To my mother lluminada,
my ro,ife Imelda,
anil our Children Kim D eunice,
KenDainiet,
and KarlaDenise
CHAPTER 2
Principles of Hydrostatics
Unit Pressure ..............;
............27
Absolute and Gage Prcssures.. ............29
Variations in Pressure ............ .........31
Pressure below I .rr urs of I)rtlerent LiryurJs...... .................32
Pressure Hea.l. ............
Manonr.,tcrs ........ .......... 3+
SOLVED PR(}TITLMS
SUPPI t:MtNTARY I'I{UBLEMS ...........69 to72
lt TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 5
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces................ .......73 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
Total Hydrostatic Force on Plane Surface ................73 Discharge. ...........247
Properties of Common Geometric Shapes... ........76 Definition of Terms... ...........241
Total Hydrostatic Force on Curved Surface,..... .......78 Energy and Head .................244
Power and Efficiency..........., ..................245
Dams ..................... 81 Bernoulliis Energy Theorem... ...............246
Types of Dams ...................81 Energy and Hydraulic Grade Lines .....248
Analysis of Gravity Dams........ ........... 84 SOLVED PRO8LEMS................ 250to 273
Buoyancy. ............. SS SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS .................................. 27 4 to 27 6
Archimedes' Principles ................. ......88
Statical Stability of Floating Bodies ........90
Stress on ThinWalled Pressure Vessels ................,..96
Cylindrical Tank.......... ......96
Spherical Shell ......... ............:................98
Wood Stave Pipes......................:..... .....98
SOLVED PROBLEMS.................
SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS .................................. 19 6 to 200
iv TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS V
:
I
i
\
I
{
.t
I TABLE OF CONTENTS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
VI & HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER 9
I lytlroclynamics........'........'
Ij,rrcc against Fixed Flat Plates
"""""""""'
"""""""
551
551
Chapter I
Irorcc a[ainst Fixed Curved Vanes """' 553
Properties of Flui ds
I
TableA_3:PropertiesofCommonLiquidsat].atm&20.C..601
Table A  4: I'roperties of Comrnon Gases at 1 atm & 20'C ""' 601 TYPES OF FTUID
Table A  5: Surface Tensiory Vapor Pressure, Fluids are generally divided into two categories: ideal fluids and real fluids.
ancl sound SPeed of Water ""'602
Table A  6: Properties of Standard Atmosphere """"""""""' 603 Ideal Jluids
. Assumed to have no viscosity (arr.l lrence, no resistance to shear;
Table A  7: Coriversion Factors from BG to SI Units """"""" 604 . Incompressible
Table A  8: Other Conversion Factors """""""""' 605 . Have uniform velocity when flowing
. No friction between moving layers oi fluid
. No eddy currents or turbulence
Fluid p in kg/mr
't.29
Air (STP)
Air (21'F, a 1tm) 1..20
Alcohol 790
Ammonia 602
Gasoline 720
Pseudoplastic Fluids Fluids Glvcerin 1.,260
Mercury 13,600
Water 1,000
Figure 1  1: Types offluid
massof fluid, M
Eq. 1 1.
volume, V
Units:
English : slugs/ft3 Note: psrug, = ptbnf g
Metric : gram/cm3 UNIT WEIGHT OR SPECIFIC WEIGHT, Y
SI: k8lms Specific weight or unit weight, y, is the weight of a unit volume of a fluid.
lior an ideal gas, its density can be found from the specific gas constant and weightof fluid, W
Eq.1,  4
icleal gas law:
volume,V'
v:Pg 15
o=
'RT
P
Eq.1. 2
CHAPTER ONE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER ONE
4 Properties of Fluids & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Properties of Fluids 5
U rrits: the upper plate will adhere to it and will move with the same velocity U while
Iinglish : lb/ ftt the fluid in contact with the fixed plaie will have a zero velocity. For small
Metric : dyne/cm3 values of U and y, the velocity gradient can be assumed to be a straight line
SI : N/m3 or kN/m3 and F varies as A, U and y as:
^AUFU
loc

yAy
SPECIFIC GRAVITY L) dv
but (from the figure)
Specific gravlty, s, is a dimensionless ratio of a fluid's density to some dy
standard reference density. For liquids and solids, the reference density is
water at 4' C (39.2' F). 5A : Sheuri.tg stress, r
T oc
dv Or T =k.dv
dv
Pliuui.t dv
Eq.16
P water where the constant of proportionality k is called the dynamic of
absolute viscosity denoted as p.
In gases, the standard reference to calculate the specific gravity is the density dv
of air. 'dy
. __.::_
Pgas
18
s = Eq. "I _ 7 tl=:.
' dv/dy Eq.
P air
dynes/cmz cm2/s
Metric (ooise) (stoke)
Pas
s.l mz/s
(Ns/rnz)
Note:
1 poise = 1 dyne.s/cm2 = 0.1 Pasec (1 dyne = 105 N)
1 stoke = 0.0001 m2ls
'4o '
P=T Eq.1  10 For complete wetting, as with water on clean glass, the angle e is 0o. Hence
the formula becomes
where:
o = surface tension in N/m
d = diameter of the droplet in m
p= gage pressure in Pa
where:
/l = capillary rise or depression in m
y : unit weight in N/m3
d = diameter of the tube in m
o = surface tension in Pa
I CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids I
Table I  3: Contact Angles, 0 _ stress =
rLs= _ Ap D^ 1 1r
115
, Eq.
Materials Angle,0 strain LV
mercuryglass 140' v
waterparaffin 107"
dn
watersilver 90' orEs=..'.
 dv/v Eq. 116
keroseneglass 26"
slvcerinelass 19"
waterglass 00
ethvl alcoholglass 00
PRESSURE DISTURBANCES
Pressure disturbances imposed on a fluid move in waves. The velocity or
celerity of pressure wave (also known as acoustical or sonic aelocity) is
COMPRESSIBILIW, expressed as:
B
of compressibillty) is the fractional
C' ompressibilify (also known as the cofficient
change in the volume of a fluid per unit change in pressure in a constant tr; tr
c=.1 " = l
p Eq."I_17
temperature process. I lFp
AV
\/Y 1
'LPEB =j
B= Eq.113
PROPERTY CHANGES IN IDEAL GAS
For any ideal gas experiencing any process, the equation of state is given by:
dv /v
^ a 
orP:; Eq.1,  1.4
qp
PrVt  PzVz Eq.118
Tt Tz
where:
AV = change in volume When temperature is held constant, Eq. 1  l8 reduces to (Botlle's l.arc)
V = original volume
Ap = change in Pressure ptVt=pzVz Eq.119
dV /V = change in volume (usually in percent)
lli
to CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FTUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids tl
li
For Adiabatic or Isentropic Conditions (no heat exchanged) Table 1  4r Typical Vapor Pressures
i
pt Vtk = pz Vzk 8q.1,  21 Fluid kPa,20"C
mercury 0.000173
or Pt\u = u = Constant Eq.1,  22
turoentine 0.0534
\vz ) Pt water 2.34
ethvl alcohol 5.86
k^L
ether 58.9
t2 lPzlk
and
r,  l.p,l Eq.123 butane
Freon12
278
584
DroDane 855
where: ammonla 888
pr = initial absolute pressure of gas
pz= final absolute pressure of gas
Vi = initial volume of gas
Vz = final volume of gas
Tr = initial absolute temperature of gas in .K (.K =.C + 273)
Solved Problems
Tz = final absolute ternperafure of gas in .K
lc = ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at Problem 1 1
constant volume. Also known as adiabatic exponent. A reservoir of glycerin has a mass of '1,200 kg and a volume of 0.952 cu. m.
liincl its (a) weight, W, (b\ untt weight, y, (c) mass density, p, and (d) specific
gravity (s).
The tendency toward vaporization is dependent on the temperature of the (,') Density, p= M
liquid. Boiling occurs when the liquid temperature is increased to the point v
12oo
that the vapor pressure is equal to the local ambient (surrounding) pressure. DensitY, P =
Thus, a liquid's boiling temperature depends on the local ambient pressure, as 0.952
well as the liquicl's tendency to vaporize. Density, p = 1,,260.5 kglm3
CHAPTER ONE
t2 Properties of Fluids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUTICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids r3
(d) Specific gravity, s =
Pglv Solution
Pwater (a) W=*g=22(9.75)
. 1.260.5
Spectrlc gravrty, s = :
W= 214.5 N
' 1,000
Specific gravity, s ='L.26 (b) Since the mass of an object is absolute, its mass will still be 22kg
Problem 1 2 Probtem 1 5
The specific gravity of certain oil is 0.82. Calculate its (a) specific weight in What is the weight of a 45kg boulder if it is brought to a place where the
lblft3 and kN/m3, and (b) mass density in slugs/ft3 and kglm'. acceleration due to gravity is 395 m/s per minute?
Solution Solution
(a) Specific weight, y : ywater x s W= Mg
Specific weight, y = 62.4 x 0.82 = 51.168 tb/ft3 m/s r lmin
Specific weight, y = 9.81 x 0.82 = 8.044 kN/mr 'c=3g5 min 60sec
g = 6.583 m/s2
(b) Density, p = p*ot.,.x s
Density, p = 1.94x 0.82 = 1.59 slugsftl
w= 4s(6.s83)
W=296.25N
Density, p = 1000 x 0.82 = 820 kglm3
Problem l  5
Problem 1 3
A liter of water weighs about 9.75 N. Compute its mass in kilograms.
If the specific volume of a certain gas is 0.7848 m3/kg, what is its specific
weight?
Solution
Solution
W
Mur, = Vr=
1

s
p
4.71
Mass = '_'i" 11
9.8L
,
' v, 0.7848
Mass = 0.994 kg
p = 1.2742k9/mu
specific weight,,
Problem 1  4 ]=l.irtn *n.r.,
If an object
has a mass of 22 kg at sea level, (a) what will be its weight at a Specific weight y = 12.5 N/m3
point where the acceleration due to gravity g = 9.75 m/ sz? (b) What will be its
mass at that point?
l4 CHAPTER ONE
Froperties of Fluid5
FLUID MECHANICS
a nvonAuucs
Fr.urD MEcHnrrircs
& HVDRAULICS
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
l5
Problem 1 7 $olution
l,Vhat is the specific weight of air at 480 kPa absolute and 21'C?
Density, p = I
1 : {
I
Solution  13.7
g;81,
T=q"8
p = 1.397 kglxrf
p
= 4=
'RT where R=287J/kg:K
t)
l Densitv; o = '
480xL03 , , : RT
287(21.+273) (205+L0'l'.325)x 103
'J,.397 Note: P.tm = 101.325 kPa
=
p= 5.689kg '
RAr.r?3)
Gas constant, R = 778.87 1441. "K
5.689 x 9.8L
y = 55.81 N/rn3 ,
1. 10
io kept at:a pressure of 200 iiPa absolute and a temperatirre of 30bC in
a
F  Pz
Problem L  Lz " 0.006v /v
.^
A lead cube has a total mass of 80 kg. what is the length of its side? sp. gr. of pz= 0.0132GPa
lead =11.3. pz=13.2MPa
Solution
Let L be the length of side of the cube: Problem 1 15
Water in a hydraulic press, initially at 137 kPa absolute, is subjected to a
M= pV pressure of 176,280 kPa absolute. Using Ee = 2.5 GPa, determine the
33 = (1000 x 11.3) Ls
percentage decrease in the volume of water.
L= 0.192 m = 19.2 cm
Solution
r dP
Problem 1 13  dv/v
A liquid compressed in a container has a volume of 1 liter at a pressure of 1
MPa and a volume of 0.995 liter at a pressure of 2 MPa. The bulk modulus of (116,280137)x103
2.5x10e=
elasticity (Er) of the liquid is: dv /v
dV
Solution = 0.0465
v
 dP 21 dV
= 4.65"ludecrease
dv/v (0.ee57)/1, v
Ea = 200 MPa
Prcblem 1 16
Problem !  14 lf 9 m3 of an ideal gas at24 oC and 150 kPaa is compressed to 2 ma, (n) what is
\Alhat pressure is required to reduce the volume of water by 0.g percent? Bulk the resulting pressure assuming isothermal conditions. (b) What would have
modulus of elasticity of water, Ee = 2.2GPa. heen the pressure and temperature if the process is isentropic. Use k = 1.3
IB CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids l9
ll
Solution Problem 1 18
I
(n\ For isothermal condition: Two large plane surfaces are 25 mm aPart and the space between them is filled
pr Vt : pz. Vz with a liquid of viscosity p = 0.958 Pas' Assuming the velocity gradient to be
tts0(9) = pz (2) a straight line, what force is required to pull a very thin plate of 0.37 m2 area al
a constant speed of 0.3 m/s if the plate is 8.4 mm from one of the surfaces?
Pz = 675 kPa abs
F /A 25r
Kinematic viscosity:
v=:= u 0.000402
p (1000 x 0.978)
v = 4.11 x1V7 mzfs
l stoke
v = 4.11 x 1o7 n'z/ s*
0.0001m2/s
v = 4.11 x 1(}3 stoke
i
I
CHAPTER ONE FLUID MECHANICS ONE
Ia t.
FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER
20 Properties of Fluids & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Properties of Fluids
Solutlon [tr, = 0]
fixed
Wsin0F =0
u= u/v
' Nt = o.oo5 m
F =Wsin0
i*\.* F'= 176.58 sin 15'
Ura u =olles F =tA
U = 0.1,25(2n) rotating
rylinder
U = 0.785 m/s fixed cylinder lF.=tA=ugAl
v
V = 0'005 m
t76.5sin 15o = 0.0si4 (0.3)
Torque = F(0.125) ojmL
Torque: tA (0.125) U = 5.614 m/s
pr = 5.614 m/s
0.88 = r [2n(0.12s)(0.3)l (0.125)
t = 29.88 Pa L=0.3m
liquid
29.88
Problem 1 21
t,.= o.zsslo.oo5 Estimate the height to which water will rise in a capillary tube of dianreter 3
0.005
p = 0.19 Pas mm. Use a = 0.0728 N/m and y = 9810 N/m3 for water.
0.13 m
Solution
Problem 1 20 Note: 0 = 90o for water in clean tube
An 18kg slab slides down a 15' inclined plane on a 3mmthick film of oil Capillaryrlse,h= I
with viscosity Lr = 0.0814 Pasec. If the contact area is 0.3 m2, find the terminal yd
velocity of the slab. Neglect air resistance. 4(0'0728)
CaPillary rise,l = e810(0.003)
Solution Capillary rise, /r = 0.0099 m = 9.9 mrn
W = 18(9.81) = 176.58 N
s
y = 0.003 m
Problem t  22
llrtimate the capillary depression for mercury in
dlameter. Use o = 0.514 N/m and 0 = 140".
a glass capillary tube 2 mm in
plane lolutlon
4ocos0 4(0'514Xcos140')
yd 
0= Capillary rise, h =
(9810x13.6X0.002)
Capillary rise, I = 0.0059 m (the negative sign indicates capillary depression)
Terminal velocity is attained when the sum of all forces in the direction of
mction is zero. Capillary depression, lr = 5.9 mm
CHAPTER ONE
CHAPTER ONE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS 23
22 Properties of Fluids & HYDRAULICS d nYoRnuucs or"p"l,;;
"?il;'
Problem 1 23 Problem L  26
What is the value of the surface tension of a small drop of watgr 0,9 Tall A sonar transmitter operates at 2 impulseS per second. lf the device is held tb
tf'ta t"ifu.. of fresh water'(Er = 2'04 x10e P;) and the echo is received
pidwal'
diameter which is iri contact with air if the pressure within the droplet is 561
Pa? between impulses, how deep is the water?
Solution Solution
4a The velociry of the pressure wave (sound wave) is:
P= .:d
lr
ILB
4o ' {;
56"1=
0.0003
o = 0.042 N/m =7,428m/ s
p=
4o 2]t=ct
d Eh ='1,,428(1/4
4(0'0712) 'li = L78,5 m
p= = G,329 pa
45 x10o
t 27
Problem t  25 pressure will 80 "C water boil?
pressure of water at 80oC = 47.4l<Pa)
bistiiled water stands in a glass tube of 9 mm dfmeter at a height of 24 mm
What is the true static height? Use o = 0.0742 N/m.
4(0'0742)
tI= = o.oo336 m = 3.35 mm
9810(0.009)
Problem 1 29 Problem 1  34
A vertical cylindrical tank with a diameter of 12 m and a depth of 4 m is filled A square block weighing 1.1 kN and 250 mm on an edge slides down an
with water to the top with water at 20"C. If the water is heated to 50.C, how incline on a film of oil 6.0 pm thick. Assuming a linear velocity profile in the
much water will spill over? Unit weight of water at 20'C and 50oc is 919 oil and neglecting air resistance, what is tl're terminal velocity of the block?
kN/m3 and 9.69 kN/m3, respectively. T'he viscosity of oil is 7 mPas. Angle of inclination is 20o.
Ans:4.7 m3 Ans'.5.1.6 m/ s
Problem 1 3O Problem I  35
A rigid steel container is partially filled with a liquid at 15 atm. The volume of llenzene at 20'C has a viscosity of 0.000651 Pas. What shear slress is required
the liquid is 1.23200 L. At a pressure of 30 atm, the volume of the liquid is to deform this fluid at a strain rate of 4900 s1?
1.23100 L. Find the average bulk modulus of elasticity of the liquid over the
Atts: r  3.19 Pa
given range of pressure if the temperature after compression is allowed to
return to its initial value. What is the coefficient of compressibility?
Ans" Ea = 1872 GPa; 0 = 0.534 GPa' Problem 1  36
A shaft 70 mm in diameter is being pushecl at a speecl of 400 mm/s through a
lrt'irring sleeve 70.2 mm in diameter and 250 mm long. The clearance, assumed
Problem t  31
ltlliform, is filled with oil at 20.C with v = 0.005 m2/s and sp. gr. = 0.9. Find
Calculate the density of water vapor at 350 kPa abs and 20'c if its gas constant llrc force exerted by the oil in the shaft.
is 0.462 ppu6r/kg"K
Atzs: 987 N
Ans:2.59 kg/ m,
Problem t  37
Problem 1 32 'l'w<r clean parallel glass plates, by a distance d ='J..5 mm, are ctipped
separated
Air is kept at a pressure of 200 kPa and a temperature of 30oC in a 500L ln n bath of water. How far does the water rise due to capillary action, if o =
contajner. What is the mass of the air? (),()730 N/m?
Ans: 1.15 kg Ans:9.94mn
CHAPTER ONE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER T\vO
26 Properties of Fluids & HVDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics Z I
Problem 1 38
Iiincl the arrgle the surface tension film leaves the glass for a vertical tube
irnmersed in water if the diameter is 0.25 inch and the capillary rise is 0.08
inc'h. Use o = 0.005 lb/ft.
Chapter 2
Arts:64.3" Principles of Hydrostatics
Problem 1  39
UNIT PRESSURE OR PRESSURE, p
What force is required to lift a thin wire ring 6 cm in diameter from a water
Pressure is the force per unit area exerted.by a liquid or gas on a body or
surface at 20'C? (o' of water at 20"C = 0.0728 N/m). Neglect the weight of the
surface, with the force acting at right angles to the surface uniformly in all
ring.
directions.
Ans:0.0274N
Force. F
P= . A.
' Area, Eq.21
ln the English system, pressure is usually measured in pounds per square inch
(psi); in international usage, in kilograms per square ce.timeters (k[/cm2), or
in atmospheres; and in the international metric system (sI), in Newtons per
Bquare meter (Pascal). The unit atmosphere (atm) is defined as a pressure of
1.03323 kg/cm2 (74.696 lb/inz), which, in terms of the conventional mercury
batometer, corresponds to 760 mm (29.921in) of mercury. The unit kilopascal
(kPa) is defined as a pressure of 0.0102 kg/crft (0.1a5 lb/sq in).
PASCAL'S LAW
Ittrst:nl's lazo, cleveloped by French mathemati cian Blaisc pnscal,states that the
l'lrcssure on a fluid is equal in all directions and in all parts of the container. In
Figure 2 '1,, as liquid flows into the large container at the bottom, pressure
pusl'res the liquid equally up into the tubes above the container. The liquid
tlgcs to the same level in all of the tubes, regardless of the shape or angle of the
ttrbc.
CHAPTER T\YO FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER T\vO
2B Principles of Hydrostatics 6. HYDRAULICS & HYDRAUTICS Principles of Hydrostatics 29
ABSOLUTE AND GAGE PRESSURES
;. ;ifi*iiM;s.il
Gage Pressure (Relative pressure)
Gage pressures are presswes above or below the atrnosphere and can be
measured by pressure gauges or manometers. For srnall pressure differences, u
a
fube manometer is used. It consists of a ushaped tube
ith o.ru end connected
the container and the other open to the atnosphere. Filled with a liquid, such
to
as
water, oil, or mercury, the difference in the liquid surface levels in the two
manometer legs indicates the pressure difference from local ahnospheric
conditions. For higher pressue differences, a Bourdon gauge, named after the
French inventor Eugdne Bourdon, is used. This consists of i hollow metal
tube
with an oval cross sectiory bent in the shape of a hook. one end of the tube is
Figure 2  1: Illustration of Pascal's Law closed, the other open and connected to the measurernent region.
The laws of fluid mechanics are observable in many everydav situations. For
example, the pressure exerted by water at the bottom of a prnd will be the Atmospheric Pressure & Vacuum
same as the pressure exerted by water at the bottom of a much narrower pipe, Atttrospluic Pressute is the pressure at any one point on the earth's surface from the
provided depth remains constant. If a longer pipe filled with water is tilted so weight of the air above it. A anarum is a space that has all matter removed from it.
that it reaches a maximum height of 15 m, its water will exert the same It is impossible to create a perfect vacuum in the laboratory; no matter how
pressure as the other examples (left of Figure 2  2). Fluids can flow up as well aclvanced a vacuum system is, some molecules are always present in the vacuum
as down in devices such as siphons (right of Figure 2  2). Hydrostatic force ett'a, Even remote regions of outer space have a small amount of gas. A vacuurn
causes water in the siphon to flow up and over the edge until the bucket is
r:an rrlso be described as a region of space where the pressure ii less than the
empty or the suction is broken. A siphon is particularly useful for emptying nrrrnral atmospheric pressure of 760 mm (29.9 n) of mercury.
containers that should not be tipped.
lJtrtlt.r Normal conditions at sea level:
It"r" = 2166lb/ft2
= 1.4.7 psi
= 29.9 inches of mercury (hg)
= 760 mm Hg
= 101.325 kPa
pressurcS
Absolute zero = 101.325 gage
or 100 gage
MERCURY BAROMETER
A mercury barometer is an accurate and relatively
simple way to measure changes in atmospheric
pressure. At sea level, the weight of the atmosphere
forces mercury 760 mm (29.9 in) up a calibrated
A
Atmospheric Flgure 2  4: Forces acting on elementary prism
glass tube. Higher eleVations yield lower readings p le tsu re
because the atmosphere is less dense there, and the to liquid to zero gage press{Jre or with
thinner air exefts less pressure on the mercury, w Note: Free Uquid Surface refers
atnospheric pressure only.
surface subject
Let us assume that point o in Figure 2  4 lie on the free liquid surface, then 'PRessunr nrno
the gage pressure pt is zero and Eq. 2  4 becomes:
'Pressure head is the height "rt" of a corumn of homogeneous liquid of unit
weight y that will produce an intensity of pressure p.
o  
= zoh
This means that the prcssure along the same horizontal plane in a homogeneous
fluid
at rest are equal. convert pressure head.(height) of any riquid to water,
iust murtipry its
Cht by its specific aravrty
h2
hr
Fuotom
CHAPTER TWO FTUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER TU(/O 2q
34 Principles of Hydrostatics. & HYDRAULICS & HVDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics J J
MANOMETER Steps in Solving. Manometer Problems:
A ntunometer is a tube, usually bent in a form .of a U, corttaining a liquid of t. Decide or, ,f," fluid in feet or meter, of which the heads are to be
known specific gravity, the surface of which moves proportionally to changes expressed, (water is most advisable).
of pressure. 'lt is used to measure pressure 2. Starting from an end point, number in order, the interface of different
fluids:
3. Identify points of equal pressure (taking into account that for a
Types of Manometer homogeneous fluid at rest, the pibssure along the same horizontal plane
Open Type  has an atmospheric surface in one leg and is capable ot are equal). Label these points with the same number.
measuring gage preisu res. 4. Proieed from level to level, adding (if going down) or subtracting (il
Differential Typ" without an atmospheiic surface and capable of going up) pressure ,heads as the elevation decreases or increases,
i; respectively with due regard for the specific gravity of the fluids.
measuring only differences of pressure.
Piezometer  The sirnplest form of open manometer. lt is a tube'tapped hto a i
wall of a container or conduit"for the purpose of measuring pressure. The
fluid in the container or qonduit rises in this tube to form a free surface
Pressure, p=lh
7 = (s.81. x s) (1)
s:0.714 ) Specific Gravity
2.2
(a) Open manometer (b) Differential rnanometer = 1.03 for salt water.
le the pressure 12.5 m below the ocean? Use sp. Cr.
,P*Yh ' :
p * (9.81. x1.03)(12.5)
P=1:26.3kPa
(c) Piezometer
CHAPTER T\vO FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS GHAPTER T\vO 2a
36 Principles of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics J t
Problem 2  3 Problem 2  5
lf the pressure 23 meter below a liquid is 338.445 kPa, deterrnine its unit If the pressure in the air space above an oil
(s = 0.75) surface in a closed tank is
weight y, mass densilv p , and specific gravity s 115 kPa absolute, what is the gage pressure 2 m below the surface?
Sotution Solution
(n) Unit weight, y p:pturtacelfll
p=vh Psurtace=115101.325 Note: patm.= 101.325 kPa
338.445 = y (23) = 73.675 kPa gage
Psurrace
y = 14.715 kN/m3
p =13.675 + (9.81x0.7s)(2)
P = 28.39 kPa
) Mass density, p
p=l
I 16
x'l'03 the absolute pressure in kPa at a deplh of 10 m belovy the free surface of
P= 4,7'15
1
Problem 2  4 7.7
tf the pressure at a point in the ocean is 50 kPa, what is lhe pressure 27 meters gage 6 m above the bottom of the tank containing a liquid rea{s 90
below this point?
?q*"
{Another gage height 4 rri reads 103 kPa. Deterrriine the speeific'weight of
Solution
lhe difference in pressure belween any two point€ in a
liquid is pz  pt = t h
Pzn=Yh.
" =?L..'nr 1x1 .03) (27) 10390=y(2)
p2 = 332.82kPa y.6.5 kN/6r
CHAPTER T\vO FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER T\vO
3B Principles of HYdrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics 39
Problem 2  8 Solution
Arr open tank contains 5.8 m of water covered with 3.2 m of kerosene (f = 3 Since the density of the mud varies with depth, the pressure
kN/m3). Ilirrd the pressure at the interface and at the bottom of the tank. should be solved by integration
Solution dp=ydh
dp = (L0 + 0.5 h)dh
(u\ Pressure at the interface p5
aa
= fxht^
Pa
lao = rc*o.snran
= (8X3.2)
pa = 25.6kPa
J'
00
J'
Kerosene
v =8 kN/m3 15
(b) Pressure at the bottom p = 10h + 0.25h2 
Pa =2 Ylt lo
Water
= Y'' h'' + Ys Iq = 9.81 kN/m3 = [10(s) + [./$($)z] [
= e.81(s.8) + 8(3.2) P = 56.25kPa
pn = 82.498 kPa
Problem 2  11
Problem 2  9 ln the figure shown, if the atmospheric
lf atmospheric pressure is 95.7 kPa ancl the gage attached to the tank reads 188
pressure is 101.03 kPa and the absolute I .5m
mmHg rru.,r.t*, find the absolute pressure within the tank pressure at the bottom of the tank is 'i#'flno;tr**
231.3 kPa, what is the specific gravity
Solution uf olive oil? Water 2.5 m
Ptus  Ptnt
+ PgrgL
tolutlon
Problem 2  10
(iagepressureatthebottomof thetank, p=23'l .3 101 .03
The weight density of a mud is given by y = 10 + 0'5k, where y is in kN/m3
and
t inge' pressure at the bottom of the tank, p = 130.27 kPa
h is in mlters. Determine the pressure, in kPa, at a depth of 5 m
l;r  )Y[]
P= T, hr, + Yo ho + ln, htu + lot l].,t
130.27 = (9.81 x 13.5)(0.4) + (9.81 . s)(2.e) + e.81(2.5) + (9.81 x 0.89X1.5)
.r  1.38
40 CHAPTER TWO
Prlnclples of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
.FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER TN/O
Principles of Hydrostaticl
4l
Problem 2  12 Probtem 2 14
lf air had
a constant specific weight of 72.2 N/mr and were incompressible, 'Compute the barometric pressure in kPa at an altitude of 1,200_m if the
what would be the height of the atmosphere if the atmospheric pressure (sea .,pressure at sea level is 101.3 kPa. Assume isothermal conditions a 21oC. Use
level) is 102 kPa? R = 287loule /kg"K.
Solutlon
_ 102 x 103
n
72.2
Height of atmosphere, h = = 8,350.55 m
.RT
=U
287(21 + 273)
Problem 2 i 13 (CE Board May 1994) p = 0.00001185 p
Assuming specific weight of air to be constant at 12 N/m3, what is' the
approximate height of Mount Banahaw if a mercury barometer at the base of dp = (0.00001185 p)(e.st) dtr
the mountain reads 654 mm and at the same instant, another barometer at the adn = 0.00011,63 dlt
top of the mountain reads 480 mm. p
p 7200
Solution
=.0.0001163 p,
,rrr!fr 0
jp 11200
lnp I . =0.0001163/r'lI o
J 101.3x10'
pmtp.op=I,h
h,,)uotto^  (y,, hr)rop = (l h)""
(Yn,
Solution
ln the figure shown, 300 mm O
llctermine the weight W
pabs=parn+pgage
lhnt can be carried bv the
= (e.81 x"13.6)(0.76) + (e.81 x 0.8)(8.5) 1,5 kN force acting on tt
Pnr', = 168.1 kPa abs phton. "
Problem 2  17
A hydraulic press is used to raise an 80kN cargo 'truck. If oil of sp. gr. 0.82
acts on the piston under a pressure of 10 MPa, what diameter of piston is
required?
lolutlon
Solution Since points 1 and 2lie on the
Since the pressure under the piston is uniform: rrrnre elevatiorr, pr = ?z 300 mm Z
Force=pressurexArea
80,000 = (10 x 10!) LD2 1.5
______= = w
D=0.1 m=100mm [ (().03)z iQ.3)'
W* 150 kN
CHAPTER T\x/O FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANTCS CHAPTER T\vO
44 Principles of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of
AE
Hydrostatics 'f J
Problem 2  20 Solution
A clrunr 700 mm in diameter and filled with water has a vertical pipe, 20 mm
in cliamctc.r, attached to the top. How many Newtons of water must be
pourcd into the pipe to exert a force of 6500 N on the top of the drum?
Solution
Force on the top:
f=pxArea
6500=px f,(7002202)
p = 0.016904 MPa
p :1.6,904 Pa
,s=0.78
lp: v hl
1.6,904 = 9810 h  p'' = y,, ttl
tpz
@
h=1.723n trF
lt1
n

