but on television it is the end in itself.

Upon which one of the following assumptions does the author rely in the passage?

(A) The classroom should not be a place where anyone has fun.

(B) Only experiences that closely resemble what takes place in the school environment can be

(C) Television programs reinforce some of the values of the school environment.

(D) Educational television programs are qualitatively better than most other television programs.

(E) The potential of television as a powerful learning tool has not yet been realized.

12. Easy

Sally: I cannot study at a university where there is an alcohol problem. So unless something is done
about the alcohol problem at this university, I’ll have to transfer to a university where there are no

Yolanda: I don’t agree that fraternities are responsible for the alcohol problem at this university. Alcohol
problems exist at all universities, including those where there are no fraternities. We all should become
more aware of alcohol abuse. It’s not simply a fraternity problem; it’s a cultural problem.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which Sally’s argument depends?

(A) Most universities have fraternities.

(B) Nothing will be done about the alcohol problem at Sally’s university.

(C) Alcohol problems are becoming more widespread at universities.

(D) Some fraternity members who drink alcohol beverages are too young to do so legally.

(E) There could be universities that have no alcohol problems

13. Easy

Advertisement: Most power hedge trimmers on the market do an adequate job of trimming hedges, but
many power hedge trimmers are dangerous to operate and can cause serious injury when used by
untrained operators. Bolter Industries’ hedge trimmer has been tested by National Laboratories, the
most trusted name in safety testing. So you know, if you buy a Bolter’s, you are buying a power hedge
trimmer whose safety is assured.

The answer to which one of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the truth of the
conclusion drawn in the advertisement?

(A) Has National Laboratories performed safety tests on other machines made by Bolter Industries?

(B) How important to the average buyer of a power hedge trimmer is safety of operation?

(C) What were the results of National Laboratories’ tests of Bolter Industries’ hedge trimmer?

(D) Are there safer ways of trimming a hedge than using a power hedge trimmer?

(E) Does any other power hedge trimmer on the market do a better job of trimming hedges than does
Bolter Industries’ hedge trimmer?

14. Medium

Advertisement: Attention pond owners! Ninety-eight percent of mosquito larvae in a pond die within
minutes after the pond has been treated with BTI. Yet BTI is not toxic to fish, birds, animals, plants, or
beneficial insects. So by using BTI regularly to destroy their larvae, you can greatly reduce populations of
pesky mosquitoes that hatch in your pond, and you can do so without diminishing the populations of
fish, frogs, or beneficial insects in and around the pond.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The most effective way to control the numbers of mosquitoes in a given area is to destroy the
mosquito larvae in that area.

(B) Populations of mosquitoes are not dependent on a single body of water within an area as a place for
their larvae to hatch and develop

(C) There are no insect pests besides mosquitoes that pond owners might want to eliminate from in and
around their pond.

(D) The effectiveness of BTI in destroying mosquito larvae In a pond does not require the pond owner’s
strict adherence to specific application procedures.

(E) The fish, frogs, and beneficial insects in and around a pond-owner’s pond do not depend on
mosquito larvae as an important source of food
15. Medium

A favored theory to explain the extinction of dinosaurs, together with many other species, has been the
globally catastrophic collision of a large asteroid with the Earth. Supporting evidence is an
extraterrestrial chemical element in a layer of dust found worldwide at a geological level laid down
contemporaneously with the supported event. A new competing theory contends that any asteroid
impact was irrelevant, because it was massive volcanic activity that caused the extinctions by putting
enough dust into the atmosphere to cool the planet. The Deccan region of India contains extensive
volcanic flows that occurred within the same time period as the supposed asteroid impact and the

The new theory assumes that

(A) the massive volcanic activity was not caused by the impact of an asteroid

(B) no individual dinosaurs survived the impact of the asteroid, if it occurred

(C) the extinctions took place over a longer time period than they would have if caused by the impact of
an asteroid

(D) other volcanic eruptions were not occurring at the same time as those in the Decean region

(E) it is not possible to determine which would have occurred first, the volcanic flows in the Decean
region or the supposed impact of an asteroid

16. Medium

One of the requirements for admission to the Lunnville Roller Skating Club is a high degree of skill in
roller skating. The club president has expressed concern that the club may have discriminated against
qualified women in its admissions this year. Yet half of the applicants admitted to the club this year
were women. This proves that there was no discrimination against qualified women applicants in the
club’s admissions this year.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the conclusion of the argument depends?