0.00323
Weight=yxVolume
P=309.6F (kPa)
= 9810 x ! (0.02)2(1.723) Area on top
0)= _
w44
Weight = 5.31N
A 0.323
700 mm A
Pz = 136.22 kPa
Cylinder
W=44kN F= lhs hydraulic press shown rs filled with oil with sp. gr. 0.82. Neglecting the
A = 0.323 m2 gFlght of the two pistons, wlrat force F on the handle is required to support
tlte lllkN weight2
.4.6 m
Problem 2  23
The fuel gage for a gasoline (sp. gr. = 0.68) tank in a car reads proportional to Solution
its bottom gage. If the tank is 30 cm cleep an accidentally contaminated with 2 Summingup pressure head
cm of water, how many centimeters of gasoline does the tank actually contain from 1 to 3 in meters of water
when the gage erroneously reads "FULL"?
tL
D"
+hr(0.84)t= 41
Solution
Yy
0+0.84h2_g_r=o
hz = 11.9 m
r T_
I
30 cm
2.rL I
J
"Full"
CHAPTER I\vO
48 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
Principles of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS e.i,,.ipr.,l?ffi*rY,.: 49
Problem 2  25 (CE Board May 1992) Problem 2  26
ln the figure shown, what is the static pressure in kpa in the air chamber?
For the manometer showry
determine the pressure at the
center of the pipe,
t
= 13.55
L
m
Solution
The pressure in the air space Solution
equals the pressure on the surface
9umup pressure head from
of orl, pt.
1 to 3 in meters of water:
Pr=0
Yt
D.
+1(13.55) + 1.5(0.8)= Iq
fy
Pz = fu, hu 0+14.75= la
= e.81(2) f
pz = 19.62kPa
tl = u.zsm of water ,s = 13.55
 pt t yu lt,,
v
pz
19.62 pt= (9.81' 0.S0X4) Pt= M.75(9.81)
pt = 144.7 kPa
pt = 1'1,.77 kPa
Another solution.
Sumup pressure head fronr l to 3 in meters of water
. Pt *24(0.80)= ta
Yy
o+z3.2= Pt
9.81
p. = _1.1.77 kpa
CHAPTER T\I/O
50 CHAPTER TUTO
Principles of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS principles of Hydrostatics 5l
Problem 2  27 (CE Board November 2001) Problem 2  2A (CE May 1993)
L)c.tcnrrirre the value of y in the manometer shown in the Figure. ln the figure shown, when the
funnel is empty the water surface
T is at point A and the mercury of
1m sp. gr. 13.55 shows a deflection of
.,
T 15 cm. Determine the new
I
deflection of mercury when the
3m funnel is filled with water to B
+
1m
J
Solution
Solution
T
Summingup pressure head from 1m
A to B in meters of water:
14+ + ru
l
'l,
3m
5 * g.913.6r,=!E
9.8't " y t
1m
I
where pa = 0 .'
11= 0.324m
0+y  2.03 = 0
7=2.03m
CHAPTER T\VO FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
5Z Principles of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER TWO
Principles of Hydrostatics 53
In Figure (b): Sumup pressure head from Z to m jn ineters of water:
When the funnel is filled with water to B, point 1 will move d.own to 1,
with the same value as point 2 moving upto Z' . P'*rt0.3.6\y=P*
Y "' y
13.5y 70
Sumup pressure head from B to 2': x= 9.81 Eq (1)
In Figure (b):
PP +
o.s * y + * (r+ 0.t5 + x)(Ig.ss) = 2
Yy Sumup pressure head from 2, to m,in meters of water:
0 + 0.80 + 2.03+ x 27.'tx 
26.1 x = 0.80
2.03 = 0
2 +Q.2sino+ y+0.2)(1g.6)(r+0.2)  Pnt'
x: 0.031 m = 3.L cm
Ty
0 + 2.7Zsin 0 + 12.6y + 2.72 _ x_ 0.2 = ffi
New reading, R = 15 + ?t = 1,5 + 2(3.1) 13.6y  x = 8.183  2.72 sin 0 Eq.(2)
New reading,R=X.2cm
[13.6yx=L3.5yx]
8.1832.72sine=#
Problem 2 29 sin 0 = A3852
The pressure at point rz in the figure 0 = 22.660
shown was increased. from 70 kPa to
105 kPa, This causes the top level of
mercury to move 20 mm in the sloping 230
tube. What is the inclination, 0? closed cylindrical tank contains 2 m of water, 3 m of oil (s 0.g2) and
= the air
ove oil has a pressure of 30 kpa. If an open mercury manorneter at the
of the tank has 1 m of water, determine the deflection of mercury.
Solution
Sumup pressure head from
1 to 4 in meters of water:
n
!!tL a3(0.82) +z+Ly(13.0y= ll
Yy
# *2.+o+313.6y=0
y = 0.626m.
In Figure (a):
CHAPTER T\vO FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
54 Principles of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER T\x/O
Frinciples of Hydrostatics 55
Problem 2  31 In Figure (&):
llrt' Ljtubc shown is 10 mm in diameter Summingup pressure head from 1 to 3 in mm of water:
,rrrtl contains mercury. If 12 ml of water is lL +752.8_R(13.6): u
pourccl into the righthand leg, what are Yy
lhc ultirlate heights in the two legs? R = 11.24 mm
1
I
In Eq. (2):
E 11.24+2x=240
E r:1'14.38 mm
N
I
I
Ulhimate heights in each leg:
*
Righthandleg,hn=h+x
Solution
L ,ro * 'l
= 1.52.8 + 't14.38
Righthan d leg, hn = 267 ;1,8 rnm
5olvrng for /r. (sar ftgttrr'h1
Lefrhand teg' ht =
Volume of water = + (#F ir = l2 cml Note: 1ml =1cm3
fr.rX . 114.38
h = 15.28 crn = 152.8 mm
Lefthand Leg, ht = 1%.62 rnm
Since the quantity of mercury before and after water is poured
remain the same, then;
Problem 2  32
120(3)=R+r+120+r Fnr a gage reading of 17.7kpa,
R+2x=240 )Eq.(1) dE'termine the (a) elevations of
the liquids in the open
plezometer columns E, F, and
G and (b) the deflection of the
tnercury in the Utube
manometer neglecting the
welght of air.
I l
1
E E
E E
N N
I
I I
J J
t_ 120 mm
t
J
Figure (b)
CHAPTER I\vO
56 Princaples of Hydrostat,cr
FLUID MECHANICS
FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER T\VO FA
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principtes of Hydrostatics , I
Solution
Column G
Sumup pressure head from 1 to g in meters of water;
lL + se.z)+ a(1)  tr{1.6) = !E
vy
1
Jm
E!. _15
E!. _r)_m_
# *2.1+47.6fu=s
ht= 2.'U^
El
E_l
_12*_ Surface elevation = 8 + /rs
Surface elevation = 8 + 212 = 7O.72 m
1
4m
Deflection of mercury
EI
El._8 ln _
Sumup pressure head from 1 to 5 in meters of water;
 h4(1s.6) : !9
Pr + zp.4 +4+4
1 v
4m
# *'t0.1.13.6tu
ha= 0.6'L4m
t v
El.4m
Problem 2  33
An open manometer attached to a pipe shows a deflection of 150 mmHg with
Column E
the lower level of mercury 450 mm below the centerline of the pipe carrying
Sumup pressure head from 1 to c in metes of water;
water. Calculate the pressure at the centerline of the pipe.
P' *trr(0.7)= P,
yy Solution
# *ftr(07)=o
/rr = 2.5 m
Surface elevation = 15  /rr
Surface elevation = 15  2.5 = 1Z5 m
Column F
Sumup pressure head from I tp /in meters of water; 8umup pressure head from 1
Pr + +
x h  tx(13.6)  x  1.5 = U
v v
'a
Pt f),
1.50.1 +0.1(13.6)
v v'
Pt  Pq =2.76mof water
v v
Solution
Surnup pressure head from (1,) Gage liquid = carbon tetrachloride
A to B in meters of water; Ps = 70 kPa
reading, h = ?
P o t (0.86) : rt B
Sumup pressure head from 1 to 4 in meters of water;
vv
tl P"t + x + lL
h  tr('1.5g\  x  1.5 =
Pe _o.se 7o
= 9.81 Yy
9.81 Pr P+
= 78.44kPa =1.5+0.59/r
:rt,t
yy
FA=pAxArea
Weight = Fn where Pt  P+ = 2.76 m) from
(a)
yv
= PA x Area II
700 mm
J,c
CHAPTER T\YO T\vO , t
60 Principles of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER
Principles of Hydrostatics O I
Solutlon Sumup pressure (gage) head from L to 4 in meters of water;
Sumup absolute pressure head
.tL lL
from B to 2 in rneters of water;
Air, p = 175 ;,Pu u5t
yy+ xe.s)+ 1.3(0.e) 1.3(12.6)=
lL o.z1s.e)h= lz f 4o *0.9x16.51=o
f
Yy h € watei 9.81.
ffi s.szt'=
h = 2.2O3 m
# wt
tl
o
r = 13.81m
700 mm M;r*ry/ o
Then,x+!/=28.42m
Jc
B
Problem 2  37
In the figure shown, the atmospheric Solution
pressure is 101 kPa, the gage x+0.68=y+1..7
reading at A is 40 kPa, and the vapor xy=1.02m )Eq.(1)
pressure of alcohol is 72 kpa
absolute. Computer+y. Sumup pressure head from A to B
in meters of water;
. 0.68(0.85) + y = a_
? v
Solution
? + =xv+0.s78 ) Eq.(2)
Sumup absolute pressure head from Substitute x  y = L.02 in Eq. (1) to Eq. (2):
l" to 2 in meters of water; Pn
yvPs =1..02+o.sr
lL _ yp.t1= ?L PaPn
Y.r =1.SSS
9.81
40 + 101_u.9a= _12 kPa
Pa  Ps = 15.58
9.81 " 9.81
y = 74.67 m
CHAPTER T\VO FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER T\)(/O
62 Principles of Hydrostatacs & HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
6. HYDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics 63
Problem 2  39 Problem 2  40
A differential manometer rs In thg figure shown, the
attached to a pipe as shown deflection of mercury is initially
Calcu late the pressure 250 mm. If the pressure at A is
.lifference between points ,4 increased by 40 kPa, while
and ll maintaining the pressure at B
constant, what will be the new
mercury deflection?
Solution
t00 mm
l
T Solution
+ffirr 1
Pa U = 01(13 6) () l(0 e)
vy
Pa  Pa
= t.L/ trt
9.81
PA  PB = 12.46 kPa
YV
o" t40 250 mm
Vv
Pa * 4o r 65  25.2:r = Pa
v .9.81
Pa U =zs.zt2.423 But PA U = t.ts
VV
t65=25.2t2.423
r=0162m=162mm
Sumup pressure head from A to B in meters of water;
New mercury deflection = 250 + 2r = 250 * 2(162\ !4 + 0.2(0.8s) 0.09(13.6) 0.31(0.82) + 0.25  0.1(0.0012) =
Ps
New mercury deflection = 574 mm
P e  Pn = Losi23m of water
fl
Problem 2  4t pA  pB = 9.81 (1.0523) = 10.32 kPa
ln the figure shown, determrne the difference in pressure between points A
and B
2  42 (CE Board)
Assuming normal barometric pressure, how deep in the ocean is the point
here an air bubble, upon reaching the surface, has six Limes its volume than
had at the bottom?
lp Vt = pzVzl t
h
pt = 101..3 + 9.81(1.03)lr
pt = 101.3 + 10.104 h
l,
v'l  1,
v
pz=101.3 + 0 = 101.3
Vz 6V
(101.3 + 10.104/r)14 = 101.3 (6 t/)
10.104 h=10t.3(6)  101.3
h = 50.13 m
CHAPTER T\vO FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER TWO r a
66 Principles of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics O t
Probfem 2  44
0.15 m
A bottle consisting of a cylinder 15 cm in diameter and 25 cm high, has a neck
which is 5 cm diameter and 25 cm long. The bottle is inserted vertically in
Mercury
?: Y; water, with the open end down, such that the neck is completely filled with
water. Find the depth to which the open end is submerged. Assume normal
barometric pressure and neglect vapor pressure.
,:':,,:,
lptVr= pzVzl
vz= (15), (25)i
Vz= 4,417.9 cml
101.3 (3 A) = 121.3t t (3  y) aI
Pressure in air:
3Y=2'sos
pz='10"1.325 + 9.8l h
A=0495m
From the mahometer shown; lp Vr = pzVzl
101.325(4,908,7a) = $01.32s + 9.81 h)(4,417 9\
pt = y,,, h,,,
101.325 + 9.8t h = 112.58
= (9.81 x 13.6)(0.15)
ft = 1.15 cm
pn = 20.0l24kPa
x=ltr25=26.15cm
CHAPTER T\vO
e,i,,.ipru,1?fi;it*#,.: 69
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
68 Principles of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
Problem 2  45
Supplementary Problems
A bicycle tire is inflated at sea level, where the atmosfiheric pressure is 101.3
kPaa and the temperature is 27 "C, to 445 kPa. Assuming the tire does not
Problem 2  46
expand, what is the gage pressure within the tire on the top of a mountain
where the altitude is 6,000 m, atmospheric pressure is 47.22 kPaa, and the A weather report indicates the barometric pressure is 28.54 inches of mercury'
temperature is 5'C. What is the atmospheric pressure in pounds per square inch?
Ans: t+.02 ps;
Solution
Ptvt = Pzvz Problem 2  47
T1 T2
The tube showrr is fillect with oil. Determine the pressure heads at B and C irr
meters of water.
At sea level:
Pn
Absolute pressure of afu, pt ='107.3 + 445 Ans: = 2.38ln
v
Absolute pressure, p1= = 546.3kPaa
Volume of air, Vt = V Pc
= 0.51m
Absolute temperature of air. Tr = 21 + 273 = 294 "K v
tT=hr
,PtVt  PzVz ,
s = 0.85
s46.3(v) $7.22+P)V
'294  278
2 48
47'22+ P = 5L6'57 For thb tank shown in the figure, compute the pressure at points B, C, D, and E
= 469'35kPa kPa. Neglect the unit weight of air
P
Arts pu = 4.9; pc = po = 4.9; Pt = 21.64
CHAPTER T\VO FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER T\VO
70 Principtes of Hydrostatics & HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUTICS Principles of Hydrostatics
Problem 2  49 252
A'gtass Utube open to the ahnosphere at both ends is shoWn. lf the Utube cylindrical tank contains water at a height of 55 mm, as shown' Inside is a
contains oil and water, determine the specific gravity of the oil open cylindrical tank containing cleaning fluid (s.g. = 0.8) at a height /r
Ans: 0.86 e pressure pe = 13.4 kPa gage and pc = 13.42 kPa gage. Assume the cleaning
id is prevented from moving to the top of the tank. Use unit'weight of
= 9.79 kN/m3. (a) Deterrnine the pressure pe in kPa, (b) the value of h in
and (c) the value of y in millimeters.
Ans: (a) 12.88; (b) 1,0.2; (c) 101
Problem 2  50
A glass 12 cm tall fillecl with water is inverted. The bottom is open. What is
the pressure at the closed end? Barometric pressure is 101.325lclL
rOO.rU OO",
Problem 2  51
ln Figure'13, in which fluid will a pressure of 700 kPa first be
".nt?,ilt rr*rr"
253
Po = 90 kPa
tial manometer shown is.measuring the differen'ce in pressure two
pipes. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity + 13.6),ln is 675
Itrn is 225 mm, and h,,,2 is 300 mrn. What is the pressure differential
ethyl alcohol
p = 773.3 kglm3
60m the two pipes.
Ans:89.32kPa
oil
p
10m
= 899.6 k9/m3
water
p = 979 kglmr 5m
glycerin
p= 1236 kglm3
5m
CHAPTER T\vO
72 Prlnclples of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces 73
Problem 2  54
A force of 460 N is exerted on lever AB as shown. The end B is connected to a
piston which fits into a cylinder having a diameter of 50 mm. what force Fo
dcts on the larger piston, if the volume between c and D is filled with water?
Chapter 3
Ans: 15.83 kN
Total Hydrostatic Force
on Surfaces
of gravity, cg
of pressure, cp
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTERTHREE qF
74 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces L
Consider the plane surface shown inclined at an angle 0 with the horizontal. LOCATION OF F (yp):
[o In Figure 3  l, taking moment of force about s, (the intersection of the
get thc' total force F, consider a differential element of area dA. Since this
element is horizontal the pressure is uniform over this area, then; prolongation of the plane area and the liquid surface),
f
dL=pdA ry,=
Jyar
where p = yh
where dF=yysin0dA
P=YYsin0 F=ysin0 Ay
dF = .r y sinO dA
y sin 0 AT yp  v aa)
!v0 "i^e
[n,=rsi,,e Jvan
ysin0Ayyr=ysin0
I
I
From calculus, ly dn = Ay JV'aa
J
P=ysin0 Al From catcutu dA = Is (moment of inertia about
F=y(tsin0)A ", Ir2
S)
AYYp=ls
From the figure, y sin 0 = ir
Then,
P=yhA Eq.32
By {ansfer formula of moment of inertia:
Since y lr is the unit pressure at the centroid of the plane area, pcs, the formula Is=\+ n!2
may also be expressed as:
I"+AY2
6
lfo
F A Eo.33 AY
Area = h nnb
4b Area = ln ntb
v.= 4n 4b
", 3t 1_=tt=
kttz$6124 l r *l r ab3
3n r' 3n
l,= : let=0."11 nb  ntb3 nbn.t
r = i+b y,=tt/3 Area = bd 6' I=l=
a t
"16"'16
r',_bd3
db' bn3
Area=r/zblt  ; Iy = I =
'sY 8
,lr. = 0.055nb3 Iru= 0.055bn3
.f 3
. blt3 bhl . = bd3 I Sector of a circle Parabolic seqment
' !8r 'st
db3
72 '&i
I
72 36
=
1,2
Circle Quarter circle
h
Area = f (20) = 12 0
7/z
Y=kxn
l*o*l
+t' Area= rab Length of arc = r(20) = 2tfi
Area=%nrr; y,= ;
.tn
'i
oa3 '
= ,1 +7
1 rsn9
tr 4 'g,  T Area b/r = *
,1.
0
lrl{r
'8
i
1 1t.= ,r+1 \ /hen 0 = 90' (semicircle)
n ba1 ' tr+2o: "' tr
. d
ls, = 0.11 'w i 4rt+2 2r
 E
16 CHAPTERTHREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE aO
t O Totat Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t t
TOTAL HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON CURVED SURFACES A
Fu = p,c Eq.3 7
where:
A = vertical projection of submerged curve (plane area)
pcg = pressure at the cenhoid of A
Note: The procedure used in solving Fn is the same are that presented in Page 73.
Fx
Curved surfacb
1,"
CHAPTER THREE
80 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER THREE
& HYDRAUTICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces BI
DAMS
l)ams are strucfures that block the flow of a river, stream, or other waterway.
' up strranl
some dams divert the flow of river water into a pipeline, canal, or channel. lates 0p en
t'
Eoat
others raise the level of inland waterways to make them navigable by ships
Ocwnttre am
and barges. Many dams harness the energy of falling water to ge'nerate electric qates 5tr enn
power. Dams also hold water for drinking a'd crop irrigatiJn, and provide latiJ
cl!!e :
flood control.
PURPOSE OF A DAM
Dams are built for the following purposes:
1. Irrigation and drinking water
2. Power supply (hydroelectric)
oprn
3. Navigation sJuire!
4. Flood control
5. Multi purposes llgure 3  3: Boat passing through canar Lock.
Canar rocks are a series of gates designed
to allow a boat or shio to pass from one rever
of water to another. Here, afier a boat has
rntered the rock and ail gates ur. t".ula,il.rJoo*nrtr"am
through them' when the water tever is equato; sruices open and water flows
PorterhDuse
To transmiiSion line!
TYPrS oF DAMs
t the force of
grarziry ro resist water pressure_
?^r:r::, _(::.,1]1r,":"tI
cereralot, :11'.i: Ji":,1:li1"*'l: y"'". b; ;."
o.ynwald ro do this, gru,rity d^;;;;;;#;;;;:r:
"
;;;;;; ;;in:;?:;;
l:rll'lg
so hea'uy trrat the water in a reser"voir "
cannot push the darn
downstream or tip it over. 'Ihey afe
much,hi.Lu. at the base than the
topa shape that reflecrs the distribution of the
forces oiin" ui",
against the dam. As water becomes
deeper, it exerts more horizontal
pressure on the dam. Gravity <lams
Drait tube PenrtocL Eedrock
are relativery thi. the surface
t",::.voir,.where the warer p.";;;;;;;
:j"*:
enables the dam to 44withstand
^ear
il.i. ;il; ;il:
the bottom of the reservoir
the more i;;;;;;,* pressure at
Figure 3  2: Section of a dam used for hydroelectric
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS LUID MECHANICS
82 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAUTICS & HYDRAULICS '"^:J5:#'j.:: 83
Total Hydrostatic Forc€
Arch danrs are concrete or lnasonry structures that curve upstream into
a reservoir, stretching from one wall of a river czrnyon to the other. This
design, based on tl're same principles as the architectural arch and vault,
Figure 3  5: Buttress dam
transfers some water pressure onto the walls of thg canyon. Arch dams
require a relatively narrow river canyon with solid rock walls capable
of withstanding a significant amount of horizontal thrust. These dams
do not need to be as massive as gravity dams because the canyon walls
carry parfof the pressure exerted by the reservoir
.Note: Use (+) to get the stress at point where R, is nearest. In the diagram
uR.. thown above, use (+) to get qr and () to get qH. A negative stress indicates
=
FS.R, Y >'l Eq.3 1.2 pressive stress and a positive stress indicates tensile stress
soil cannot carry any tensile stress, the result of Eq. 3  14 is invalid if the
Factor of safety against overturning, Fso: is positive. This will happen if e > 8/6. Should this happen, Eq. 3  15
be used.
,to= Eq.313
Hr,
where:
p = coefficient of friction between the base of the dam and the foundation e>B/6
a=3V
For e 38/6 Bl3 lBt3i Blt
From combined axial and bending R, = 1/z(a)(q,)(1)
stress formula: R, = 1/z(37)q,
n=_!r!!
'AI
Heel
P=R, 2R,v
A=B(L)=B QH qe= 4 Eq.315
M= R,,e '" 3i
1(B)3
1 =
12
c =.82
1m cg{ oR,
Ru $,, e)(B /2)
B ' 83/12
O=r+
'
CHAPTER THREE
88 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MEcHANtcs CHA1flE\THREE 89
& HYDRAULICS
BUOYANCY where:
y_ = unit weight of the
fluid
ARCHIMEDES' PRINCIPLE vp = volumJ displacecl. Volume of the bocly belor,v fhe Iiquid surface
A principle discovered by the Greek scientist Archimedes that states that "any
h<tdy immersedin a fluid is acted upon by an upward force (buoynnt force) equal to the solae problenrs in hrcynncy, tderirfu tlrc forces n,.lirtg ortr! +ypl!/ conditions of stntic
weight of the displaced ilibium:
fluid".
I,Fs = I
This principle, also known as the law of hydrostatics, applies to both floating lFy=6
and submerged bodies, and to all fluids. LM= 0
Consider the body shown in Figure 3  9 immersed in a fluid of unit weight homogeneous solid body of volume V "floa$ng,,6 homogeneous fluid at
y. u
The horizontal components of the force acting on the body are all in
equilibrium, since the vertical projection of the body in opposite sides is the
same. The upper face of the body is subject to a vertical downward force sP 8r olbody
y, = luoay Eq.3 17
which is equal to the weight of the fluid above it, and the lower face is subject
liquid = Yrquirr U
V
sp. gr. of
to an upward force equal to the weight of real or: imaginary liquid above it.
The net upward force acting on the body is the buoyant force.
Vo=VolzVolr
sP'gr'olbod.y_
,=
sp.gr.of liquid
H= lboay ,