(A) Only a few applicants were found to be qualified and were admitted to the club this year.

(B) No more than half of all the roller skaters in Lunnville are women.

(C) No more than half of all the roller skaters in Lunnville are men.

(D) This year no more than half of the applicants who met all the qualifications for admission to the club
were women.

(E) This year no more than half of the members of the club’s committee that makes decisions about
applicants’ qualifications were men.
17. Hard

X: Since many chemicals useful for agriculture and medicine derive from rare or endangered plant
species, it is likely that many plant species that are now extinct could have provide us with substances
that would have been a boon to humanity. Therefore, if we want to ensure that chemicals from plants
are available for use in the future, we must make more serious efforts to preserve for all time our
natural resource.

Y: But living things are not our "resources" Yours is a selfish approach to conservation. We should rather
strive to preserve living species because they deserve to survive, not because of the good they can do

X’s argument relies on which one of the following assumptions?

(A) Medicine would now be more advanced than it is if there had been a serious conservation policy in
the past.

(B) All living things exist to serve humankind.

(C) The use of rare and endangered plant species as a source for chemicals will not itself render those
species extinct.

(D) The only way to persuade people to preserve natural resources is to convince them that it is in their
interest to do so.

(E) Few, if any, plant species have been saved from extinction through human efforts.

18. Really Hard

Many major scientific discoveries of the past were the product of serendipity, the chance discovery of
valuable findings that investigators had not purposely sought. Now, however, scientific research tends
to be so costly that investigators are heavily dependent on large grants to fund their research. Because
such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of
the proposed research, investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research.
Therefore, under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.

(B) In the past few scientific investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their

(C) Dependence on large grants is preventing investigators from conducting the type of scientific
research that those investigators would personally prefer.

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their
research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply.

(E) In general the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity
19. Medium

The National Association of Fire Fighters says that 45 percent of homes now have smoke detectors,
whereas only 30 percent of homes had them 10 years ago. This makes early detection of house fires no
more likely, however, because over half of the domestic smoke detectors are either without batteries or
else inoperative for some other reason.

In order for the conclusion above to be properly drawn, which one of the following assumptions would
have to be made?

(A) Fifteen percent of domestic smoke detectors were installed less than 10 years ago.

(B) The number of fires per year in homes with smoke detectors has increased.

(C) Not all of the smoke detectors in homes are battery operated.

(D) The proportion of domestic smoke detectors that are inoperative has increased in the past ten years.

(E) Unlike automatic water sprinklers, a properly functioning smoke detector cannot by itself increase
fire safety in a home.

20. Hard

The workers at Bell Manufacturing will shortly go on strike unless the management increases their
wages. As Bell’s president is well aware, however, in order to increase the worker’s wages, Bell would
have to sell off some of its subsidiaries. So, some of Bell’s subsidiaries will be sold.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Bell Manufacturing will begin to suffer increased losses.

(B) Bell’s management will refuse to increase its worker’s wages.

(C) The workers at Bell Manufacturing will not be going on strike.

(D) Bell’s president has the authority to offer the workers their desired wage increase.

(E) Bell’s workers will not accept a package of improved benefits in place of their desired wage increase.
21. Hard

Marine biologists had hypothesized that lobsters kept together in lobster traps eat one another in
response to hunger. Periodic checking of lobster traps, however, has revealed instances of lobsters
sharing traps together for weeks. Eight lobsters even shared one trap together for two months without
eating one another. The marine biologists’ hypothesis, therefore, is clearly wrong.

The argument against the marine biologists’ hypothesis is based on which one of the following

(A) Lobsters not caught in lobster traps have been observed eating one another.

(B) Two months is the longest known period during which eight or more lobsters have been trapped

(C) It is unusual to find as many as eight lobsters caught together in one single trap.

(D) Members of other marine species sometimes eat their own kind when no other food sources are

(E) Any food that the eight lobsters in the trap might have obtained was not enough to ward off hunger.