Eq.318
yhquid
Figure 3  9: Forces acting on a submerged body
BF = Fvz Fvt
the body is of uniform vertical crosssectional area A, area submerged A.
= yffolz)  y(Voh) rhe
BF=y(Vol2Volr)
A floating body is acted upon by two equal opposing forces. These are, the
body's weight w (acting at its center of gravity) and its buoyant force BF
(acting at the center of buoyancy that is located at the ce$pr of gravity of the
displaced liquid)
when these forces are collinear as shown in Figure 3  10 (a), it floats rr.r an
upright position. However, when the body tilts due to wind or wave action,
the center of buoyancy shifts to its new position as shown in Figure 3  10 (b) Bo.{
Y
and the two forces, which are no longer collinear, produces a couple equal to
w(r). The body will not overturn if this couple makes the body rotate towards
its original position as shown in Figure 3  10 fb), ancl will overturn if the
situation is as shown in Figure 3  10 (c).
rhe point of intersection between the axis of the body and the line of action of Figure 3  10 (c): Unstable position
the buoyant force is called the metacenter. The distance from the metacenter
(1w)_to the center of gravity (G) of the body is called the metacentric height Figure 3  1O: Forces on a floating body
(MG). It can be seen that a body is stable if M is above G as shown in Figure 3
10 (b), and unstable if M is below G as shown in Figure 3  10 (c) tf M
MOMENT AND OVERTURNING MOMENT
coiniides with G, the body is said to be iust stnble
Wedge of
Immersion
OF A FLOATING BODY:
Wedge of
emersion
W = weight of the body
BF = buoyant force (always equal to W for a floating bocly)
G = center of gravity of the body
Bo = center of buoyancy in the upright position
(centroid of the displaced liquid)
,
!o' = center of buoyancy in the tilted position
YD = volume dispkiced
M = metacenter, lhe point of intersection between the line of action
of the buoyant force and the axis of the body
c = center of gravity of the wedges (imrnersion and emersion)
s = horizontal distance between the cg,s of the wedges
u = volume of the wedge of immersion
Figure 3  10 (a): Upright position  10 (b): Stable pbsition
Figure 3 ,0 = angle of tilting
MBo = distance from M to Bo
GBo = distance from G to Bo
MG = metacentric height, distance from M to G
i!
fVoMBosin0=yas
VALUE OF MB"
lhe stability of the body depencis on the amount of the rrghtrng momenl
which in turn ls dependent on the metacentric height MG. when the'body tilts,
the center of buoyancy shifts to a new position (Bo'). This shifting also causes
the weclge o' to shift to a new position o The moment due to the shifting of
the buoyant force BF(z) is must equal to moment due to wedge shift F(s) vAtuE oF MBo
small values of 0, (0 . 0 or 0 = 0):
Volume of
Pitchtng
Wedge, volume = v
MB" = #rs'
'vn
But $ tar t the moment of inertiaof the waterline section, 1
MB"= Eq,,323
*
Note: This formula can be applied to any section.
since the metacentric height MG is dependent with MB", the stability of a Centroid of wedge
floating body therefore depends on the moment of inertia of the waterline.
section. It can also be seen that the body is more stable in pitching than in MB.= ot
rolling because the moment of inertia in pitching is greater than that in rolling. Vp sin0
Vo = BDL where L is the length perpendicular to the figure
a= Vz(B / z)t(B / 2) tan }lL
a= f LBztan0
MOMENT
The righting or overturning moment on a floating body is:
Centroid of hiangle, i
From geome try,i = xl + x2 + x3
J
R.Azf or OM = W x = W (MG sin9 3 *24
: 9* (B/2)sec0+(B/Z)cos}
3
* = B ( 1 *.ore)= 4fr+tos2e)
6\cos0 / dl cosO )
s  s(t+.or2e)
2
=Y=_tl
6  coso )
n(
s=_t_l t+cor2 e)
3[ coso )
CHAPTER THREE
96 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS FTUID MECHAN'CS
CHAPTER THREE
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAUIICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces 97
MB,=
(BDL) sin 0
LB'3 sin0 1+ cos2 e Projection of
: 24 cosO cosO curved
^/R BDL sin e internal pressure and this is to be
sted by T which is the total skess of
MB= B' l+cos2o pipe wall.
24D e
".r.2
MB,,
B' l,a.r) Applying equilibrium condition;
'J [>Fs = o]
24D l..or2 e F=27
,U"= !(sec20 p= pA=pDS
24D'
+ 1; butbec2e=1+tan2e
. T = SrA*arr
MB^=
B' [, * tut" e) Eq'325
12Dt 2 ) determine the longitudinal stress, let us
the cylinder across its length as shown.
lEFs = ol
F=T
F=pA
STRESS ON THIN.WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS F=p f,Dz
T= S1 A*";1
THINWAILED CYLINDRICAL TAN K
A tank or pipe carrying a fluid or gas under a pressure is subjected to tensile , Anut= fiDt
forces, which resist bursting, developed across longifudinal and transverse
T = StrDt
sections.
p +Dr=SrrDt
lst
Sr *fitt'
\ s.
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FIUID MECHANrcS
98 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS ! HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
SPHERICAL SHELL
lf a spherical tank of diameter D ancl thickness I contains gas under a pressure
of p, the stress at the wall can be expressed as:
31
vertical rectangular plane of height d and base b is submerged,in a liquid
its top edge at the liquid surface. Determine the total force F acting on
side and its location from the liquid surface.
p=yhA
walsrress, s=+4t Eq.z29 i=a1z
A=bd
F = y(d/z)(bd)
F =lz"y b iP
SPACING OF HOOPS OF A WOOD STAVE PIPE
I.
Ai
' v =i =a1z
*ua3
LZ
(bd)(d / 2)
e=d/6
Pressure diagram
Yr= i *,
(triangular prism)
yP= d/2+ d/6
Vp= 2iU3
f ?t#
spacing, Eq.3 3o
F = Volume of pressure diagram
F =1/z(Yd)(d)(b) =1/2yb dz
i = +a AV
1 _.4
A = l/zbd l p= !!__ =y14
(nr')(r\
F=y*3dx1/zbd
yp=r+e
F   ybdz yr= r + rf4
yn = 5r/4
I
5
a=
Ai Using the pressure diagram for this case
is quiet complicated, with the
showrl its volume
n= i = za/s m is easy to use only if"u.,
b" computed by in'tegration. Hence, pressure
the area is rectangular, with one side horizontal.
!ua3
(' 1b
Ghd)(zd / 3)
e = d/12
34
Pressure diagram
vertical rectangurar gate 1.5 m wide and 3
(pyramid) m high is submerged ih water
ry,=lr TJ'",T: :,..,n
one side of :i"l::."q:
the igate .,,,,ruce. .
y;r:u, from
and its location
Fini u," t.iJ
the bottom
;;:;," u. ti., g
vr= 1d+d/12=3d/4
Using the pressure diagram.
f = Volume of pressure diagram r=yia
F= +Ar,","^ height i =t.S+2=3.5m
f'= {tt'"yd\et\= tryua, F = e.81(3.5)[(1.bX3)]
F = 154.51 kN
f rs located at the centroid of the diagram, which is % of the altitude
from tlre base
t"6
e
AV
Problem 3  3
e= = 0.2L4 m
A vertical circular gate or radius r is submerged in a liquid with itd top edgerl (1.5 x 3)(3.s)
flushed on the liquid sru'face. Determine the magnitude and. Iocation of tlrt, 1.5 m
Y=1.5e
total force acting on one side of the gate y=1.50.214
y =1.286m
t 02 ;i*i;;H:'i::l: Force on surraces FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FTUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Totat Hydrostatic Force #";;.; I 03
Using the pressure diagram: Solution
F = Volume of pressure diagram
r=yiA
F = (5Y !2Y ,. e) 1r.sy h =2+ *fsl
l\/
F = 1,5.75y
'' i =zm= g
F = 1s.7s(e.81)
: [e.81(0.82)] (3)t%(1.5X3) J
F = 154.51 kN F = 54.3 kN
l" *(i.sxs)3
Ay t+(r.sxs)l(a)
e = 0.1,67 m
yr=i +e
y,= 3JL57 m from the oil surface
[Ay = zay]
1,0.5y y = 6y(1.5) + a.5y(1) Fo.ce on upper half:
y =7'286m (much complicated to get than using the formula) Fs=y,i A
Fo = (y,, x 0.8)(d/ +)[b(d / z))
Fo=0.1y,,bd3
Problem 3  5 Force on lower half:
A vertical triangular gate with top base horizontal and 1.5 wide is 3 m high. It Fw= pcgzx A
is submerged in oil having sp. gr. of 0.82 with its top base submerged to a Pcg2=fo14* Yruh,,,
depth of 2 m. Determine the magnitude and location of the total hydrostatic
P,e2 = (f ,u x 0.8)(d/2) + y",(d/ 4)
pressure acting on one side of the gate.
P,sz = 0.65 Y, d
F6, = (0.65 y,,, d)[b(d/ 2)]
Fw = 0.325 Tu b d2
Fw
Ratio =
Fo
o'225v,b72
Ratio = = s.zs
0.1,y,ubd2
FLUID MECHANICS
l04 CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS q HYDRAUL'CS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces r05
Problem 3  7 (CE Board May 1994) Problem 3  8 (CE Board May 1992)
A vertical circular gate in a tunn€l 8 m in diameter has oil (sp. g. 0.8) on one A closed cylindricar tank 2 m in diameter and g
m deep with axis verticar
side and air on the other side. If oil is 12 m above the invert and the air contains 6 m deep of o'(sp gr.= 0.g) The
air above theiiquid surface has a
pressure is 40 kPa, where will a single support be located (above the invert of pressure of 0.8 kg/cm2. Determine the total
norrirar force in tg on the
the tunnel) to hold the gate in position? wall at its location from the bottom of the tank. ".u"g
Solution Solution
tt
^^
oir;s=o'8
I I
I'i
12m Air;P=46gPu ,l"l
tlI .i , *
I
* '*qt 
F.i,
....8m@
4y
4m
Fe1 =yq1; hA
Ft=Pu*A
F"rr = (9.81 x 0.80)(8) *f (8),
Pair = 0.8 kg/ cmz = 8,000 kg/ m,
F.l = 3,156 kN Fr = 8,000(2n x 2) = 32,000n kg
I h= 6 +'1, =7 m
e= E
AV Fz= prcA
+(8)4 p., = (1000 x 0.8)(3) + 8,000
e= b4\_, =0.5m p,e= 10,400kg/m,
f (8)'(8) Fz ='1,0,400(2r x 6) ='124,800n kg
z=4e=3.5m
Solve for e:
Fair=pauA,=40t t(8), F2=y.i A
F"i' = 2,011 kN 724,800n = (1000 x 0.8) /i (2n
" 61
The support must be located at point O where the moment due to Fuo h = v =13m
and Foir is zero. Since Fou ) Fai,, O must be below F"l.
_ I, _ $12n11013
[>Mo = o] AV (2n x 6)(13)
Foir(z!)=F^t(4y) b = 0.23077 m
(3,1s6X3.5  y) = 2,011.(4  y)
! yz=3e=217m
1.s6e(3.s y)=4V
5.4931'.569Y=4Y F = Fr + Fz = 155,8002r
=2'52m kg ) Total normal force
V
u
I
e= #(r.s)(r)3 1
z=0.5+e=0.5+ 1
12h
800(6) = 4800 8000
1 \
Pressure Diagram /
't4.7'L5h lo.s+_]:l=+o
\ ) 1.2h
Pl = 8000(8)(2n) = 128,000n kg 0.5i :2.718
+ 0.08333
P2= 1/2,(4,800)(6)(2n) = 28,800n kg i =S.ZZm= l, +0.5= 5.77m ) critical water depth
P = Pr + P2= 156,800nkg ) Total normal force
IP y: Pt yt + Pzyzf 310
(156,800n) y = (128,000n)( ) + (28,800n)(2) vertical circular gate is submerged in a liquid
so that its top edge is flushed
1/ = 3.63 m ) Location of P from the bottom th the liquid surface. Find thJ rafio of the total
force acting on the lower
to that acting on the upper half.
Problem 3  9
In the figure shown, stop B will
break if the force on it reaches
Rauo = I
F1 0.5756r
40 kN. Find the critical water ("\
depth. The length of the gate Ratio = x.
perpendicular to the sketch is "34a
yht A,t x
1.5 m At=Az x=4r/
i
Ratio = I
h1
; ..
r(ano= 1..424r
=2.42s
LS7S6,
I oB ;Hi;;:#[.'i: Force on surraces FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS CHAPTER THREE
I otal Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t09
Problem 3  11 Solution
A 30 m long dam retains 9 m of L=30m
water as shown in the figure. Find p=yi A
the total resultant force acting on the
dam and the location of the clnter of i =z.s+21s
pressure from the bottom. h = 4.767 m
A = %(1)(2.61)
A = 1.305 m2
 = (?s_t!" 0.ss)(4 ftn (t .305)
L = M,277N
SoluUon F =44.277kN
p=yhA
F = e.81 (4.s) [(30)(10.3e2)]
F = L3,753 kN
L=30m 313
I^ inclined, circular
e= " with water on one
Ay
is shown in the
Determine the
(30 x 10.392)(4.5 / sin 60')
resultant force 2m
I
on the gate.
e =1.732m
!=lz(10.392)1.j32 o
o
y = 3.464ln o
o
y= +(10.3e2)=3.464m
Problem 3  12
The isosceles hiangle gate shown
in the figure is hinged at A and
.yEA
weighs 1500 N. What is the total h =2+ 0.5sin60.
hydrostatic forceacting on one side h = 2.433
of fhe gate in kiloNewton? .9.81,(2.433)t
$),
18.746 kN
Oi 1s,=rg.8a),;
I to CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
fotal Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces ltl
Problem 3  14 ts #(1.5X3.6)3
'llrr. (b)
in tlre figure shown is 1.5 m wide, hinged at point A, and rests
1',ate A, (1.5x3.6)(7.21)
ag,ainst a smooth wall at B. Compute (a) the total force on the gate due to
e=0.15m
scawater, (b) the reaction at B, and (c) the reaction at hinge A. Neglect tlre
x=1.80.15
wcight of the gate.
x=1.65m
[>Ma  0]
F(r)Rr(2)=0
218.25(1.65) = 2 RB
Ra = 180 kN
Seawater
s = 1.03
[:Fs = 0]
l
I
o Rar,+Fsin0Rs=Q
I
I o
1
J5m
rrr 9 Rar, = L80  278.25 sin 33'69'
I
tgp" ) Rar, = 58.94 kN
.
[I F,, = 0]
RauPcos0:0
Ra, = 218.25 cos 33.69"
Ra" = 181.6 kN
Solution
1l =
i
" sin0 m
*4
l/ =
sin 33.69'
J = 7.21 rn

r=yi n
W3%/
F: (e.81 x 1.03)(a)[(1.sX3.6)]
F = 218.25 kN
\
Ia tI G
a CHAPTERTHREE FLUID MECHANICS FTUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces I t3
Solution Problem 3  16 (CE Novembe1t997)
Determine the magnitude of
Oil, s
the force on the inclined gate
m = 0.80
1,5 m by 0.5 m shown in the
F= p,tA
Pcg= IYh + P
p,s= (9.8LxL 26)(3) + (e 81)(1.5) + (9.81x0.80)(1) + 32
P,g:9l'645 kPa
f=91.645(2x4)
F = 733.16 kN F=prrA
Pzp,s=ylt
Solving for e:
90000  p,g= 9,800(2.G5)
Solve for i and y : p"g= 64030Pa
r=yi a F = 64030 (0.5 x 1.5)
F = 48,022.5 N
733;1.6 = (9.81x1.26)h Qx a)
i =7.414m
v =n /sin60"=7.4'14f sin60"
7 = 8'561m
e I #Q)$)u
Av (2 x a)(8.561)
e = 0.156 m L7
z=2e=1.844m
9l,T.tT*" in the figure is hinged at A and rests on a smooth floor at B.
g,,or 0.s2,;;;;o
Therefore, F is located 1.844 from the bottom of the gate. ,t"1t:r;:#"'T":*fl1*lt thelii1fJ;f*";;;r#;;;r#'"'ii'uo"
?t_f"i.:"r
re the hinge A. rhe air auove "i"ish, "r, s
If the gate weighs 5 krrr, determin" .h"';;;;;"rir." .
,1T":l*l:
to open it.
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
I I+ Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDTTAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces I t5
Prcblem 3  18 (CE Board)
n pinp 20 mm in diameter are used for supporting flashboards at the crest
masdnry dams. Tests show that the yield point of iron to be 310 Mpa
: fiber st'ess). Neglecting the dynamic effect of water on flashboards
cl assuming static conditions, what is the proper spacing, S, of the iron
pins,
that the flashboards 600 mm high will yield when wateiflows 150 mm deep
the top of the flashboards.
acl
F
""ffi
Floor' B
Solution
P = p,rA h = 0.45
Mt=f ,y=M
e=0067m.
y=03 0067 =0233m r
1m
.l,
2.6495"0.233=0.24347
1
S=0394m=394mm h
Problem 3  19 70 cm
lhe semicircular gate shown
rn Figure 28 ts hinged at B Gage A
=B3o2fl
force on side CD: (Note: 1 bar = 100 kPa)
1:=yh A
2l
P = 62.4(8.302)lt/znl4l r 175  100
I'] = 13,01 9 89 lbs
r 75 kPa l
,=L
nt n \.
r 9.81(2.9)
:28.449kPa
1m
l
t
lI
lx=01098'I IE
2.2
l_
ldt
ir = 0 1098(4)' 'Pr(3.e)(2)
.75(3.e)(2\ E r"i
/' = 28 11 fto
4ft r 585 kN
qr
NI
28.11
=
\ "(4\' (8 302) l_ tr/zpz(2.9)(2) 0.7 m
tVz(28.aa\(2.e)(2)
,'= itzsz t,
h  1 698  O 1347 = 1 5633 fl r E2.5 kN 2m
Fr+Fz
[IMr, = 0l
P(b) = r(4) 667.5 kN
13,019.89(i 5633) = t(4)
t = 5088.5bs
r 18
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
TLUID MECHANIES
HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrosiatic Force on Surfaces ll9
Problem 3'21
I'he funnel shown in the figure is F=yhA
full of water. The volume of the F=9.81(2.6X1.6x1.2)
upper part is 90 liters and the F = 48.97 kN
lower part is 74 liters. What is the I"
force tending to Push the Plug
e= L
AY
t'lu t? 1.2(1..6)3
g= '12 '
(1.6x1.2)(2.6)
1.6 m
a = 0.082 m
7=0.8e
z = 0.718 m
= 460 cm2
T=Fxz
totlrl.lll T*48.97x0.718
T = 35.16 kNm
rn" plug area in contact with water is horizontal, the pressure all over
tht'
it is uniform. The shape of the container does not affect the pressure on
Plug 3 23 (CE Board)
Force=p^A
Force = e,810(3XiS )
box, 1.5 m on each edge, has its base horizontal and is halffilled
water. The remainder of the box is filled with air under a gage pressure
Force = L353.78 N kPa. One of he vertical sides is hinged at the top and is free to swing
To what depth can the top of this box be submerged in an open body
water without allowing any water to enter?
Problem 3'22
ln the figure shown, the gate AB
rotates about an axis through B
The gate width is 1.2 meters. A
torque T is applied to the shaft
through B. Determine the torque T
to keep the gate closed
T I
1.5'm
0.25
9.81(0.75) 82 kPa
= 7.36 kPa
1.5mx1.5m
,l
Pr=Yh n l_
Fr = e.81 ii ttr.sxr.s)l
Ft = 22.07i
t = 075 + c
l'5(1'5'l p=yi.A
t"o_ 1.2 F = e.81,$)[n(1.5)' n(l)z]
F = 154.1 kN
I
AV t(15X15)1l?
0.'t875
P=: Location of F:
h
r=0.75+ :'
0.1875
 Av
,= 'r  f(1.s)4 f(1)4
h d(Gf11)r(4)
tn Equation (1):
e = 0.203 m
0'187s = 4 + 0.203 = 4.203 m below the
22.07i (OZS+
'Ir )  184.s(0.75)  4 14(1.25) = 0 Ap w.s.
[tMo = o]
cg *'=2'
F{h / 3) + w (0.6)  Fz(1.5 / 2) = 0 vq
4.e05t* (h/3) + s(0.6)  14.71sh (0.75) = 0
1..6351f 17.04h + 3 = 0
9.81h
9.81 h.
x2= ty
x  2Jin
Solve h by trial and error
h= 0.2748m dF = yy 12 eJi /3 ) dvj
dF = 2.31yy3/2 dy
F3
Problem 3  26
In Problem 3  25, find h when the force against the ,'stop,, is a maximum.
p, =221y [r',,n,
00
'liV,!l'
Solution
l
F = 2.31y = 2.31(9.81)t lzsrz  osrzl
[:Mo = 0]
F{h/ 3) + w (0.6) + p(1.5) pz(1.5 / 2) = 0 L" Jo
4.e05t* (h/3) + s(0.6) + p(1.s) F = 141.3 kN
14.775h (0.7s) = 0
P = L.09h3 7.358h + 3 Location:
3
= 3.27 rp 7.3s8 = o
# F yp=
IP= 2.25 [,rn,
/ =1.5m 0
3
R,
Isc=
frR,  W(4)

 57,6y(4)
0.4(14.aby\  230.4y
' 10.125y  P(8/3)
b=2.637 m  32y(8/3)
.85.33y
: 444
r.'oM
.,RMoM B/6 ='l m
Rv
Dc _ wc(b /2)
'
I J^ 
F(i.s) , tr30.4y  85.33y
=2.519m<B/2
M.aQ.637\y(2.637 /2) .:3.3>1(Safe) 57.6y
FS" =
 10.12sy(1.s)
t/2 i
l'2,5t9=0.481 m<B16
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
t26 Total Hydrostatic Force oh Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces 127
Rr( 6e\
Figure:
rl= _ jl
, l+1
B \ B/
Ll = 
57.6(e.87)
I r r
[. o1o.+s11
: I
6L6J I
ir,lt,, 0.8(57.6y)
FS,, = " =
R. ?2y
F5,, = 1.44
RM 230.4t
FS'= ona =
85.33y
l'5. = 2.?
Factor of
Uplift
lafety against overturnlng
RM
pressure f 5. = __
diagram
OM
_ t6(71.175)2 y + s3.2(tt.t75)y _ r66.4y
' FS"

= 2.A7
1333.33v
li
R,r = 3020.73 kN
Wl=376kN
3,020.731 Wz=y,Vt
 ' 1!766 "  11766
O1Z.ZS+Z1I
'' wl
l'' ) = 23.5[vr(2)(B)(7)] i
qr=438.87kPa = 188 kN
r7H : 0 kPa
t4Yz(Z)=i ;
'(2/3)(2\ = 1.333 m
Problem 3  31 (CE Board May 2002) ;r=rzo.sstN
Ihe section of a concrete gravity  Wr + Wz = 376 + lgta
dam shown in the figure. The
depth of water at the.upstream side
* 564 kN *t
4m
I
1
= 52.4(30)(60 , l)
I
R, = 112,320 tbs I
I 10
i
Ru= LV1+Wz+WtU I
i
\
I
Wt=y,Vt I
I
4
I
,l, Wg
w.= gz.4 " 2.ay 99'i91oy1r1
W'z = 44,928lbs 60'
I I Forces
oM 377,758
FS,, = 1.81
Wt=y, Vt
Wt = 23.54 [vz(5.2)(52)(1)]  3,183 tN (d) Foundalion pressure:
w2= /t.$4 t(7X52)(1) = 8,56e kN e=B/2i
e = 38.2/2  13.2 = 5.9 m < B / 6
wt = 23.541v,(26)(52)(1\l = 1s,e]3 kN
Wa = e.81[rz(5xs0x1)] = 1,226.3 kN
u = vz(490.5)(%.2)(1\ = s,6e0 kN
,t=
, Yh
B\
tlel
B/
]
23,201.3f ots.gl
r = yi A = e.8i (2s)t5o(1)l = 12,263 kN ,.t  ,*
i, 38.2 L 3s.2 l
lll Reaction
R, = F= 12263 kN Stress at the toe, (use ,,+,,;.
qr = 1;1.70.2't kpa
Rv=Wt+Wz+Wt+WqL)
= 3,183 + 8,569 + 15,913 + 7,226.3  s,690 Stress at the heel, (use ,,,,)
R'l = 23,201.3 kN qn =.44.52kPa
L\
0.75Qg.207.3\
\ /
= 1An
12,263
I A, CHAPTER THREE
fLUID MECHANICS
I 5() Total Hydrostatic Force on surfaces HYDRAUTICS
tn=yi A
unit pressure is always normal to the
FH = e.81(s)[(4)(2)] and a normal to the circle passes
Fp = 392.4 kN
gh its. center, then the total force F
t1 =l+p also pass through the center of the
t" O, hence the moment about O clue to
6
Or due to Fa and Fy is zero.
Av
4e)3 /D 4o=01
t(4x2)l(5) FyiFsy=Q
e = 0.067 m 437.13i =392.4(7.06n
7 = 0.9578 m
v=1+0.067
y = 1.067 m Note: This is true to all cylindrical or spherical sudaces.
12 = 0.849 m il
o
io
11.14 i =8(1) +3.14(0.849) c
i = 0.957 m o
Ftr = p,r A
Q
Pr, = (62.4x 2.5)(5 x 1) = 736 16t
Fv  f VaBc
Fv  62.4 x If (s)r(1)] = 1225tbs
fr (Fr)2 +(Fy)z
fr (780)2 + (7225\2 = 1452lbs
I 40 ;if,';;:,X[ff Force on surraces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces l4l
Problem 3'38 Problem 3  39 (CE Board November 1993)
l)etermine the magmtude of In the figure shown, the 1.20 m
the horizontal and vertical diameter Qylinder, 1.20 m long is
components of the total force acted upon by water on the left and
per meter length acting on the oil having sp. gr. of 0.80 on the right.
threequarter cylinder gate Determine the components of the
s'hown reaction at B if the cylinder iveighs
19.62 kN.
6olution
fm=yh A
Fm =9.81(1..2)(1.2 x 1.2)
Solution Fnr = 16.95 kN
Fvr= TVt
' Fw, = 9.81.V/z n (0.6)2(1,.2)l
Fvr = 5.557 kN
Fu=yh A r+=01
FH = e.81(3)[(1X2)] Fm  Fuz RsH = 0
Fs = 58.85 kN RsH=16.956j8
RsH = 10.17kN
l,,Trl,i:'t1
[tFv = 0]
^'ffi^ Rsv+Fy1 +FvzW=0
Rsv=19.626.657 5.32
Rrv = 7.64 kN
Fv=fVol
F v = e.8U4(2) (1) + 0.7sln(2),(1)l
Fv = 170.94 kN
. ,^ CHAPTERTHREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUTD MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
143
I+Z rotal Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
ution
hr=2x(1cos30')
h=1.732ll:.
hz=4hr
hz=2.268m
F.t = yVr
Vt=Atx2
Area, Ar = Area of rectangle DEFG  A4
Solution
c ''!
fp=yE,A
all Fn=9.S1(1)(2.5x2)
Fu = 49.05 kN
Fv = f Vasc 2.5m
F v = 9.81[(2 x 2)  0.25n(2)z](2..s)
Fv = 21.05 kN
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS
146 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
HYDRAUTICS
CHAPTER THREE
6( Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces 147
Solve for z and x. Forces due to oil:
Since the surface is circular, LMo  0 due to Fri and Fr Fuo = preo A
Fv (z) = Fu (2/3) Fno = (9.81 x 0.80)(7
 1.273) * Vrn(3)2
21.05(z) = 4e.05(2/3) Fso : 635.4 kN
z=1.55m
x=2z=21.55 Fvo : Tn V,,
r=0.45m V, = Volume of imaginary oil above
the surface
[tMa = o] Z, = Volume of halfiylincler _ Volume of
Fu (2/3) + Fv (x)  F(2) = 0 % spher.e
V" = Vzn(3)z(7) _ 1/<
n(z)z
2F = ae.05(2/ 3) + 21.05(0.45) u!
F = 21.09 kN V" = 70.686 m3
Fvo = (9.81 x 0.80)(70.636)
Fvo = 554.74 kN
Problem 3  44
Forces due to water:
he cylindrical tank showrr has a
flt=p,e*A
hemispherical end cap.
Compute the horizontal and jw= \(!,st
x 0 8)(7) + s.8r.(1..273)l xrzn(3)z
\
vertical components of the total
Fr*v = 953.19 kN
force due to oil and water acting
= Weight of real and imaginary oil above
Fvr.ri
on the hemisphere the surface
+ weight of real water above
the surface
Fvw= (9.87 x 0.8)x Vzn(3)r(7) + 9.81 x
%! ne)3
Fvw = 1,054.07
Hemispherical
suface
T
I
l=
l")
Solution l
Convert 100 kPa to its
equivalent pressure _t
head, fi.,,
p
h"u= t the gate has circular surface,
v total water pressure passes
,
nP,' =
100 gh point O which is alio the
' 9.81 of the hinge therefore the

h.q = 10 194 m due to water pressure
the hinge is zero
h=10.7945
h  5."194 m 01
F(Z.S;=s0(1.2)+Fr(g)
F24kN
F = Weight of imaginary water.above the hemispherrcal surface
F = yu, Vu, 347
V,,, = Volume of cylincler + Volume of hemisphere
nispherical dome shown is filled with
= n(2)2(5.'194\ + L
oil G = 0.9) and is attached to the
V,,,
"t n(2)3 by eight diametrically opposed bolts.
What f in each bolt is required
V^ = 82.025 m3 a ,h"?."l.",?in" dome weigh" 50 kN?ot""
/. = 9.81(82.025)
,
F = 804.7 kN
I 50 ;ifi;;I,.:H:[ Force on surraces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
fotal Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces l5r
Solution
[Erv=o] 20 kPa
F + Foir  F.,r ="0
F=FoirFo,,
Foil = Y Vorl at ove rhe curre '
I F.,r
F"ir = (9.81x0.S)[r(0.805)z(5)
+ n(0.s0s)r(3)l i,t
F"ir = 63.91 kN
Fou = Pu* A
[5,= PD t
2!'
x.tooo _ p(qso)
124
2t
t = 9.98 mm say 10 mm
I Ft CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS
I )Z Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces FTUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
6. HYDRAULICS
& HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces r53
Problem 3  51
Pipe diametet, p =6 m = 6000 mm
l)etermine the stress at the walls of a 200 mrn diameter pipe, l0 mm thick.
Maximum pressure the tank (at bottom), p
uncler a pressure of .150 m of water and submerged to a aepir, or 20 m in salr = ^lnith
p = 9.81(0.8)(7) = 54.936 kPa
water
Solution . 2(110x103)(300)
s4.936(6000)
,,.=
rv'
PD,
I S = 200.23 run say 200 mm
2r
p=prnsrrte/oursrrle
p=e.81(1s0)e.81(1.03)(20)
" p = 7269.4 kPa = 1.269 Mpa 354
,
1.2o9(200') , thinwalled hallo.ry sphere 3.5 m in diameter holds
\,= ="12.69MPa the minimum wall thickness of the sphere if
helium gas at 1700 kpa.
2(10) its allowable stress is
MPa.
Problem 3  52
A 100mmlD steel pipe has a 6 mm wall thickness. For an allowable tensile Wall srress. S, = !2
stress of 80 MPa, what maximum pressure can the pipe withstand? 4T
60,000 _
1,700(3.5 x 1000)
Solution 4t
t=24.79mm
rs,= 49r
' l/'
p(100)
80= 355
2(6)
vertical cylindrical tank is 2 meters in diameter
p = 9.6 MPa = 9,600 kPa and 3 meters high. Its sides
i*tl:^ryrtg.o: rI *."i":.?j two steel hoops, one at the top,and the other
the bottom' If the tank is filled with water t;;
d"p;h';f ii i.,,*d"*r*""
t tensile stress in each hoop.
Problem 3  53
A wooden storage vat is 6 m in diameter hnd is filled with 7 m of oil, s = 0.g
Ihe wood staves are bound by flat steel bands, 50 mm wide by 6 mm thick;
whose.allowable tensile stress is 110 Mpa. what is the required spacing of the
bands near the bottom of the vat, neglecting any initial stress?
Solution
8m 6m 6m 8m
t.
Ir = 5.05 kN (tension in the top hoop)
Problem 3  56
H t'"l I
A vertical cylindrical tank, open at the top, is filled with a liquid. lts sides are
held in position by means of two steel hoops, one at the top and the other at
p=yhA
the bottom. Determine the raho of the stress in the upper hoop,to that in the F = e.81(8/2X8(3)l
lower hoop F = 941.76 kN
[IMtop noop = 0]
Solution 272(6): F (13/3)
Tz = 73F /36
Raho=Tr/ Tz T2= 13(94L.76)/36
[IM1.,o = 0l
T
h
Tz = 340.08 kN
[EMro,.o. r,oop = 0]
2T2(h)  F(zh/3)
2T{6) = F(5/3)
Tz= F/3
[EMuouuu' = 0l
l_ Tr = 5F / 36 = 5(e47.76) / 36
Tr = 130.8 kN
zrlh) = F(h/3)
Tt = Fl6
3 58 (CE Board November t9B2)
Raho=
F/u =o.u
drical tank with its axis vertical is 1 rneter in diameter and 6 m high. It
together by two steel hoops, one at the top and the other at the bottom.
F /3
r liquids A, B, and C having sp. gr. of 1,.0, 2.0, and 3.0, respectively fill this
Liquid A
A2 7250
1.6 m
+
Liquid B
1.2 m Stress, Sz = 28.25
lrFn = ol
Mpa )
s=2.0
2T1= 9.7r, + 1.44y +'t.44y + 4.32y + 2.L6y _
2(3.6y)
Tt = 7.44y
Tt ='1.44(9870)
iiquid C Tr='1.4126.4N
1.2 m
s=3.0
stress,s,=A74,126.4
A1 1.,250
Pt=0 Stress, Sr =L1.3 Mpa ) stress in top hoop
p2= pt + yAh^
Pz=0+ (y'1)(1 2\=1.2y
3s9
pt=p?+ylt!<
pt = 1 2y + (i'2)(1 2\  3.6y
p4=p\+y(ltl
pq = 3.6y + (yx3)(1 2\ = 7 2y
f1 = t/2(p2l(1 2\("1)
Ft = t/z(12y1{d, 2)(11= 0.72t
F1 = pr( I 2)(1 )
Fz=12y(12)(1)=1.aay
F\ =t/2(p, pz)(12)(1)
1.86 m2
Fr= V:(3rrv t2y\(1 2\(l)= l44Y
0.93 m2
f t = pt(" .2t(1 t
[lM.p=0] t ,
b = 0.5027 m Solution:
H=b+h=2.542m For hornogeneous solid L,,cly floating on a homoge.eous
liclriicl
yo
t"" t ',.,
The maximum tensile stress occurs at the bottom of the tank. = vr,uay = '', y,,,,.,,.
s liquirl I liqutd
p=yH=e.81.(2.s42)
p = A.937 kPa= 0.024937 MPa then; V1000 =ffiv
T
0.106796V = 1000
Tension, T: V:9,364cu.m.
2r = pD(l)
+Dr:1.86 m2
S*ood h  0.18
h0;Ig 7,
L 3 63 (CE Board May 1993)
S*,oah=h0.18)Eq.(f) body having a sp. gr. of 0.7 floats on a liquid of sp. gr. 0.g. The volume
of
l body above the liquid surface is what percent of iis total volume?
ln another liquid iir'.
'iri;:::r
S*ood l..rf:r
Draft = 1,
Suquia 0.14 ,,YD _ sbo.iy ,,l/bodv