22. Hard

One sure way you can tell how quickly a new idea—for example, the idea of “privatization”—is taking
hold among the population is to monitor how fast the word or words expressing that particular idea are
passing into common usage. Professional opinions of whether or not words can indeed be said to have
passed into common usage are available from dictionary editors, who are vitally concerned with this

The method described above for determining how quickly a new idea is taking hold relies on which one
of the following assumptions?

(A) Dictionary editors are not professionally interested in words that are only rarely used.

(B) Dictionary editors have exact numerical criteria for telling when a word has passed into common

(C) For a new idea to take hold, dictionary editors have to include the relevant word or words in their

(d) As a word passes into common usages, its meaning does not undergo any severe distortions in the

(E) Words denoting new ideas tend to be used before the ideas denoted are understood.
23. Medium

Even in a democracy, it is necessary to restrict the dissemination of advanced technological knowledge

that is of commercial or national-security value. Dissemination to certain countries, those that are or will
be competitors or enemies, should be selectively prohibited. There must, however, be free exchange of
scientific information.

In order to act in accordance with the position above, it would be necessary to be able to rely on each of
the following EXCEPT:

(A) It is possible to distinguish with confidence, despite any changes in the international environment,
friendly or noncompetitive from hostile or competitive nations.

(B) In a democracy, it is not necessary that the public have detailed knowledge of the country’s
advanced technology in order, for example, to make informed decisions about the direction public
policy should take.

(C) In most fields of science, basic scientific research is further advanced in countries that are
democracies than in countries that are not democracies.

(D) In each field of science, it is possible to distinguish scientific information from advanced
technological knowledge that is of commercial or national-security value.

(E) In cases where a company that uses advanced technology is a multinational organization, it is
possible to keep information about the technology from being passed across designated national

24. Hard

Train service suffers when a railroad combines commuter and freight service. By dividing its attention
between its freight and commuter customers, a railroad serves neither particularly well. Therefore, if a
railroad is going to be a successful business, then it must concentrate exclusively on one of these two

For the argument to be logically correct, it must make which one of the following assumptions?

(A) Commuter and freight service have little in common with each other.

(B) The first priority of a railroad is to be a successful business.

(C) Unless a railroad serves its customers well, it will not be a successful business.

(D) If a railroad concentrates on commuter service, it will be a successful business.

(E) Railroad commuters rarely want freight service as well.

25. Medium

The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the
animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the
reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level
ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small

(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.

(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.

(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.

(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the
running animal.

26. Hard

A fourteen-year study of finches on the Galapagos islands concluded that there is a definite relationship
between climate and the population size of finch species that thrive at various times. During droughts,
more members of large finch species survive because

their bills are large enough to crack large, hard seeds, giving them a food supply unavailable to smaller
birds. In rainy years, fewer members of the large finch species survive because the additional moisture
fosters the growth of plants that produce small seeds.

The larger finch varieties have to consume enormous numbers of small seeds to meet their energy
demands, and some just cannot eat them fast enough.

Which one of the following must be assumed in order to justify the conclusion that climatic variations
cause a major difference in survival rates of small and large finches?

(A) During drought conditions, the weather promotes the growth of plants that produce small, hard

(B) A lengthy period of rainy weather results in fewer large, hard seeds being produced.

(C) In rainy periods, the small finches gather enough food to grow much larger and heavier, but their
ultimate size is limited by

their inability to eat small seeds fast.

(D) The Galapagos climate during this fourteenyear period had about as much dry weather as it had wet

(E) Small seeds do not have to be cracked open in order to be digested by any of the finch varieties.
27. Medium

More than a year ago, the city announced that police would crack down on illegally parked cars and that
resources would be diverted from writing speeding tickets to ticketing illegally parked cars. But no
crackdown has taken place. The police chief claims that resources have had to be diverted from writing
speeding tickets to combating the city’s staggering drug problem. Yet the police are still writing as many
speeding tickets as ever. Therefore, the excuse about resources being tied up in fighting drug-related
crime simply is not true.

The conclusion in the passage depends on the assumption that

(A) every member of the police force is qualified to work on combating the city’s drug problem

(B) drug-related crime is not as serious a problem for the city as the police chief claims it is

(C) writing speeding tickets should be as important a priority for the city as combating drug-related

(D) the police could be cracking down on illegally parked cars and combating the drug problem without
having to reduce writing speeding tickets

(E) the police cannot continue writing as many speeding tickets as ever while diverting resources to
combating drug-related crime

28. Hard

The press reports on political campaigns these days as if they were chess games. One candidate’s
campaign advisor makes a move; the other candidate’s advisor makes a countermove. The press then
reports on the campaign advisors and not on the candidates. The losers in this chess game are the
voters. They are deprived of the information they need to make informed decisions because the press is
ignoring substantive policy issues and reporting only on the process of the campaign. It is clear that the
campaign advisors should stay out of the limelight and let the press report on the most revealing
positions on substantive issues the candidates have taken.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument in the passage depends?

(A) Chess is the most appropriate analogy to reporting on political campaigns.

(B) The candidates in the election are taking positions on substantive policy issues.

(C) How the press reports politics determines the substantive issues in the campaign.

(D) The voters are not paying enough attention to the election to be able to make informed decisions.

(E) There is no difference between reporting on the political process and reporting on substantive
29. Medium

How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error
contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their
training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication
skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots' lack of actual
flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.

(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.

(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying

(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.

(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

30. hard

It is the mark of a superior conductor that he or she has the authority to insist, even with a top
orchestra, that rehearsal work must be intensified. This authority cannot simply be claimed, the
conductor must earn it by winning the orchestra’s respect for the artistic interpretations he or she is
currently pursuing.

In taking the position outlined, the author presupposes which one of the following?

(A) Superior conductors devise different interpretations of composition for each orchestra with which
they perform it.

(B) Superior conductors are perfectionists who are never satisfied with any performance even by a top

(C) Top orchestras are always ready to put in additional work on rehearsals if the conductor considers
additional rehearsing necessary.

(D) Top orchestras can appreciate the merits of an interpretation even before they have brought it to
full realization.

(E) Even top orchestras are not always led by superior conductors.
31. Medium

When Cortez arrived in Mexico in A.D. 1519, he observed the inhabitants playing a ceremonial game
with a rubber ball. The pre-Columbian inhabitants of Mexico began to use rubber around A.D. 1000.
Thus, we can be sure that the game must have originated sometime between approximately A.D. 1000
and Cortez’ arrival.

The conclusion reached above depends on which one of the following assumptions?

(A) The pre-Columbian inhabitants of Mexico played games on all ceremonial occasions.

(B) The making of rubber balls was one of the earliest uses of rubber by the inhabitants of Mexico.

(C) The ceremonial game referred to was popular throughout Mexico.

(D) The game had been played since its inception with a rubber ball.

(E) The dating of the first use of rubber in Mexico was due to Cortez

32. Hard

Only 1,000 to 2,000 species of fruit flies exist worldwide. Nowhere in the world are fruit flies more
taxonomically diverse than in the Hawaiian islands, which host some 500 species. A subset of fruit flies
called the picture-winged drosophilids is represented in Hawaii by 106 species. All of the fruit fly species
now present in the Hawaiian archipelago are thought to be the descendants of the same one or two
ancestral females.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) All of the picture-winged drosophilids in Hawaii are believed to be the descendants of the same one
or two ancestral female fruit flies.

(B) Picture-winged drosophilids are found only in the Hawaiian islands.

(C) All of the 1,000 to 2,000 species of fruit flies worldwide are believed to be the descendants of one or
two females.

(D) If 500 new species of fruit flies were discovered, then Hawaiian fruit flies would no longer be the
most taxonomically diverse


(E) Some fruit flies originated in Hawaii and spread from there to other parts of the world.
33. easy

In 1860 Bavarian quarry workers discovered the impression of a feather in a limestone slab dating to the
Mesozoic era. It had previously been assumed that birds developed only after the close of the Mesozoic
era and after the disappearance of pterosaurs, a species characteristic of that era. But there in
limestone lay the imprint of a fully aerodynamic, three-inch-long feather. This, therefore, must have
been the earliest bird—certainly, the earliest found to that date.

The argument assumes which one of the following?