S*nod sliquid
It _ 0."14_ ;,  0.14
0.9 Vo= #Vuoay
 = 0.B75Vb..ru
S*oo4 /r = 0.9h  0.126 ) Eq. (2)
In other liquid (S = 0.9) Since the volurne of the body displaced (below the liquid surface)
[S.ooa /r = S*ooa /r]
is 0.875
87.5% of its total volume, then the volume of the body above the liquid
h0.18 =0.91t0.126
ft=0.54m ) height of the block .is 72.501' of its total volume.
Wvlr'r = B0 kg
Problem 3  62
,l
A stone weighs 460 N in air. When submerged in water, it weighs 300 N, Wwooo
Find the volume and specific gravity of the stone.
{
Solution
Weight of stone = 450 N
Weight of stone in water = 300 N [>Fv: 0]
BF= W'"n *Wood
Buoyantforce, BF = 460  300  160 N
. fsu,Vwood= ?Vnr"n + ]*ood V.ood
IBF = y*",", %,on"] (L000 x 1.03) V.oo6 = 80 + (1000 x 0.65) V*oo<,1
lIFv = 0l
BFr+BFz=35,000 3  68 (CE May 199E
BF1 = ysil Vp 5.kg steel plaie is attached to one end of a 0.1
m x 0.3 m x 1.20 m wooden
3P, = (62.4x0.8) (12x12x3) t, what is the length of the pole above
water? Use s.g. ;;;l of 0.50.
Bh= 21,5rU.nnrbt lect buoyant force on steel "f
+ BF: = 35,000
21,,565.44
BFz= 13,ntn.U'tO"
BFz= h,Vo
73,434.56 = 62.410.2)(1,2) hl
h = 1.495 ft
CHAPTER THREE FTUID MECHANICS
164 ,FTUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYqRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces l6s
Solution Problem 3  70
Neglecting the buoyant force on steel: buoy (s.g. =:::? is
LVsteet * V*ood
BF*ooa =
I wooden
i1 sea water (s.g. = 1.025). _50
mm by 50 mm by 3 m long is made to float
1000(0.1x0'3xV)=S+ .toy Tu", N of steel tr g li.slJ should be
make the buoy noat with exaJny 450;m
y=0'77m
1000(0.5)[0.1 x 0.3 x 1.2] :ffi51*ff;::ff"1j. exposed
Solution 0.05 m
h=1.2_!/
ll
h=1.20.77
/r = 0.43 m
iEFv = 0
BF"t*r + BF*ooa W*oo6 tr/Vrt""l =0
sffi 0.45 m
BFrt*r = 7r* %r"ur
BF,t*r = (9810 x 1.025)%t*r
BF,tu"r = 10,055.25 %t""r N
x=1,.2d
r = 0.455 m
t*'
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
t66 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t67
Solution Solution
lIFy = ol
Wc+Wt=BFc+ BFt
Wc=kVc
w6= (1x 0.25)(130)
Wc = 32.5 granls
BFc = Yu, Vc
Brc = (1X130)
BF6 = 130 grm
Wr= IrVr
Wr = (1 x 11.3) Vr
Wt= 11'3 Vr
BFr= Yu' Vr
BFr = (1) Vt=Yr
32.5 + 11.3 Vt.= L30 + Vt,
Vt= 9.47 cc 1
A hallow cylinder 1 m in diarneter and 2 m high weighs 3825 N. (a) How BFc = 11'5U U*
many kN of lead weighing 110 kN/mr must be fastened to the outside bottont BFt= Y, Vt
of the cylinder to make it float with 1.5 m submerged in water? (b) How many BFt = 9.8'l'Vr
kN of lead if it is placed inside the cylinder?
Wr=ytVt = 110Vr
[XFv=0]
BFs+ gPr=Wc+Wt
11.55 + 9.8'J.Vt= 3.825 + 1,70Vt
Vt= A.0772xn3
Wr = 110(0.07721= g.4gr*
Solution
W= 425 N
BFu = !uVou
BF,ra = (9,810 x 13.6)[0.28'?(x)]
BFm:19,45n.U' *
BFw = yw Votv
BFyy= 9,810[(0.28)z(0.28  r)]
BFw=769.1(0.28.r)
Problem 3  74
A cube 2.2 feet on an 3 7s (CE May 1e97)
100mm diameter solid cylinder is
. edge has its lower half of 95 mm high and weighing 3.7F
s.g. = 1.6 and upper half mersed in a Iiquid (y = g.17S N is
IN/*) contained in a tall meiui.yti.,au.
of s.g. = 0.7. lt rests in a ling a diameter of 125 mm. Before i*"rri*,
the liquid _u, ii^L a""p.
twolayer fluid, with what level will the solid cylinder floati''
lower s.g. = L.4 and
upper s.g. = 0.8.
Determine the height ft
of the top of the cube
above the interface. See
Figure 33.
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
t70 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Iotal Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces l7t
Solution Probfem 3  76
L25mmA
'A wooden beam of sp. gr. 0.64 is 150 nm
by 150 mm ancl is hinged at A, as
;chown in the Figure. At what angle 0 will the beam float i. water?
Solution
x
LIt
E T
I
C 1m
y1
N
l25mmb
displaced equals the total volume of real and imaginary liquid above the BF(5  0.5x) cos 0 = W(2.5 cos 0)
original level 2_20.725 x(5  0.5r) = 706.32(Z.s)
Vaboue orig. level = VD
5x0.5x2=8 s.
0.5125r+8=0
ft (1?5)2(x) = 458,716
r = 37.38 mm x=
2(0.s)
From Figure b: x=2m
/$+a=P+y
!=75+37.3858.4
sin0= J
Jx
=rru
V = 53'98 mm Q = 19147"
Therefore; the solid cylinder will float with its bottom 53.976 mm above
bottom of the hallow cylinder.
CHAPTER THREE
li t72 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FTUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
& HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces 173
Probfem 3  77 (CE Board May 2003)
Problem 3  78 (CE Board November 1993)
F'rom the figure below, it is shown that the gate is 1.0 m wide and is hinged at
A boat going from salt water (sp gr. = 1.03) to fresh water
the bottorn of the gate. Compute the following: (sp. gr. = 1.0) sinks
7,82 cm and after burning Z2,ZZOkg of .out rises
, (a) the hydrostatic force in kN acting on the gate, up by 15.24 cm. Find the
original displacement of the boat in sea water in kN.
(b) the location of the center of pressure of the gate from the hinge,
(c) the minimum volume of concrete (unit weight = 23.6 kN/m3) needed to
Dolution
keep the gate in closed position.
D+
Jlii: r)'.',i ii, "
llll r, rilil :irl::l :,
I;:
Figure (a)
Figure (b)
Solution
.dS
F=yhA=9.s1(1)(2x1)
F = 19.62 kN fsF6+r
;r D+0.07620.1524
V
IT = D  0.0762
v= +Q)=0.667r..
[IM,a = 0]
F*y=Tx2.5
19.62(0.66n = 2.57
T = 5.232 kN
Figure (c)
From the FBD of the
concrete block: have to assume that the boat have a constant crosssectional
area A below
Water surface and use water = 1000 kg/ma
lxFy = 0l
T+BF=W
Figure (a):
BF = y,uVron, = 9.81 V.on Bh=W
W = Yron, V.on. = 23.6 Vror*
lryVo=W
5.232 + g.g1 y.o,,. = 23.6 V,o,," W= (1000 x 1.03)[A(D)]
V.on. = 0.3796 m3 W=1030AD ) Eq. (1)
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FTUID MECHANICS
I I + CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t75
In Figure (b): 6olution
BF2  1V'1
For any floating body; Buoyant force Weight
=
lr*VD=W
w= 1000[,4(D+0.0762)] Solving for displacement in sea water:
W=1000A(D+0.0762) ) Eq. (2) sea water Vot = W
(&) Vr, = 24,A00 x 2,240
ln Figure (c): Vor = 840,000 ftr
Bh= W 72730
i000[A(D  0.0762)l = w  72730 ) Eq. (3) Solving for displacement in fresh water:
"L
freshwater Voz=W
From Eq. (1) and Eq. (2): (62.2)(V D2) = 24,000 x 2240
Voz= 864,308.68 ft3
Iw=w
1030AD = 1000A(D + 0.0762) Figure (a)
1030D=1.000D+76.2 Let /l be the difference in trre drafts in fresrr
D = 2.54 m (draft in sea water) Voz Vu = Area x /r
& seawater:
864,308.68_940,000
From Eq. (1) fr_
32,000
w=1,o3oA(2.s4) h = 0.76 ft
w = 2516.2A
Draft in fresh water, D = 34 + 0.76 = 34.7G ft
From Eq. (3)
7000A(2.54  0.07 62) = 261,6.2A  72730
2463.8A = 26L6.2A  72730
A = 477.23m2
380 lcrao@
rr an arbitrary shaped body with a submerged
volurne Vs and a
Therefore: p', submerged in a fluid of density p1.
What is the net vertical force on
w=261.6.2@n.n) body due to hydrostatic forces?
W = 1,248,529 kg (9.81/1000)
W= 12248 kN
Fnet= Tf Vs
yf=ilxg
Problem 3  79 Fn* = plg Ve
A ship having a displacement of 24,000 tons and a draft of 34 feet in
enters a harbor of fresh water. If the horizontal section of the ship at
waterline is 32,000 sq. ft, what depth of fresh water is required to float 381
ship? Assume that marine ton is 2,240 lb and that sea water and fresh w
)herical balloon, 9 m in diameter is fined with herium
weight 64 pcf and 62.2pcf, respectively. gas pressurized to
u.,a unchor"d by a rope to the ground.
H::,,L^,1Tli'_1*.':
Frting the dead weieht?fof?2"c:
the bailoon, derermini ,r.." iJ*r", iri,fr.
,oo"
R212mloK for helium gas and ,",, = tilJ
N/..
.q, CHAPTERTHREE FLUID MECHANICS FIUI!i MECHANIC5
II O Total Hydrostatic Force on surfaces & HYDRAULICS CHAPTERTHREE
& HyDRAUUCS rotat Hyctrostatic Force
"" surracll t77
Solution Wu,=45.52 N (fronr Figure3_ l)
P "177
x 103 BF = Y,n Vn
nerrutrr BF = 9810(1.025)[(0.05),Ll
' RT 272(273 + 2o)
BF = 25,138L
Yhelrun, = 1'787 N/mr
Vbulonn = \n(9/2)3
[IMo = 0J
Vboloon = 381.7 m3 =u
[IFv = 0]
[r!,i;:* ?,;z{ltit'),3;'r
12.57 Lz 58.43
BFWT=0 L*2,33m
BF = y"1, V5o1lnon
sin 0 * 2/l
BF ='t1..76(381.f = a43.u * sin 0 * 2/2.93
h/ yh.riunr Vboiloon
0 *59o
W=1..787 (381..7)  682.1 N
4488.8682."t=T
T = 3806.7 N
t.
mnr in diameter and 200
Problem 3  82 If:ir:t';*il;:ffiij:r mm hisrr and weighs r.6
o a body of tiquid h":".:.:Tquired topush..'h" :onu d;;:;nward)
t
*l ;ffi
The buoy in Figure 3  N of steel weight attached. The buoy
has 80
lodged against a rock 2 m deep. Compute the angle 0 with
has
:ffilffi,111i j 3,,1?,,::":",::i f;"T:i:*,jT;
the horizontal at
which the buoy will lean, assuming the rock exerts no mornent on the buoy.
:r:1,
Solution
The reqrrirecl downward vertical
force is:
F=BFW
BF * yriqud %uuo
BF  (e,810 x 0.S)
[(r/3)( 0.1/212(0.21!
BF*4.11 N
F*4,111.6
F2.51N
Solution
For a homogeneous solid body floating on a
homogeneous liquid:
yo =
j!!9L vu.o,
sliquid
ast=ffiar
As = 0.425nr2 (shaded area) Let 7 = volume of woocl
Problem 3  85 Unitweight, r=
A block of wood requires a force of 40 N to keep it immersed in water and a
Unit weight, f = Zg43
+=#
force of 100 N to keep it immersed in glycerin (sp. gr. = 1.3). Find the weighl N/pr
and sp. gr. of the wood. SP.gt.,r Iwoo'l 7843
Iwater 9910
. Sp. gr.,s = 0.8
I
I
oit
s=0.8
o
I
I
4m
T
I
4m
387
open cylindrical tank 350
lcallyinro a body
mnr in diameter and 1.8
m high is inserted
,0;5 rnrr,:{;,ri; ,i :;., 1m, lit,l I
ir
,ocr< : of .il,"t "i;;";;'I:::1T"'"r
,concrete ;. ;Jtf'!XiT,,':"^]li ll1.
d: wn and
('p g.. = 2.4j;;;p";;il:iir'i.n a ncr floats *i,r, a 1300
n""1,' with
"
rsoo
irilj or the cyrindei, io what
i.ll
riiil I a"pin *iri;J:;:X"":T1" Tff::;%T
Figure (b)
Figure (a)
.oJ
(a) Depth of oil: (Refer to Figure a)
Sumup pressure head from oil surface O to water surface € in m of water
+BF.vr W=0
BF.on. = I*ater Vcon.
) Eq. (r)
c1t =943.83 lt
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS
182 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUIICS _ CHAPTERTHREE
After insertion:
',
1.Bm
l
*
Wz=72L
279.58 + 1.586L _ 205 _ 12L
=0
L=7.'1,6m
D=6.025.13=0.89
y=1'8D 390
y=1.80.89 hydrometer weighs 0'0214N
and has a stem at the upper
y= m (Iength of protrusion) end which is 2.7g
auuf"'
0.9'1,
illHT:: rT;#*"'n t o""t in ol^(sp.
'", s,. = ;.;;, that in
oir:
BF =W
(9810 x 0.78)VD,= 0.0214
Voo = 2.797 x 106 m3
Voo= 2,797 mmt
m
a 10cm square base. If the block fltats in salt w"ater *i*, it"'rqriur"
cube stable? aving
LxL base horizontal, what is its maximum height for stable equilibrium in the
'
Solution upright position?
Ihe body is stable if M is above C. folution
Drarr,D=opt i i r+6c I Note: The body is stable when M is
liTl F".
Draft, D = 0.82L lbove G and unstable if M is below 10cmx10cm
I G. Mth'smaller value of H, the
I + (L)(L)3 tnetacenter M will become higher
l
lvtD^:
VD (L x L)(0.821) t than G making it much stable.
t.l

MB,,:0.'1,02L When H increases, M will move
Waterline Section
the figure:
Problem 3  92 GB"= H/2 D/2
A solid wood cylinder of specific gravity 0.6 is 600 mm in diameter and L2(x) Draft,D=*#H=0.62.tH
mm high. If placed vertically in oil (sp. gr. = 0'85), would it be stable? GB"0.5H 0,621,H/2
GBo=g.1tt,
Solution
sP gr' wood
Draft, D  , wB"=
*r
Draft, D = ffi trzoo) : 847 mnr #(roxro)3
MBo=
I (10x10)D
MB"=
v, E MBn=
100 _ 73.419
,E
a 12(0.621,H\ H.
+ (300)4
MB,,= O' ;' o
N
n(300)'(8a7)
MB" 26.56 mn oR: MB.= B' [, * tu"2 e)
12D( , )whereo=oo
GB" = 699 1/z(847)
GB" = 176.5 MB,, =
lo' (1 + o) 73.41.9 =
1,2(0.621H)', H
Since MB, < GBo, the metacenter is below G
Therefore, the bqdY is unstable.
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
r88 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS rotar Hydrostut'. F."?1PJ"E:JH:: I Bg
lMB"= GB"l Initial metacentric height, MG = MBo _ GBo
73'419 Initial metacentric heighg MG = 77 .49 _ tt/.SS
= 0.189H
H Initial metacenkic height, MG = 39.96 mm
H = 8.43 cm
39s
Problem 3.94
A wood cone, 700 rnm diarneter and 1,000 mm high floats in water with its
vertex down. If the specific gravity of the wood is 0.60, would it be stable?
Determine also its initial metacentric height.
Solution
Vood = { n(350)'z(1000)
V*ood = 1,28,281,,700 m3
Initial metacenkic height:
ttYD  
0.60 tt
Ywood T !1, * tan2 el
ut"= 12DL
Vo = 0.6 V*ooa
E
E
2 )
Vo = 0.6 (L28,281.,700) o
o where 0 = 0"
o
Vo = 76,969,020 mm3
MB"= e)2 f, * tunt o"l
By similar solids: L2(2.4)l z _l
v
osv* l
u,uu,l _ r 1000
D
\'1
J
Initial metacenkic height, MG = MB"_ GB"
Initial metacentric height, MG = 2.g725 _ 1.5
D = 843.4 mm il metacenkic height, MG = l.31^2i m
350
843.4 1000 Waterline Section e=+3
r = 295.2 mm
'14.93
I +Q95.2\4
MBn= ==//.+vmm
G 76,969,020
1111= Bf = yVp
w= (9.8.1, x 1.03)[9(1sX24)l= 3,273.8 kN MBo= (1 + o) = 5.45 m
Rrghting n"roment, RM = 3,273.8[(1.41) sin 74.93"1
Righting nloment, RM = 1,189.3 kNm "i*,
Metacentric height, MG = 5.45 3.2gs

Metacenkic heighf MG = Z.21Sm (the barge
is stable in rolling)
Along kansverse direction (pitching):
Problem 3  95
B=30m
A barge floating rn fresh water has the iornr of a parallelepiped having
dimensions 10 m x 30 m by 3 m lt weighs 4,500 kN when loaded with center MB"= B' *8.2ol
of gravity along its vertical axis 4 m from the bottom. Find the metacentric
"'"" :nDl'*Tl where0 = 0'
height about its longest and shortest centerline, and determine whether or rrol
the barge is stable *u"= o) = 4e.o2m
#ru)(l+
Sotution Metacenkic height, MG = 49.02 3.2gs

Metacenkic height, MG = 4S.7gSm (the barge
W = 4,500 kN is stable in pitching)
I
3m
frRollinq
crane barge, 20 m long, g meters wide, and
lr::::l
meters l:]fi
*"lqt*g 20 shortto;H;;
2 meters high roaded at its center
on fresh water with a draft of
and has its center of giavity located along its ,er'.ai
I t L'50 meters above its bottoml Compute the horizontar
side from the centerlin"
distance out", to
"_i,uut "
t(J
barge thiough which the crane could swing
?f,g:
Solve for the draft, D
:r":a i::il*lilj:1ti{Td ,i* q" lenter of the deck, and tip the
with the 2Ometer edge just touching the water
surface?
IBF =vq
YVo=W
9.81 [10 x 30 * Dl = 4,500
D=1.53m
GB,,= 4  D/2
GB,,= 4 1.53/2
GB"= 3.235 m
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
t92 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS q HYDRAULICS CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t93
Solution z=dsin0
I short torr = 2000 lb z = 0.552sin 11.31" 0.10g m
=
= 900 kg GB"=1.4d=0.848m
Wp= (20 x 900) 9.81
Wn = 176.58 kN Road roller MB"= B'lr* tan2el
Wp = 20 short tons 12DL 2 J
MB^=
,vLDo
82 ., . ,u!t 11.31'l
45 Lt*___r_J =a.saam
MG = 4.533  0.848.= 3.685 m
r=MGsin0
r = 3.685 sin 11.31" = 0.723 m
BF = yVe lrMc = ol
Br=9.81[8 x7.2x70] (BQr=Wn(L+z)
BF ='1,883.52 kN = Wr ].,883.52(0.723) = (12d.58)(L + 0.108)
Xjii*:Tg: ::Ta1if =
*."ieh: of.rf I i..:p l"1d
or r,ioo kN:;:r"dt"; ib ow.
25 kN (included t";;ilidilii'.rffi;
, ot z.J m to {one
.*1".fl9"; " side, it willcause the barge to go down +SO mm in "
ttre
of imrnersion and also rise 450 mm in th"
Wsl
'p .oltopona ing wedge oy iennn
bur"lu i*,*6;t
3*l*::,f*:*^
how far above the !::.T,:l:,".,k*r)
te waterline is the centerof ""i,ii"
;6;r;: tLJ;
*"igh,
ffij
tut' 0 = 9$s
0 = '11.31'
wB"=
tan0=f *t
f= frrctangle * /triangl" t lsernirircle
e:6.42 1= #(12)(8)3+
'l +(6,X4)3 x2+ #(4)4
^r I = 676.53ma
::lr
MB"= * tu1'0
12Dl 2 l I
IBF = vvl
MB^= 8' lrtur'6.42'I
" 't2(1.16)l 2
=n.uu.n 9.81' Vo = 1,500
Vo ='1,52.9 m3
)
[IMs" = 0]
1,425(b)+75(q)=BF(c)
MBo=
ffi =4.4?sm
Problem 3  1O1
A vertical sernicircular area of radius r is submerged in a liquid with its
diameter in the liquid surface How far is the center of pressure from tht'
liquid surface?
Ans: 0.589r
310s
Problem 3  102
An open vat holding oil (s = 0.80) is 8 m long and 4 m deep and has .r
trapezoidal crosssection 3 m wide at the bottom and 5 m wide at the top
Determine the following: (a) the weight of oil, (b) the force on the bottom of tht'
vat, and (c) the force on the trapezoidal end panel.
Ans (a) 1002 kN; (b) 752 kN Ans: Fu =7491b )
(c) 230 kN Fv = 2,7341bs {
Problem 3  103
Freshly poured concrete approxirnates a fluid with
sp. gr. of 2.40. The figure shown a wall poured
'between wooden forms which are connected by six
bolts. Neglecting end effects, compute the force in
the lower bolts.
'oL
Oil, s = 0.75
Ans:19,170lbs
3. 106
tute the hydrostatic force and its location
on semicyrindrical indentation
ii:,H.
Consider only 1 mete. reng*, oi.yri'a".';d;;;;.;;;to the
Water
Problem3108 i
The section of a concrete dam is shown in the figure. Concrete weights 23'!
kN per cubic meter an<l water weighs 9,790 N per cubic meter. Coefficient of
friction between the dam and foundation is 0.55. Determine the factors of
safety against sliding and against overturning, and also the soilpressure at thc
heel and toe. Assume hydrostatic uplift varies unifornrly fro5n full hydrostatlc
head at the heel of the dam to zer6 at the toe. Consider L m length of dam.
Ans FSs= 2.20; FSs = 1.66
qL'*r = 85.2 kPa; q6= 300'2 kPt
CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS
AA
ZUU Total Hydrostatic Force on surfaces & HYDRAULICS
Problem 3  11O
Re, a ti ve E s u ifi f"Tff Tu:;iT 20t
Two spheres, each 1.3 m in diameter, weigh 5 kN and 13 kN, respectively.
They are connected with a short rope and placed in water. What is the tension
in the rope and what portion of the lighter sphere prokudes from the water?
Chapter 4
Ans: T = 1".74 kN; 40.1%
Relative Equilibrium
Problem 3  111 of Liquids
A block weighing 1,25 pcf is 1 ft square and 9 inches deep floats on a stratified
liquid composed of a 7in layer of water above a layer of mercury. (o)
Determine the position of the bottom of the block. (b) If a downward vertical er certain conditions,
the particles of a fluid
force of 260 lb is applied to the center of mass of this block, what is the new o' betwee' each other ,"r';;';:""::.:,tjtto mass rnay have no
,'",i,iol ',i'"',i'",,
relahve
position of the bottom of the block? rr<r $
is moving with a constanr .,,.;;,.:;
onrrun, speed *
.14y ue
r'" tn motion.
.,
If a nrass of
Ans: (a) 0.8 " below mercury """JlilT,::T',.1Y*"t
e s.ame as in fluid ,ruri, (uniform velocity), ,f.r".".ai,ons
;; ;il,"*; .h;;i;;' u,li'il,n" ooo, are
(b) 4.67" below mercury
reguired, and this wilr lTfJilHTil; #;:'"".
1urscteJ
be dir.";;";';;ilffi'ililotation), special rreahnent
Problem 3  112
Would a wooden cylinder (rp. g.. : 0.61) 660 mm in diameter and 1.3 m long
be stable if placed vertically in oil (sp. gr. : 0.85)?
Ans: Not stable TR ANSLATToN ( ivrovrNc
VESSET)
Motion
Problem 3  113 rrDr(ler a lnass of fluid
A rectangular scow 7 ftby 18 ft by 32 ft long loaded with garbage has a drnft
of 5 feet in water. Its center of gravity is 2 ft above the waterline. Is the scow
*n,m*l;:.:m:T$jF.t+;*::H"i:,1.,.1nff Tj;ilT:di;
stable? What is the initial metacentric height? , i ,' t;; * i'^'j':#.,l.ili lffi"'l1;T" i;ffi i::i:i* ri
' Ans: The scow is stabla
" "
,j.$ hic i s
, MG=0.90ft
w=M9
Problem 3  1.t4
A cube of dimension L and sp. gr. 0.82 floats horizontally in water. Is the
stable?
Ans:
:o
lt
>
REF = Ma
CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
ZUZ Relative Equilibrium of Liguids & HYDRAULICS 6(HYDRAUTICS
Rerative Esu',fffftjrfi:ir ZO 3
F'ronr the force polygon showtr Vertical Motion
REF
tan0= Consider a mass of fluid accelerated
w uo
tan0:
Ma ;.':",fi :'Tili; J
;flJ;lt, :L'm
:* :,*" "''il;;;"I'q'id .b;;; il';;;ri;
n*, ;x1, #
Mg ro,,u,=tuti,"n.oli"
 ii:,:T",:'.t:t "i fr: the i,rerria
,a lEF,, = ol
tanO=:o
Eq.41 F=Ma+yV
, M=py= I y
Therefore; the surface and all planes of equal hydrostatic Pressure must I
0 'ffi"#ffi
be
o
inclined at this angle 0 with the horizontal F= LVa+yV o o
o
ff:
\
Volume, V = Ah
lnclined Motion F=PA
Consider a nrass of fluid being accelerated upwards at arr inclinahon ov
Y
the horizontal so that al = a cos o and n,, = n sin cr., l1A= o
(AI)a+y14111
6
P=y141+ a/g)
REF' = 1Y uu
I,=,^
W=Ms
3s REFs = [t4 3n
Use (+; sign for upward motion and () sign for downward motion
204 ;5#J5[;"""trium or Liquids FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUTICS
CHAPTER FOUR
Relative Equilibrium of Liquids 205
From calculus, slope = dy =tan0
dx
:dv =tane= _,2,
dxg
. ur2
clY=
r4^
o
6
lntegrate both sides:
Hgurelt1ay Figure41(b)
W=M9
For cylindrical container of radius r revolved about ils vertical
axis, the height
of paraboloid is:
W=M9
CF (W/g) o2 x
=
e
tu^e=
tlt Eq.44
g
Where tan 0 is the slope of the paraboloid any point x from the hxis of rotation
Volume=l/znrah Eq.4_g
CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER FOUR
206 Relative Equilibrium of Liquids & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Relative Equilibrium of. Liquids 207
For closed cylindrical containers more than halffull of liquid, rotated
':""':'::::;::'"':?:::,::ers more than harrur or riquid, rotated about about its vertical axis (/r > H/2):
its vertical axis (h > H/2):
€
€ I
Y/2<D Yl2=D
YIz<D yl2=D (liquid surface just
(No liquid spilled) Liquid surface just touching the top rim)
touching the top rim
(No liquid spilled)
'
t_______'1
I
ll
rl ;''l
Y/2>D Y = H2l2D
Y=H (with imaginary (vortex just touching the
Yl2>9 paraboloid above)
(Some liquid spilled) Vortex at the bottom bottom)
(Some liquid spilled)
"l
20 g Fl,#ff [;"?'Tium or Liquids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER FOUR
& HYDRAULICS Relative Equilibrium of Liquids 209
For closed cylindrical containers completely filled with liquid:
Utube revolved about its own axis:
Note: the pressure head at any point
Tir::::l
I t\
in
the tube is the vertical distance from the
rivj
:l
Yl\. '
tube to the paraboloid. The pressure is
t I
i
I I
i i
;
I
<: F! I
I i
I
! i
I
!
I
I
I
'i I
I
Problem 4  2
A closed horizontal cyrindrical tank 1.5 m in diameter and
4 m long is
Ihe figure shows the water level under nlaxtmunr a when no water ts compl'telyfilled with gasoline (sp. gr. = 0.g2) and accererated horizontaly
at 3
spilled out rn/s2. Find the total force acting aithe rear'wall and at the front wall of
the
ta60= 9; ={) 2 tank. Find also the accelerating force on the fluid mass.
I = 17,3q() N
t = 17.39 kN Substitute z and xz to Eq. (1)
aQ.6/ x)  1.6 = 4.1x ) multiply by r
or
6.4  7.6x = 4.'t xz
rL_D.
rredrrlroilt
I)
4.Lx2+1..6x6.4=0
F=28.0510.66
f = 17.36 kN :ljj
X __Jtt.u y2  +1+.ry10.+y = 1.0695 m
2(4.1)
z = 1.6/1.0695 = 1.496 m
Problem 4  3
A closed i'ectangular tarrk 4 nr [ong, 2 m wide, and 2 m high is filled with
6.ylg =!8)c
=Z
water to a depth of 1.8 nr lf the allowable force at the rear wall of the tank is a 7.496
200 kN, how fast can it lre accelerated horizontally? t = 1o6ed
a =13.72 m/s2 (horizontal acceleration)
Solution
44
1
fl open tank 1_82 m square weighs 3,425 N and contains
0.91m of water. It is
h
*j:::::?:tT::1,.*.:.ofro,+00 N p","ua to a pair of sides. what is
force acting in the side with the ,*uffuriJ"ptnZ
P=yha
Solvefor aand,y:
F=Ma=1O400
p=yn a M= M*^t", f Munk
200=e.81 i1Z1Zy = .82)(1.82)(0.s1)l + 3,42s/s.81
Y 1,goot(t
M=3;363.42kg
lr =51rn
10,400=3,363.42x a
y= h I =4.1 nr a=3.092m/sz
By similar triangles
4x .r , tan$= a !
= 0.91,
I
I
4.1 z
4zxz=4.7t ) Eq. (i)
1.82mx1,82m
2l+ CHAPTER FOUR
Relative Equilibrium of Liquids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTEII FOUR
Relative Equilibrium of Liquids 2t5
3.092_ y AasE = 5.11 m2
9.81 0.91 VaM =5.11(1.5) = 7.665 m3
y=0.29m<0.91m(OK)
h=0.91y
Ir= 0.62m Vrcn=12.4635 7.665
P = 9,810 (0.62/2) 10.62 x 1'.821 V:".n= 4.7985 ms
P = 3,432 N %pined=8.6985 4198s
%pilled = 3.9 m3
Problem 4  5
An open trapezoidal tank having a bottom width of 3 m is 2 m high, 1.5 m 46(CEBoard)
wide, and has its sides inclined 60o with the horizontal. It is filled with water A vesser 3 m in diametercontaining 2.4
to a depth of 1..5 m. If the tank is accelerated horizontally along its length at m ofwater is being raised. (a) Find the
pressure at the bottom of the vesser
in kpa when the
4.5 mf s2, how much water is spilled out?. (b) find the pressure at the bottom and
when it""I;iry;;;.1,stant,
i, u."h"rui^ g 0.6 m/
upwards. "rirti'"*r"r sz
Solution
3 + 2(2 cot 60') = 5,399 t
3 + 2(1.5 cot 600) = 4,732 m For vertical motion:
p=yh(1xa/g)
a 4.5
tan0=t =9.81 Til
EI
It=2.4m
p = e.81,e.a)
Vspilled=Vorig.%eft p = 23.544 kpa (pressure at the bottom) ,
Problem 4  8 4to
An open tank containing oil (rp. g.. = 0.8) is accelerated vertically at 8 m/s2. open rylindrical vessel having a height equal to ib diameter is
halffilled with
Deterrnine the pressure 3 m below the surface if the motion is (a) upward with er and revolved about its own vertical uiis *ith a constant angular
speed of
a positive acceleration, (b) upward with a negative acceleratiorL (c) downward rpm. Find its minimum diameter so that there can be no riquid Jpil"a.
with a positive acceleration, and (d) downward with a negative acceleration.

Problem 4  Ll Problem 4  13
An open cylindncal tank 1.6 nr tu dtameter and 2 m hrgh rs iull ol water An open cylindrical tank, 2 m in diameter and 4 m high contains water to a clepth
When rotated about its vertical axis at 30 rpnr wlrat would be the slope of tlrt
of 3 m. It is rotated about its own vertical axis with a constant angular speed ol
water surface at the rim of the tank? .
(a) If ro = 3 rad/ sec., is there any liquid spilled?
Solution (b) what maximum value of ar (in rpm) can be imposed without spilring
any liquid?
Slope = tar.r 0
(r) If o = 8 radf s, how much water is spilled out and to what depth wilr
2
u)I the water stand when brought to rest?
SloPe = _
I (d). what angular speed ro (in rpm) will just zero the depth of water
at the
rev 2n rad I mrtr center of the tank?
trr = ]0 (e) If or = 100 rpm, how much area at the bottom of the tank is uncovered?
min rev 60 ser
to = n rad/sec Solution
(n)2 {0.8) a212
Slone =
' 981 2g
(a) ro=3radlsec
,
n= 1sn.1210.0;2
"  ,'(1)'
2(9.81) 2(e.81)
/r= 1.63 m a = 6.26 rad/sec x 30
h/2 : 0 815 > 0 7 nr (sorne hqurd sprlled) to = 59.78 rpm

=0.6m
A CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
ZZV Relative Equilibrium of Lrqurds & HYDRAULICS CHAPTER FOUR
& HYDRAULICS
Relative Equilibriurn of Liquids 22t
{c} r,r=8racl/ser Area,l=nyz ro = 100 rpm
Ir='
(8)2(1)2
€ y=5.59_4
=J26ur
2(e.81) .y = 1.58 m
h/2=1.63nr>lnr
By the squared property
some liquid spilled but the vortex of the of parabola;
paraboloid is inside tlre tank si4ce /r < 4nr
x?
12
ysprllerl = Tarr (trral)  Vo,,
t,u,l,"l,
!/h
Varr (hnal) = Vparatrlor<l x, = * (1.s8)
Varr (rrnar) = L/z n(1)2 (3 2ol
x2 = 0.283
V.r (finat) = 5.I 21 nr '
Area, A = n(0.253)
l/arr{rrrrrrat) = tr(1)2(1) Area,A=0.889m2
Varr (rnrtrat) = 3.142 nt'
4pillecr = 7,979 m3
, a2r2
2g
(d) The vortex touches the bottonr when lr = 4nr
Solve for ft (by squared property)
" ,2 0\2
+=
2(e.8't) Q)2 (0.s)2
r,r=g.g6* # h h4
h4=0.25h
rrl = 84.6 rpm
0.75h = 4
lel When o = 100 rpnr /r = 5.33 m
t,r = 100(n/30) = 3.33n radlset
5.33 =
g11'
,.: ot2r2 _ (3.33n)2(1)2 2(e.81)
2g 2(e 81 0) o = 10.23 rad/sec x !!
h=5.58>4nr a = 97.65 rpm
the vortex of the paraboloid rs already below the tank (imaginary)
CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS

ZZZ Relative Equilibrium of Liquids
FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER FOUR
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
Relative Equilibrium of Liquids 223
(bl Vten = Vc),linae,  Vf.urtuu, of paraboloid hz= pz/y
Vron= 7r (1)' (4)  [1/z n (1)2 (5.33)  1/ztr (0.5)z (5.33  4)] lu= 74/0.0008
Vv* = 4.776 m3 hz = 17500 cm = 175 nr
h=hz2.75p1/ru
Problem 4  15 (CE Board November 1993) h=1752.7562.5
h ='109.75
A 1.90 m diameter closed cylinder, 215 m high is completely filled with oil
a2 (o'gs)2
having sp. gr. of 0.8 under a pressure of 5 kg/cm2 at the top. (a) What angular tog.zs =
speed can be imposed on the cylinder so that the maximum pressure at tl're 2(e.81)
bottom of the taflk is 14 kg/cm2? (b) Compute the pressure force exerted by oil co = 48.84 rad/sec x 30
ft
on the side of the tank in kg. o = 466.44 rpm
I
I
!
I
4 16 (CE MayigsD
F 'f
lT
o{"" cylindrical tank having a radius
of 300 mm and a height of 1.2 m
full of water. How fast should i", U" is
o/"
,.i"i"i about irs own vertical axis so that
hz = Pzly
of its volume will be spilled out?
E
b
N
tri Oil (s! = 0.8)
, a2r2 o=7
2g
:e 75o/o of the total volume is
spilled out,
paraboloid will be formed a part
outside
vessel (i.e. with its vortex beiow the tank)
2n(0.95) = 5.969 m
%piled = V = 0.75[nrz(1.2)]
^"
V^i, = 0.9nr2
Unit weight of oil, y = 1000(0.8)
Unit weight of oil, y = 800 kg/m3 = 0.0008 kg/cm3
22 t V^ir= Tbrgparabolotd  Vsnrallparabolord
(al l, = '=' 0.9na = yz nr2 h _ 1/2 r.x2 y
z8 7.8f=r.zh_x2y >Si.(1)
Solve for lr :
Pt/r = 5/0.0008 = 6250 cm
fi/y = 62.5 rn
CHAPTER FOUR
I
224 Relative Equilibrium of Liquids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
Rerative Ec,i,if"ryf;:?t;?il: ZZs
lly squared properiy of parabola:
a ='1.2.528 rad/sec x rea 60 sec
'J,
*2 ,2 ,2
2rrnd lmin
vhh co = 119.64 rpm
ln Eq. (1)
x_
t2
1.8 P = ,'h  ; y(y) ) multiply both sides by h/ta
lt 418
1.81t=lPt/2 An open vessel,500 mm.in diameter
and fillecl with water, is rotated
butY=1,1., about is
1.8h=h2_(h_t.z\z fi':.TlTi;:il'i ;,ll':y,*:ilt::$;;;..
angte of 40o with the hoiizo'tat. 100 r'm rrom the axis
C;;ilil:;".1':T;.;"il,1i: makes
1..81r = l?  (hz  2.4h + 1.44) illl
0.6h = 1.44
h=2.4m The slope of the paraboloici
at any clistance ,,r,, fronl
the axis is given by:
Finally: tuno='2,
,210.3;2
I
2.4 = Where 0 = 40. and;r = 0.1 m
2(e.81)
a :22.87 rad/sec tan4oo=
x 30
T $fo.rl
trl = 218.4 rpm a = 9.07 rad/sec x !Q = g6.64rpm
Probfem 4  17 419
Ar"r opencylindrical tank 1 m in diameter and 3 m high is full of water. At open cylindricar tank 1.2 m in
what speed (in rpm) must it be rotated to discharge 1/3 of its content. diameter and 1.g m deep is
rotated
vs qvvqr
about rrb
its uwn filred with water
own axrs
axis at 50 rewnl,,r,^. per
6O.revolutions _, 
^^_ rninut,e.
and wllat is the pressure How
Solution at the center of its bottom? ".r"Jfiq.,ia
Let y be the height of the paraboloid.
ro = 60 rpm
since the volume of the paraboloid represents the volume of water spilled, then: , a2r2
2g
I st r€:
Volume.of paraboloid = % Full volume of cylinder
co = 60 x (n/30) = 2n rad./ sec
Yz n (0.5)2 y =
t (0.s), (3)
"n r .2/2 = 0.6 m
='1
y =2m
r,= Qt9.t=0.724m
,= #r .r=o5m
%pillea = Tparatroloid
., _ .2 10.5;2 %pilied = lz n2 It
2(e.81) V,spirhcr = Vz rc(0.6)z (0.724
)
%pilled = 0.409 m3
r=0.6m
CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER FOUR
226 Relative Eguilibrium of Liquids & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Relative Equilibrium of Liquids 227
[)rcssure at the center: h/2=3.67m>1m
(part of the paraboloid is above the vessel)
P=vy
l/ = 1.6  ft = 1.8' 0.724 = 7.076 r^t'r
p = 9.8"1(1.075) = 10.555 kPa Verify tl're position of the vortex (See page 207)
H2 _ $)'
2D 2(1)
Problem 4  20 n',2
A closed cylindrical vessel, 2 m in diameter and.4 m high is filled with water = 8nr>7.3{m the vortex is inside the vessel
2D
to a depth of 3m and rotated about its own vertical axis at a constant angular
speed, ol . The air inside tlre vessel is under a pressure of 120 kPa. Il
Y nir (final) 
r,
Y arr (irlitidl)
(o) If io = 12 radf sec, what is the pressure at the center and circumference al lznxzy = nrz111
the bottom of the tank? x2y=2P )Eq.(1)
(b) What angular speed tu will just zero the depth of water at the center?
(c) lf a = 20 rad f sec, how much area at the bottom is uncovered? By squared property of parabola:
r)1 r'
Solution
a= L2 radls
ylt
=
> ^12 >Eq.(2)
I
i
It '
xtx
Tf Substitute in Eq. (2) to Eq. (1)
I r'
12
t
( r' !t)v=2rz
u
!/2 = 2lt: 2(7.34)