(A) The creature to which the feather belonged was a descendant of the pterosaurs.

(B) Birds with such feathers were preceded by species of birds with less-developed feathers.

(C) In the Mesozoic era, no creatures other than birds had such feathers.

(D) The feather belonged to a Mesozoic creature that was neither a pterosaur nor a bird, but an
intermediate between them.

(E) The earliest bird flew in an awkward manner.

34. Hard

Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the
past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First,
the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade
than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the
rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing,
comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that
the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade.

(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma.

(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions.

(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma
sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not.

(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers
are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.
35. Medium

One method of dating the emergence of species is to compare the genetic material of related species.
Scientists theorize that the more genetically similar two species are to each other, the more recently
they diverged from a common ancestor. After comparing genetic material from giant pandas, red
pandas, raccoons, coatis, and all seven bear species, scientists concluded that bears and raccoons
diverged 30 to 50 million years ago. They further concluded that red pandas separated from the
ancestor of today’s raccoons and coatis a few million years later, some 10 million years before giant
pandas diverged from the other bears.

Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?

(A) Giant pandas and red pandas are more closely related than scientists originally thought they were.

(B) Scientists now count the giant panda as the eighth species of bear.

(C) It is possible to determine, within a margin of just a few years, the timing of divergence of various

(D) Scientists have found that giant pandas are more similar genetically to bears than to raccoons.

(E) There is substantial consensus among scientists that giant pandas and red pandas are equally related
to raccoons.

36. Medium

here is little point in looking to artists for insights into political issues. Most of them hold political views
that are less insightful than those of any reasonably well-educated person who is not an artist. Indeed,
when taken as a whole, the statements made by artists, including those considered to be great, indicate
that artistic talent and political insight are rarely found together.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) There are no artists who have insights into political issues.

(B) A thorough education in art makers a person reasonably well educated.

(C) Every reasonably well-educated person who s not an artist has more insight into political issues than
any artist.

(D) Politicians rarely have any artistic talent.

(E) Some artists are no less politically insightful than some reasonably well-educated persons who are
not artists.
37. medium

Advertisement: Clark brand-name parts are made for cars manufactured in this country. They satisfy all
of our government automotive test—the toughest such tests in the world. With foreign-made parts, you
never know which might be reliable and which are cheap look-alikes that are poorly constructed and
liable to cost you hundreds of dollars in repairs. Therefore, be smart and insist on brand-name parts by
Clark for your car.

The argument requires the assumption that

(A) Clark parts are available only in this country

(B) foreign-made parts are not suitable for cars manufactured in this country

(C) no foreign-made parts satisfy our government standards

(D) parts that satisfy our government standards are not as poorly constructed as cheap foreign-made

(E) if parts are made for cars manufactured in our country, they are not poorly constructed

38. hard

Because a large disparity in pay between the public and private sectors has developed in recent years,
many experienced and extremely capable government administrators have quit their posts and taken
positions in private-sector management. Government will be able to recapture these capable
administrators by raising salaries to a level comparable to those of the private sector. In that way, the
functioning of public agencies will be improved.

The position taken above presupposes which one of the following?

(A) Experience gained from private-sector management will be very valuable in government

(B) The most important factor determining how well government agencies function is the amount of
experience the administrators have.

(C) Unless government action is taken, the disparity in pay between government administration and
private-sector management will continue to increase.

(D) People who moved from jobs in government administration to private-sector management would
choose to change careers again.

(E) If the disparity in pay between government administration and private-sector management
increases, administrators will move to the public sector in large numbers.
39. Medium

Modern physicians often employ laboratory tests, in addition to physical examinations, in order to
diagnose diseases accurately. Insurance company regulations that deny coverage for certain laboratory
tests therefore decrease the quality of medical care provided to patients.

Which one of the following is an assumption that would serve to justify the conclusion above?

(A) Physical examinations and the uncovered laboratory tests together provide a more accurate
diagnosis of many diseases than do physical examinations alone.

(B) Many physicians generally oppose insurance company regulations that, in order to reduce costs, limit
the use of laboratory tests.

(C) Many patients who might benefit from the uncovered laboratory tests do not have any form of
health insurance.

(D) There are some illnesses that experienced physicians can diagnose accurately from physicians
examination alone.

(E) Laboratory tests are more costly to perform than are physical examinations.

40. hard

Economic considerations color every aspect of international dealings, and nations are just like
individuals in that the lender sets the terms of its dealings with the borrower. That is why a nation that
owes money to another nation cannot be world leader.

The reasoning in the passage assumes which one of the following?

(A) A nation that does not lend to any other nation cannot be a world leader.

(B) A nation that can set the terms of its dealings with other nations is certain to be a world leader.

(C) A nation that has the terms of its dealings with another action set by that nation cannot be a world

(D) A nation that is a world leader can borrow from another nation as long as that other nation does not
set the terms of the dealings between the two nations.

(E) A nation that has no dealings with any other nation cannot be world leader.
41. Hard

Any serious policy discussion about acceptable levels of risk in connection with explosions is not well
served if the participants fail to use the word “explosion” and use the phrase “energetic disassembly”
instead. In fact, the word “explosion” elicits desirable reactions, such as a heightened level of attention,
whereas the substitute phrase does not. Therefore, of the two terms, “explosion” is the one that should
be used throughout discussions of this sort.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends?

(A) In the kind of discussion at issue, the advantages of desirable reactions to the term “explosion”
outweigh the drawbacks, if any, arising from undesirable reactions to that term.

(B) The phrase “energetic disassembly” has not so far been used as a substitute for the word “explosion”
in the kind of discussion at issue.

(C) In any serious policy discussion, what is said by the participants is more important than how it is put
into words.

(D) The only reason that people would have for using “energetic disassembly” in place of “explosion” is
to render impossible any serious policy discussion concerning explosions.

(E) The phrase “energetic disassembly” is not necessarily out of place in describing a controlled rather
than an accidental explosion.

42. medium

Current legislation that requires designated sections for smokers and non-smokers on the premises of
privately owned businesses is an intrusion into the private sector that cannot be justified. The fact that
studies indicate that non-smokers might be harmed by inhaling the smoke from others' cigarettes is not
the main issue. Rather, the main issue concerns the government's violation of the right of private
businesses to determine their own policies and rule.

Which one of the following is principle that, if accepted, could enable the conclusion to be properly

(A) Government intrusion into the policies and rules of private businesses is justified only when
individuals might be harmed.

(B) The right of individuals to breathe safe air supersedes the right of businesses to be free from
government intrusion.

(C) The right of businesses to self-determination overrides whatever right or duty the government may
have to protect the individual.

(D) It is the duty of private businesses to protect employees from harm in the workplace.

(E) Where the rights of businesses and the duty of government conflict, the main issue is finding a
successful compromise.
43. Easy

cientific research that involves international collaboration has produced papers of greater influence, as
measured by the number of times a paper is cited in subsequent papers, than has research without any
collaboration. Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times,
whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average. This difference shows that
research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those
conducted by single researchers.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Prolific writers can inflate the number of citations they receive by citing themselves in subsequent

(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international collaboration by
determining the number of citations it has received

(C) The number of citations a paper receives is a measure of the importance of the research it reports.

(D) The collaborative efforts of scientists who are citizens of the same country do not produce papers
that are as important as papers that are produced by international collaboration.

(E) International research teams tend to be more generously funded than are single researchers.

44. medium

Millions of irreplaceable exhibits in natural history museums are currently allowed to decay. Yet without
analyses of eggs from museums, the studies linking pesticides with the decline of birds of prey would
have been impossible. Therefore, funds must be raised to preserve at least those exhibits that will be
most valuable to science in the future.

The argument presupposes that

(A) if a museum exhibit is irreplaceable, its preservation is of an importance that overrides economic

(B) the scientific analysis of museum exhibits can be performed in nondestructive way

(C) eggs of extinct species should be analyzed to increase knowledge of genetic relationships among

(D) it can be known at this time what data will be of most use to scientific investigators in the future

(E) the decay of organic material in natural history exhibits is natural and cannot be prevented
45. Medium

The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a
schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin‟s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the
brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic.
Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the
physical structure of the brain.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering
from schizophrenia

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of
schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.

(C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is
not twines.

(D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size

(E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do