ml y=3.83m<4rn
 ,'. Pressure at the center, (at O)
pt=ylh+pait
I
ll ht=4lt
lq=43.83=0.17rn
p=9.87(0.77)+tzO
I
G'
il
^12;
x2'= y2 ) Eq. (3)
r=0.75m
Substitute rr2 and rz2 to Eq. (1)
'
't.8r?=
.2 ,2
r rr(rr)
V,0) ) multiply both sid.es by h/p
1..8h=yf_y2z
But yr = 3.6 + y2
1.97=(3.6+yz)zy22
1.8h= 12.96 + 7.2y2+ yz2 _ y22
7 .2 yz = '1,.8h  12.96
) Eq. (a)
trr = 9I
h = 10.77 m
1
,/o
6  ,rtz (0.g\2
t'= =10'77
2PJ'L,
104.24 = '2(o'zs)'
2(e.81) to = 16.1 rad/sec x 39
o = 60.3 rad/sec " 30 / n co = 1.53.8 rpm (maximum allowable angular speed)
o = 576 rpm
4 23
Problem 4  22
1..5 m diameter impeller of a closed centrifugal water pump is rotated at
A 1.8 m diameter closed cylinder, 2.7 m high is completely filled with glycerirr rpm. If the casing is full of water, what pressgre is developed by
lraving sp. gr. of L.6 under a pressure of 245 kPa at the top. The steel plakrr tion?
which form the cylinder are 5 rnm thick with an ultirnate tensile stress of 82
MPa. How fast can it be rotated about its vertical axis to the point of bursting?
p
Solution Pressure head,
 = il
v
,
tl = _
a2r2
, _a2r2
)o tt
'Solve for
6
.29 r=0.75m
/r
, o  1500xn/30
Pt 245
ro = 50n rad/sec
y e.81(1.6)
(sol)1(o,zs)2
rr
h
hz = Dzlt ,, = =707.4rn
= 15.61 m 2(e.81)
Y
=707.4mof water
The maximum tensile stress occurs *n
r 5,940 kPa
at point @:
pD
From Sr =
2t
CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
234 Relative Equilibrium of Liquids & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS CHAPTER FOUR
Relative Equilibrium of Liquids 235
Problem 4  24 (CE Board) Solution
A conical vessel with sides inclined 30' with its vertical axis is revolved about Pz=vlh t
another axis L m from its own and parallel. How many revolutions per
!
minute rnust it rnake in order that water poured into it will be entirely Solvirrg for /r2:
discharged by the rotative effect? lu=yzyt i 0= 27.5 rad/sec
)1
,lI2= ox^' I
Solution 3  I
2g I
.
I
Yz
rotatecl so that the difference in the mercury levels in the sterns is 200 rnm?
Solution
xz = 0.4m
I
_______+k_xr T
I
I
ht
Initial mercury
level
0.2 m
a2 *22
 ,'*"r2 = 0.2
. By squared property of parabola:
2g 2g Q)2 (o.s)z
,2 Uz Ut
[(0.q)z (0.2)r]= 0.2
4r.81) !12= 4Yr ) Eq. (2)
a = 5.72 rad/sec x 30T
Substitute y: to Eq. (1)
ro = 54.6 rpm y1+ 4y1= 7.25
y = 0.25
(1)2)I"
Problem 4  28 "29
l/i = :
A glass tubing consist of 5 vertical sterns which are 500 mm apart connected to
a single horizontal tube" The tube is filled with water to a depth of 500 mm in g.2u (o.s)2
= ^2
the vertical stems. How fast should it be rotated about and axis through the 2(e.81)
middle stem to just zero the depth of water in that stem? a = 4.43 rad/sec x 30
n
or = 42.3 rpm
CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
238 Relative Equilibrium of Liguids & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER FOUR
Relative Equilibrium of Liquids 239
Problem 4'29 Mirrimize /r', differe'riate Eq. (1) with respect to
i arrd equate to zero:
A 75 rnm diameter pipe, 2 m long is filled with water and capped at both ends :dlr = 2.5n8*  tan 60o = 0
It is held on a plane inclined 60" with the horizontal and rotated about a
vertical axis through its lower end with a constant angular speed of 5 rad/sec
r = 0.68 n'r
a = .r sec60"
(a) Compute the pressure at the upper end of the pipe and (b) determrne the
n = 0.68 sec60o = I .36 nr
minimum pressure and its location in the pipe
In Eq. (1):
Solution
initial Pressure
ll = 1.27aQ.68), + t.Zg  (0.68) tan60o
Since there is no h' = 1.747 nt
in the pipe the pressure head at
p.,u = 9.81(1.141)
the lower end of the PiPe will p,ri,,=11.196 kPa Iocated 1.36 m frorn the lower.errcr
remain equal to the static (arong the pipe)
pressure head of "1.73 rn, and
therefore the vortex of the
paraboloid will be 1.73 m above
430
the lower end. cyli'drical bucket 150 mm in diameter and 200 mm
high contains 150 mm of
rter: A boy swings the bucket on a vertical plane so that
, ,2r', :ket describes a circle of radius 1 m. How fast
the bottom of the
)o should it be rotated so that
water will be spilled?
,
,t=
(s)2(1)',
+
2(9.81)
O.7mA
h = 1..274 m
*
(a) Pressure at the uPPer end
= Ih /v
Pus,y*,
pupper = 9.81(1.274)
1r:
,r\ .
s
c
puppe, = 12.497 kPa  \"\. \'
.i i\.. il
/ ''' ":' .."i.
  .....
z='1.73rtan60o \ rri':]i
t...
,' ,2 1.2 '!.2 \tf/:!t Figure (b)
y lt L.274 \ l
Figure (a)
a = 1'274 xz
h' ='1.274 x2 + (1.73  x tan60") ) Eq. (1)
CHAPTER FOUR FLUID MECHANICS
240 Relative Equilibrium of Liquids & HYDRAULICS
FLUID MEcHANIcs
& HYDRAUTICS
CHAPTER FIVE
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 241
l he critical position for the liquid to fall is at the highest point
Problem 4  3l
A cubical tank is filled with 2 nr of oil having sp. gr of 0.8. Find the force oR FLOW RATE, Q
acting on one side of the tank when the acceleration is 5 m/s2 (a) vertically harge or flow rate is the amount of fluid
passing through a section per
upward, and (b) vertically downward as a max ftur,.,i,
*:::.::l:"'"q
.:,{H:; and aolume
kN/sec), rate or
floto iaten(ex.
floto
1u*"ug1,",i,,,,J,t 7o,, rate
m3/s, litls)
Solution
(al F= p,rA Volume flow rate, e = Aa  . E+ 5 1
F = fy lurQ + (g)) A Mass flow rate, M= p e
F = (e.81 x 0.8)(1)(1 + 5 / e.81)[(2)'?ti Eq.S _2
F = 47.392 kN Weightflow rate,W=y e
where:
tbt F= p,rA
F = [7lr.r(1  a/9] a Q = discharge in m3/s or fF/ s
2m A = crosssectional area of flow in m2 or
F = (9.81 0 8)(1)(1  5/e.87\(2x2) ft2
" z, = mean velocity of flow
in m/s of ft/ s
F = 15.392 kN 'p = mass density in kg/mr or
slugs/fts
y = weight density in N/mr
or lb/fF
OF TERMS
Flow.
1a1 be steady or unsteady; uniform or
' or turbulent; n onuntform ; continuou s ;
onedimensional, ftio_dimensional
or threedimensional; and
or urotatronal
CHAPTER FIVE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER FIVE
Z+Z Fundamentats of Fluid Flow & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 243
Steady Flow Turbulent Flow
This occurs when the discharge Q passing a given crosssection is constant with The flow is said to be turbulent when the path
of individual particles are
time. If the flow Q at the crosisection varies with time, the flow is wtsteady. irregular and continuously cross each other. Turbulent
flow normallv occurs
when the Reynolds number exceed 2,100, (although
the most .o*on
situation is when it exceeds 4000).
Uniform Flow
Laminar flow in circular pipes can be maintained
This occurs if, with steady flow for a given length, or reaclr, of a stream, the up to values of & as high as
50'000' However, in such cases this rype of flo* i,
average velocity of flow is the same at every crosssection. This usually occurs i"r,"r"rrirf ,r*tabre, and
the least disturbance wilr transform ii instantly
when"an incompressible fluid flows through a stream with uniform cross into turburent flow. on the
other hand, it is practicaily impossible for t'rbul""in.*
section. In stream where the cross:sections and velocity changes, the flow is * pi;;
said to be nonuniform.
persist at values of & much below 2100, because "'r""lgn,
any turbulence that is set up
will be damped out by viscous friction.
Continuous Flow
OneDimensional Flow
This occurs when at any time, the discharge Q at every section of the stream
This occurs when in an incompressible fluid, the direction
the same (principle of conseruation of mass). and magnitude of
he velocity at all points are identical
Flow
occurs when the fluid particles move in planes
or parallel planes and the
mline patterns are identical in each planei
Continuity Equation
or incompr essible f luids: are imaginary curves drawn through a fluid
F to indicate the direction of
r in various sections of the flow of the fluid
system.
.l Q=A{ut=Azuz=Atat=constant Eq.sa I
tubes
F or co mp re ssible fluids:
represents elementary portions of a flowing
fluid bounded by a group
Itreamlines which confine the flbw.
PrArar  PzAzaz= Py'r:roI = constant Eq' 5  5
arhA;rr\= y2A:llr;z* lsAs:oe = constant n+ !: 6
Nets
are drawn to indicate flow patters in case
Laminar Flow of twodimensional flow, or
threedimensional flow
The flow is said to be laminar when the path of individual fllrid particles tlo
not cross or intersect. The flow is always laminar when the Reynolds nurrtlre!
R" is less than (approximately) 2,100.
CHAPTERFIVE
,,
Z++ FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 6. HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS CHAPTER FIVE
]
Fundarnentals of Fluid Flow 245
ENERGY AND HEAD Pressure Energy (potential
Energy)
'l'he energy possessed by a flowing fluid consists of the kinetic and the potential
consider a crosed tank filled with
a fluid which,has asmall opening
energy. Potential energy may in turn be subdivided into energy due to the top at
position or eleuation above a given datum, and energy due to pres;sure in the
,H:Yi.l:::'."1" "r,,1"
top,
ihe n"iapr".u.aily will
w'r not tlow.
flow. In ch"r.*
rn Chapter .>
the equivalent head (pr"rr.r;1;;;; tvt o pr€ssure of p it 2,
fluid. The amount of energy per pound or Newton of fluid is called thelrcad. pt"rrrrruenergylseqivalenta,"**' i;;:;""uv p/y Hence the
u') q_
Total Energy = Ki""fi
=
)o
zs(iD ,Y
o' 8Q''
TotalHead, ,= Eq.5_15
=
= Eq"se *. f,.z
2s WF
AND EFFICIENCY
Elevation Energy (Potential Energy) lver is the rate at which work
is done. For a fluid of unit
I moving at a rate of e (m3ls) with weight r (N/m.ti
The energy possessed by the fluid by virtue of its position or elevation with a totJ eiergy of E (m), the power
respect to a datum plane. e floule/sec) or watts is: in N
Power = ey E
Elevation Energy =Wz = Mgz Eq.510 Eq.516
ElevationEnergy Efficiency, OttPttt
Elevation head =  , Eq.511 ,., = x 700% Eq.5 77
w lnput
Note; 1 Horsepower (hp) = 246 Watts
1 Horsepower (hp) = 550
ft_lblsec
1 Waft = 1 N_m/s = 1
Joule/sec
CHAPTER FIVE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
Z+O Fundamentals of Ftuid Flow & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS CHAPTER FIVE
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 247
BERNOULLI'S ENERGY TH EOREM Energy Equation with Head Lost:
l'hc Bernoulli's energy theorem results from the application of the pnnuples ol Considering head lost, the values
that we can attain are called
r'ottsen,ntion of energrl. This equation may be surnmarized as follows: With reference to Figure 5 _ 4: nctual oqlttes.
nerr.cgdgg",ecl
\
Eat sechon I* Eadctecl  Elost or extlacted = Eat section 2 .518
f'*
 r .
Pll
Energy .Equation without Head Lost:
If the fluid experiences no head lost in movrng from section 1 to section 2 tht'rr
.l
the total energy at section must be equal to the total energy at section 2
Neglecting head lost irr fluid flow, the values that we get are called ideal ot
theoretical ualues. With reference to Figure 5  3:
54
Z1
Et: Ez Eq. 5  1()
a
tr'12 Pt 0o
+a= 2
+22 Eq.5  20 22
2g 2g v
f
Datum
_t
Energy grade Line, EGL
v12l2g Equation with pump:
F* vz'}l29 basicany to increase the head. (usualry
.tr "::o to raise water from
I
Qrlt
I
1jr1_t*::T::::1,Tn"
and its output power (p.u,p,,) is the
flo* #;gy
+
I
PzJt
Zt
Figure 5  3
L
l
_D1tg
Z2
+
248 Fl#"tiii,',",for Fruid Frow
FLUID MECHANIC5
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
6. HYDRAUTICS
' CHAPTER FIVE
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 249
Et+ HAHL2=E, Eq.523 Characteristics of HGL
:lffti]l:ff"fi :i:.#.;:J,txi;:"..:.l:fix,"Hffi
+ !_ +2.
;lffJ,,""
v
cteristics of EGL
a
direction or now, and it w*r onrv
iT?{'ilini;i"i:,:::iff;1,'; 'n"
a The drop of the EGL retween I any two points is the head
those points. lost between
For uniform pipe cross_section,
EGL is parallel to the HGL.
HE
lrr r\
i*1
I
Problem 5  1 ,=
,RTP
Water flows through a 75 mm diameter pipe at a velocity of 3 m/sec. Find (a)
110 x 103
the volume flow rate in m3/sec and lit/sec, (b) the mass flow rate in kg/sec, ' 1= 2%(go+273) =12'39N/mr
and (c) the weight flow rate in N/sec.
20 = 72.3e10.1 6 (0.32)lu
Solution o = 31.53 m/s (average velocity)
(a) Q=Au Q= Aa
= i (0.075),(3) (0.16X0.32X31.s3)
= 0.013 m3/s x '1000 lit/mj a = 1*674 m3/sec (volume flux or discharge)
Q = 13lit/sec
(b) M=pQ 5
= 1000(0.013) 4.110.1y" diameter plunger is being pushed at 60 mm/sec
into a tank filled
M = 13 kglsec (mass flow rate)
11ltis :,l11lq q o.f 0
::. rf tne fluia is incompressibte, how many N/s of
"f out at a 30mm diameter hole?
being forced
(c) w=vQ
= e810(0.013)
W = 1,27 N/sec (weight flow rate)
the fluid is incompressible:
Qt= Qz
Problem 5  2 (CE November 1995) Qr = AtVt
What is the rate of flow of water passing through a pipe with a diameter of 20 = t (0.1)'z(0.06)
mrn and speed of 0.5 m/sec? Qr = 0.00047 rfi/ s
Solution Qz = 0.00047 m3 / s
Problem 5  3 5
the velocity of flow in a zSmm diameter fire hose is 0.5
Air at 30'C and 110 kPa flows at 20 N/s through a rectangular duct tlrill m/s, what is the
locity in a 25 mm diameter iet issuing from a nozzre attached
measure 160 mm x 320 mm. Compute the average velocity and volume fltrx at the end of
pipe. Compute also the power available in the jet.
Use gas constant R = 29,3 m/'K 3
F CHAPTERFIVE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
Z5Z Fundamentars of Fruid Frow & HYDRAULICS CHAPTER FIVE
& HYDRAULICS Fundamentats of Fluid Flow 253
Solution Solution
lly continuity equation: PE=Wz
Qnnr" = Ql", W=y * Volume
An at, = Ai at
=9.81,x f,(s)r(19)
. t (0.075)2 (0 s) = f, (0.025)2 z',
Q= Au
' Q = + (0.025)'z (4.5) = 0.002209 rn3/ s
Determine the kinetic energy flux of 0.02 m3/s of oil (rp. gr. =
,r2 L \2
E=:
2s 2(e.81)
discharging through a Sommtia*",*
;";;i". 0.85)
Solution ,= IA  o'02
Power input = Qy HE
514,483 = 0. 61 (9,81 0)HE
HE = 85.97 rn Iecting air resistance, d"::rTiT to what height
'o a vertical jet of water could
if projected with a velocity of 20 m/ s?
Problem 5  7
A standpipe 5 m in diameter and 10 m high is filled with water. ialculate tht'
potential energy of the water if the.elevation datum is'taken 2 m below the
base of the standpipe.
25 4 Fl#.ti:i,'"",f or Fruid Frow
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUIE MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER FIVE
Fundarnentals of Fluid Flow 255
Solution Problem 5  lt
As the jet rises, its krnetic erlergy is transformed into potential energy A pip" oil of specific gravity
0.g77 changes in size from 150 mm
;arrying at
:: .lllffi section 1 and 450 mm at sectiori2.
Neglecting ait resistance: section 1 is 3.5 m berow section 2 and
the
KE_PE
d,
rl l
pressures are g0 kpa and 60_tpa,respectivery. If the dischargJl,lso
determine the head lost and the direction;ifir*. [t/sec,
1/2M7'1
L/
trr'"
=Wh
$l
$n
$OlUtion a
4s0 mm O
450
;t
,,1 =yy71 = 60 kPa
8 Qr= Q, = 0.15 m3ls
It='
,,2
l* 'l "t
=
0.15
::::;
(0.1s)z
=8.49m/s
)o
i f,
I
6
','l I 0.15
.20\2 a'z= =o'e43m/s
Ir= ' ' =20.4m
TQ'45f
2(e.81)
o
' Pr=gokPa
Taking O as datum:
Problem 5  10 E,=++Pl +zr= g.492 + 90
Water is flowing in an open channel at a depth of 2 mand a velocity of 3 n"r/s 29v 2(9.s1) (e.81x 0.8??) +0
It flows down a chute into another channel where the depth is 1 m and tht' Er = 14.L35 m
velocity is 10 m/s. Neglecting friction, determine the difference in.elevation ol
the channel floors o"2

E2= Do
: + J: + z
z8y
Solution
rf _ 0.9432
ilrl Tr,fe
60
2(9.81) (9.81x0.877) ' "'"
Ez='1.0.62m
to
lt
.irl,
Head Lost, HL = Et  Ez = 14.135 't0.62
Head Lost, HL 3.515 m
=
I
32 aLI
lo2
 11
2(e.81)
I L L_
2(e.81)
z = 3.64 rn
CHAPTERFIVE FLUID MECHANICS
^F '
Z5O Fundamentats of Ftuid Ftow
FTUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER FIVF
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 257
Problem 5  L2 El. 30 m
M= p2A2a2
()il flows from a tank through 150 nr
oz[(0.3)(0.3)] ( 2) = 0.7s75
of 150 mm diameter pipe and then Pz = 0.875 kglmt (mass density at section 2)
discharges into air as shown in tire N
I.igure. If the head loss frorn point 1 E
E
to point 2 is 600 mm, determine the o
El.20 5
pressure needed at point 1 to cause I
Iter flows at the rate of 7.5 m/ s
17 lit/ sec of oil to flow E
o
through Z5_mm diameter pipe (pipe 1) and
h
diameter
and 65lmm diamet", pipes at the rate
Solution /sl":jlTX*,U^O respectivery u, ,.o*^l'tth;;;';; nxt=.'"i'dl",op of 3
and 3'5 m/s, l*
of the
Q:0.017 m3/5 *,ff.:rv"",: *:.:ygl .l,s9rmm_aia1".",:.r,".,.. cqlculate dtt/dt and the
of air flow through
Energy equation between O and @
the vent. Assume thu flo_=;;;;,"..*rl"Slr"
Et  HL1r= 2,
r,r2 * Pt ('22
+ zt  HLt t: * P, ,
zgyZgy Z2
Cas is flowing tluough a square conduit whose sechon gradually changes frorrr
150 mm (section 1) to 300 rnm (section 2). At section 1, the velocity of flow is 7
Assuming the flow to be incompressibie:
m/s and the density of gas is 1kg/mi wlrile at section 2 the velocity of flow is 2
m/s. Calculate the mass flow rate and the density of the gas at section 2. Q'n = Qou,
t (0.075)2(7.5) = f (0.0s),(3) *f (0.065)r(3.5) +
Solution dlt/ dt = 0.0553 m/s
! (0.6), dh/ dt
f, (0.05)2 ut =
* (0.6)r(0.0553)
M=pQ
M = prA'ttr, a+ = 7.963 m/s (velocity of air flow)
= 1[(0.15X0.1s)](7)
M : 0.1575 kg/sec (mass flow rate)
FLUID MECHANICS
258 Fffi#H'Y"torFruid Frow & HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER FIVE
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 259
Problem 5  15 Sqlution
A liquid having sp. gr. of 2.0 is flowing in a 50 mm diameter pipe. The total Q, = Qz = 0.03 m3ls
head at a given point was found to be 17.5 Joule per Newton. The elevation ol u2 ge2
the pipe above the datum is 3 m and the pressure in the pipe is 65.6 kPa 29 n'gDn
compute the velocity of flow and the horsepower in the stream at that point.
ur2= g(0.03)2
Solution ,s F(rrtxrrf = o'0465 m
Totalenersv,E=
u' * L *, uz2 8(0.03)2
29v ,s = 7p rx""f = o'147 m
Joule/N x (1 Nm/Joule)
E ='17.5 Energy Equation between A and B:
E=17.5m EaHLz.l+HAHLLr=
a ,
Es
v5=L* 65'6 *3 lto2 D^ _.2
29 ;T*r^_HLet+HA us
29v*
e.81.(z) HLz"= Ps +ZB
)
! = n.so 0+0+10_2(0.0465)+ HA70(0.147)=0+O+OO
2g ^ HA = 51.563 m
o = 14,79 m/s (velocity of flow) Power output = ey HA = 0.03(9,S10)(51.563)
=15,175 watts x (1hp/7a6watts)
Power, P=QyE Power output = 2}.B4horsepower'
a.7e)l x (e810 x 2) x't7 '5 irated power of the pump)
= tf (0.05)'z(1
Pressure heads at 1 and 2:
= 9970.92watts x (Ihp/7a6 watts)
Power, P =73.37 hp , Energy Equation between A and 1:
Ea HL+t= Er
uo2 or' * p, +21
PA +zaHLA1
51 May 1994, May 2004 2g v 29v =
The pump shown draws water from reservoir A at elevation 10 m and lifts it
reservoir B at elevation 60 m. The loss of head from A to L is twb times 0+0+ L02(0.0465)=0.046S * Pt +0
velocity head in the 200 mm diameter pipe and the loss of head from 2 to ll v
o.
ten times the velocity head in the 150 mm diameter pipe. Determine the r : = 9.86 m of water
hcirsepower of the pump and the pressure heads at 'I and 2 in meters when
discharge is 0.03 m3/sec. Energy Equation between of 2 and, B:
EzHLze=Ee
0r2 _,2
*"HL2B= uB
Do
Pa
E. i 29v +zB
0.'1.4V + Pz +01,4(0.747)=0+0+60
v
Pz
= 61.;323 m of water
v
r
(b) sketch the energy grade line and hydraulic grade line, and (c) find the 0 * 0 + 2t.3  723.96 e, + 24.4 _ g"160.12e2 = 2450.8 e2 + 0 +
Pressure head at the suction side 72,384.89 Q2 = 2I.g 24.4
Er 80,(24.4 m)
Q = 0.0415 m3/s ) Discharge
B
3"jet (b) Energy and Hydraulic grade
(76.2 mm) lines:
E
E a7t 8(0.0415)2
El 70' (21.3 m)
N
o ,s = ,(rs1x01st. =0.266m
uz2 _ 8(0.0415)2
,s ;irflxolorf =131 m
\
8Q2
=
n21v.sr;1o.rsz;a
HL1= //]')$ Qz
HL,=n+=#
 El 30'(1S.2 m)
Ps Power, p=eyHE
= 4.504 m
v = 0.5(9810)(3.647) = 1Z88S.S wans x (irhp/746 watts)
Power, P = 23.98 horsepower
Or from the figure shown above, the pressure head at S is the vertical distanctr
from the pipe to the HGL.
lL =D.7oa:rs.z May
v 'f 20hn suction p*mp operating at 70% efhciency draws water from
a suction
' line whose diameter is 200 mmand discharges into
lt air through a line whose
= 4.gg4^ diameter is 150 mm. The verocity in the 150 ti* trnu
is 3.6 m/s. If the pressure
v at point A in the suction pipe is 34 kpa below the
aknosphere, *nu* a is 1.g m
below B on the 150 mm line, determine the maximum,erevation
above B to
which water can be raised assuming a head loss of
Problem 5  18 (CE November 1980)
3 * d;;;d;;;..
*Q
Water enters a motor through a 600mmdiameter pipe under a pressure of 14
kPa. It leaves through a 90Ommdiameter exhaust pipe with a pressure of 4 az=3.6m/s=o6
kPa. A vertical distance of 2.5 m separates the centers of the two pipes at thr' .2
uC
sections where the pressures are measured. If 500 liters of water pass the = 0.65 m
2g
motor each second, compute the power supplied to the motor'
Qr= no(0.15)'?(3.6)
Solution Qz= 0.0636m3/s
14 kPa Q: Qr: Qr= 0.0636 m3ls
0.0636
UA=01=
1p.42
oa = 0t = 2.025 rn/ s
u^2
f
zg
=0.21 m
Solution 25 mmo
$e pipe shown in the Figure z1 = uz = 'J,.2
m/s. Determine the total head
between l and 2.
150 mm @ fire
2,5 m
Qa=Qe=Q,u=Q
4.3 m
J.D.atvm
^, ,
ZOO
CHAPTER FIVE
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER FIVE
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 267
Solution Oil of sp. gr. 0.84 is
ut=o2=1.2m/s flowing in a pipe
Energy equation between L and2:
,Under the Et. 3.21 m
conditions shown in
ErHL=Ez
a the Figure. If the
,,2
*P, *..HL=u2 +!z
"2gv29 + Z2 total head loss from
v point 1 to point 2 is
)1 900 mm, find the
Sinceor =o., )ot =u2
)o ,pressure at point 2.
6 d
El. 1.2 m
P"t +21 6olution 225mma
HL:P? +zz
vv Qt= Qr= 0.056 m3ls
280 +
4.g  HL= ?oo + q.os
9.81 9.81. Energy equation between O and
HL = 3.375 m Et  HLtz= Ez
I
Pl or'
zg y +,lHLtz=
+. ' 29 * Pz *z^
v
Problem 5  22 (CE November 2O00)
A nozzle inclined at an angle of 60" with the horizontal issues a 50mur 8(0.0s6)2 44s q(o.os6)2.
diameter water jet at the rate of 10 m/s. Neglecting air resistance, what is tht' tr'g(0.1.5)a 9.81x o.gZ "'" _o.eo=n2 + p
g(0.225)a 9.81x 0.84
area of the jet at the highest point of the projectile?
D
Solution = 55.52 m of oil
,"_ *,
Solving for the velocity of the jet at the summit (highest point, A) p = 457.53kpa
av=0
?, = tlo cos 0
t, = 10 cos 60" = 5 m/s 5
50mm diameter siphon discharges
, o' (sp. gr. = 0.g2) from
a reservoir (elev.
*ao1/
,*l*:L"::;(:tA f Lin:
summit (point 2, elev.22m)
hdjl;; r,om ae,e,"*"i,
rp",,., rl .
is 1.5 m and fro; th;;;;;;"";:"ffi;i;:
7)= =5m/s is 2'4 m' Determine the flow rate in the plpe in lit/sec and the
absolute
, ri"u" to:ioio..
Since the flow is continuous:
lQo = Q^l
Aoao = Aa u
Aa = Q.QQJ)I'/ pz
Problem 5  23
CHAPTERFIVE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
, ^
ZOU Fundamentals of Fluid Flow CHAPTER FIVE
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 269
Solution Problem 5  25
El.22 m Determine the velocitv and
discharge through the tiO mm Et.30 m
diameter pipe shown (a) assuming
h;ad loss and (b) considering i
1o
Qz= Qz= Q head lost of 200 mm.
HLrz = 1.5 m El. 28 m
HL2. = 2.4 El. 27.5 m
Solution
(a) Assuming no head loss:
_Pr +r.=
)
az _Pz +r^
6dl
29v' z8y
o+o+ 207.52.4= tQl., +o+15 2
'
n'g(0.05)* 0+0+ 30= 02
+0+24.9
2g
Q = 0.00912 nr'/s _2
Q = 9.12 IiVsec =5.r.^
"2g
Energy equation between 1 and 2: oz=10 m/s
Et HLtz= Ez
Q= Azoz= i (0.15)r(10)
,r,2 :.1
,) t ,r^2
L +'' Dt +.'
+ +.r
2gv2gv HLt.
L Q=0.1n m3ls = 777es
L
a.2
= 4.9 m
"
d
vz= 9.805 m/ s
Q = Az a, = t(0.15)r(9.805)
Q = 0.173 yp/s = 173IJs
CHAPTER FIVE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
ZI U Fundamentals of Flurd Flow & HYDRAULICS CHAPTER FIVE
& HYDRAULICS
Fundarnentals of Fluid Flow 27t
Problem 5  26 Problem S  27
Water flows freely tronr the reservotr shown through a 50mnr diameter prpe Neglecting head loss, determine
at the rate of 6.31 tit/sec lf the head lost in the system is 11.58 Joule/N, the manometer reading in the
determine the elevation of the water surface in the reservoir if the discharge system shown when the velocity
errd is at elevation 4 nr of water flowing in the 75_mm 25mm@
cuameter pipe is 0.6 m/ s.
E
o
rr
.i
I
I
75mma I
*
I
750
at= 0.6m/s
[Qr= Q21 25mma
I P.075),(0.6) = f, (0.02s)2a2
uz= 5.4m/s
Solution
E
Energy equation between 0 and o
Q = 6.31 L/s = 0.00631 rnr/s r €: !f,
L1, F
 E2 75mme oi
HL = 1'.58 Nm/N = 11.58 nr
_2
a1
:Ttzt h 71n"
=  + Pz +22
Energy equation between O and @ zgl2g v 75mmA
I
ErHL=Ez
0.62 * pt  5.42
ut)) * Pt * :,.H1 "2 (r31) ? *o= +o+2.4

Jr*,'
2gv2g
= * l)t
4,zt frt 7S0 mm
8(0.00631)2
l! = S.SOS m of water I
()+0*zr  ll58 v
rg(0 05)"
zr = 16.11 m) Elevation of w s rn tlre tank Sumriringuppressure head from O
to g in meters of water:
P' *o,Tshft35\= la
yy
3.868+0.751,g6h=0
ft=0.3395m=339.5mm
CHAPTER FIVE' FLUID MECHANICS FIUID MECHANICS
Zf Z Fundamentals of Ftuid Ftow & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER FIVE
Fundamentals of Ftuid Ftow Z l3
Problem 5  28
A lrorizontal prpe gradually reduces from 300 rnrn diameter sectiorr to 100 mnr Energy equation between 1 & 3
clianreter section. The pressure at the 300 mnr section is 100 kPa and at the 100 (Neglectinghead loss & datum
mm section is 70 kPa lf the flow rate is 15 liters/sec of water, compute the along point 3)
head lost between the two sections
Er=Eg
Solution +zt='t+P3ar^
{.Pl
300 mm
29 T ' zg y'"
Q = 0.015 mr/s
o+o+rc=ry:+o+o
2g
u3=14m/s ,
or = 1oo kPa
Q= Q'= 225mm b
t pi.22s)2(14)
er = ez = 0.015 *i/s, Q = 0.557 m3ls
Problem 5  29
A divergrng tube discharges water from a reservoir at a depth of l0 nr belon
the water surface. The diameter of the lube gradually increases from 150 nrrrt
at the throat to 225 r'r'rrn at the outlet Neglecting friction, determine: (a) the
maximunr possible rate of discharge through this tube, and (b) the
corresponding pressure at the throat
, I +,
Z
CHAPTER FIVE
Fundamentats of Fluid Ftow
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER FIVE
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 27s
Problem 5  33
S upplementary Problems If the water level in Problem 5  32 varies
and. az = 1.0 m/s, find the rate of
change dh/ dt.
Problem 5  30
Air is moving through a square 0.50m by 0.50m duct at 180 m3/nrin. What is Ans: 9 mrn/s
the mean velocity of the air?
Arts: 12 m/s Problem S  34
yi$r"i:::l:jo; rl_o;yff::,,}; arrangement shown in Figure
Problem 5  31 :ylindricar 5
Figure 5  8
Figure 5  10
Problem 5  32
535
The water tank in Figure 5  9 rs being filled through section 1 at 6 m/s arul
a jet is inclined upward. 30o from
through section 3 at 15 L/s. If water level h is constant, determine the t,xil the horizontal, what must be its
tch over a 3m walt at a horizont"t velocity to
yelocity o2. diri;;;;; rs *, ii"l.",
Ans:7.97 ^ugi"J"g
15 L/s
r Ans:L6.93 m/s
t]
536
chng air resistance, determine the
height a vertical jet of water will rise if
ted with velocity of 21, m/ g?
Ans:22.5 m
Figure 5  9
l.O.S m at
CHAPTER FIVE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
ZI 6 Fundamentats of Ftuid Ftow & HYDRAULICS & HYbRAULICS CHAPTER SIX
Fluid Flow Measurement 277
Problem 5  37
High velocity water flows up an inclined plane, as shown in Figure 5  1.1
Wlrat are the two possible deptlr of flow at section 2? Neglect al losses.
Ans:0.775m&2.74nr
Chapter 6
llgid Ftow Measurement
There are numerous number of devices
used to measure the flow of fluids. In
any of these devices, the.,Bernoulti,, Errergy
Figure 5  11
Tlteoremis greatly utilized and
knowredge of the characterisrici'and
,111L:""1 coefficients of each device is
lmportant. In the absence of reriabre varues
and coefficients, a device shourd
be calibrated for the expected opuruti^g
9.806 m/s
"or,iirio*.
DEVICE COEFFICIENTS
of Discharge, C or Ca
coefficient of discharge is the ratio
of the actual discharge through
j: ail, ;;s;;;,.h wo uld occ ur witho u t lo the
J
Xmay be
n"^'_1"_1^ 11,tq"oiuuc
expressed as:
s s es
corCa= _e"ggd.:lgg9_ = a
Th"*"tt"rldtr.h"tg" = A, Eq'61
of Velocity, C"
coefficient of velocity is the ratio of the
actual mean velocity to the ideal
retical velocity which would occur or
withoui u.,y torrur.
( Actualvelocity
_ =_=__:_ a
fneor"ti*t"J*it11 = o, Eq.62
AA CHAPTERSIX FTUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
Z l6 Fluid Flow Measurement & HYDRAULICS 6. HYDRAULICS CHAPTER SIX
Fluid Flow Measurernent 279
Coefficient of Contraction, C. rable 6  l: Discharse c"fl::::: v:Tf4 Sharp_Edsed Circutar orifice
The coefficient of contraction is the ratio of the actual area of the contracted Discharging inro lqr
Air at rS.O.C titi.,rl
section of the stream or jet to the area of the opening through which the fluid
flows.
_ Areaof streamorjet _
'' . a
 A Eq. 6 3
Aluuof op""itrg
Q= C,A x C,,u1
Q = C, C,, Aut
but Aor = Qr
Q: C,C,QI ) Eq. (2)
From Equations (1) and (2)
ffi
Since ?u.su"1 = C0 z/theorerical = z,
u= Co
1 (Az / A,,)2
Chamber A Chamber B
a
.l
Energy equation between and 2 neglechng head lost A
Et=Et I
I
u"r2 * Pt +zt= u22 + rz +z? I
2gy29y
uA2 *Pa+ylt *o=!:*P, *0
29y28Y
H=h(lta/g)
uA2 * P^ *r, t'2 * PB
29y28y
'2 =lr* P^  PB *
uo2
29yyZg
rl"t[+ +)]
Theoretical velocity, ,, = ,pgn Eq.6 7
aA2
H=ir+ * Pa  Ps
2g vv
284 Filf,'J:t',tr asuremenr FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FTUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS CHAPTER SIX
Fluid Flow Measurement 285
Orifices under Low Heads
when the head on a verticar orifice
is sma' in comparison with
the height or
an appreciable dlrfe'enle u.tu"'" tr'" J,.t.'u.,",
ffi;t*:"tlXis using rhe
dQ, = (L dh)
Jrsh
dQ, = J2S L tr/z dh
Contraction of the Jet
The figure shown represents a crosssection of fluid ilow through a vertical
sharpedged orifice from a reservoir to the almosphere. The fluid flowing ir
Q, = J2s t 0,
!,,t
coming from all direction upstream fronr the orifice and as they leave tht,
orifice, they cannot make an abrupt change in their direction and they move irr I o ,1ht
curvilinear paths, thus causillg tlre jet to contract for a short distance beyond Q, = ,l2g t
the orifice. The pherromerron is referred to as the contrnction of tlrc 1et. Thr L;rt ]^.
section on the jet where the contraction ceases is called the oatn contraclt Q, = t JzS t thz3/2  h,t3/2 )
which is approximately located at one half of the orifice dianreter (D/2) front
Q=CQ,
the upstreanr face
METER
meter is an instrumer,
"::d,: measuring
Fi;;;;"_
the drscharge through pipes
l'j""?,::::lT:.s;u!"
ln pipe at rhe inlet at
ii,"r,i.r, is connected io the
1, Q:" ii a cylindrical
section ,. .jil":
cp whiih is colnected again to the main ;l:
{,an{3nding
oat' and a diverging section
the outlet D The ancre of divergence pipe
ir t"pt sma' to reduce the head rost
tne by turbulence as tte velocity is reduced
CHAPTERSIX FLUID MECHANIC5
^A,
26O FLUID MECHANICS
Fluid Ftow Measurement & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS CHAPTER SIX
Fluid Flow Measurement 287
T_
vl/2s
The theoretical or ideal discharge ,,er,, canbe found oric€ o; ,rm
f I
f I
:"::,2:,H:',:;z;^;',f;;;f
":,1:ilr,::F,,,y,ryj;;;:il
",
,"ff^:::J,ll, ,,ur,," uu
I
Note: If we neglect the heart lnqi in
9tlv
+\ theoretical ir ;;:;;;;;Z;i17i"iiill ^,,.
^^^_^..
tost, we set the actuat ualues
(actuat !:['illi'llr"l,ijji.l;li:::,fiJ: '.:::,f"IffiT"j;
""t;;;;.ffi;ilat discharqe).
NozztE
A nozzle is a converging tube
instated at trre end of a pipe
purpose of increasing the
velocity of tn" i.rrirrg;"t
or hose for the
t
Figure 6  3: Venturi meter
Consider two points in the system, 0 at the base of the in_tet and O at the
throat, and writing the energy equation between these two points neglecting clischarge through a nozzlecan
head lost: be calculated using the
equation
ur2 * P't *
2., =
,'r' * 0o
!_2 + 7,
'2g ,y 2g Y
u22 (1"*,.\
,s .t*",l \ v )
zs_r1',=(pr_.\ where:
H= total head at base of nozzle
A, = area at the nozzle tip
Ihe left side of the equation is the krnetic energy which shows an increase in value
whjle the left side of the equation is tlre potential energy which shows a decrease ln
value. Therefore, neglectilrg head lost, the increase in kinefic mergy is equal to tl* followi'g table gives the mean
values of coefficients for
dea'ease in potentinl alerry. This statement is known as the Ventui Princtple. ,tgh a nozzle having a base water crischargr'g
diameter.i 40; and C. = 1.6.
The difference in pressure between the illet and the throat is commonly measu
by means of a differential manometer connecting the inlet and throat.
lf the elevations and the difference in pressure betweeu O and O are known, I
h2
l
I
hr
J_
Figure 6  5
v:=0
Figure 6  4
Et=Ez
ut2
*L*r(= u
"2' Pz *?1
2gv' 2g Y
u1 =o; Pl n1
t. ,
Pz
=hz
 Y
u2 *1r",=lr,
2g
u'1=2s(7) Figure 6  6: pitot tube rn a ptpe
o = ,fzgn Eq.616
29o F,TfJ,:l'#"asurement
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUTICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUL'CS
CHAPTER SIX
Fluid Flow Measurement 29t
GATES
A gate is an opening lr1 a dam or other hydraulic structure to control the Actual o = C,, rl 2S(d, _ d2) + a.,2 Eq.618
passage of water. has the same hydraulic properties as the orifice. In using
It
gates, calibration test are advisable if accurate tneasurements are to be Actual Q = CA rl zS@., _ d,r)+ u.,2 Eq.6  19
obtained since its coefficient of discharge varies widely
Coefficient of contractio n, C, = lZ Eq.620
The following illustrations show the two different flow conditions through the
sluice gate
where:
C = C, C,, (varies from 0.61 to 0.91)
A=bv
ll = width of the flunre
TUBES
Figure68(a) Figure68(b)
 d2\+ a12
Figure 6  8: Standard Short tubes
A^ Z CHAPTERSIX FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
Ztf Fluid Flow Measuremenr & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAUL'CS
F,uidF,ow,fH:15*:# z9J
Converging Tubes Reentrant Tubes
Clorricral converging tubes has the form of a These are tube having
their ends projecting
l:rustunr of a right circular cone with the inside a reservoir or
tank.
larger end adjacent to the tarrk or reservoir
as slrown in Figure 6  9
Q = C A,FgH
Eq.6 
Eq.6 22
21
** :: j,n" fi
T,T :;:fi:H', :1,:" il::i # n?.1,H,*?
Tubes
Table 6  2: Coefflcients for Conical Converging Tubes ofsubmerged tube is
:1,u*pl: The discharge through
a conyeying water through
Coefficient
Angle of Convergence, o ]ill""o ^.:l::1,
a submerged tube is
given by tl:;
0o 5o 100 15" 200 25" 300 400 500
cu 0.829 0.911 0.947 0.965 0.971 0.973 0976 0.981 0.984
a 1.000 0.999 0.992 0.972 0.952 0.935 0.918 O.BBB 0.859
c 0.829 0.910 0.939 0.938 0.924 0.911 0.896 0.871 0.845
cre C is the coefficienf
of discharge, A is the
difference in elevarion area of the opening,
of the tiquilJ;;A;: and H is
Diverging Tubes
A diverging tube has the form of a frustum of a right circular cone with thl
smaller end adjacent to the reservoir or tank.
i1
.F0 =T mr) e
';;*/
;
'
Figure 6  lO: Submerged
Tube (Culvert)
29 4 FiltrJ,:l',ilasurement
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FTUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUL'CS CHAPTER
!
FtuidFtowt"rrrr.J# 295
UNSTEADY FLOW
Asdh
'l'he flow through orifice, weirs, or tubes is said to be steady orrly if
the total dt=
head producing flow, H, is constant. The amount of fluid being discharged for
04"; 
a time I can therefore be computed using the formula
VoI=Qf Eq.624
Figure 6  11
e outflow is through and orifices
or tube, eout = CA
ugh any other openings, use the On. If the flow is
corresponding formula for discharge.
tanks with constant cross_
ional area and the outflow is
Consider the tank shown in the figure to be supplied with a fluid (inflow) and rugh an orifice or tube (with
simultaneously discharging through an outlet (either an orifice, tube, weir or inflow), the time for the head
pipe). Obviously, if Qin > Qout, the head will rise and if Qout > Qin, the head will change from Hr to H2 is:
fall. Suppose we are required to compute the time to lower the level from /rr to
ftz (assuming Qou, > Qin), the amount of fluid which is lost in the tank will be
r= lH' e,au
dV = (Qt^  Q""r) r// Ju, CA",l2fi
dV
at=
Qin Q.u,
where dV is the differenhal volume Iost over a differential timedt. If the hcnd
'=#
n'
Ii:"",
Al,tH
over the outlet is /2, then the level will drop dh, thus dV : A" dh, where A" is thr t= lru* l"'
surface area in the reservoir at any instant and may be cbnstant or varialrl€, cA"J2g L" _ln,
then
 ,
ZtlO
CHAPTER SIX
Fluid Flow Measurement
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAUTICS CHAPTER SIX
Fluid Flow Measurement 297
WEIR
,= 34=(,f+
L/.o.,l Zg
W) sq.627 weirs are overflow shucfures which
are buirt across an open
Purpose of measurinS or coltr$ing th" flo*. channer for the
commonly used to measure the of liquids. Weirs have been
florar"of wate
tf liquid flows through a submerged orifice or tube connecting two tanks as
measure ihe now of other riquids.
discussed on this chapter u.u
gur,"rut, i.".
il;#lJ'jfffiLi",rr;:iffii;i
shown, the time for the head to change from Hr to Hz is: (See the derivation of
these formulas in PROBLEM 6  36)
"pffi."frf" to any type of liquid.
Classification of Weirs
ti;z:i::z::i*i";.il"?;fi?L?:#:'K:,T^:::1ryn,*apezoidat,circurar,
the
ihe rectangutur, commonly used shapes are
J "i1: J, ;XT ;ilt".L:;
rec tan gu ar, diurr*otur
I
,^^,,To,tt
an;d rho
tr i an gu la r rr,
o ra J',
th
of the crest, weirs mai be " "p ", " ";
r,'
slnrp_crested or broaa_tesled
of Terms
Nappe  the overflowing stream in
Tank 1 Tank 1 a weir.
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