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J.M.E. Santiago / Chemistry 31.

1 (2019) Page | 1

Paper Chromatography
Jian Minelle E. Santiagoa, Carla Mendiolab
aCollege of Education, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
bCollege of Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
Submitted September 11 2019

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

1. Why is the chromatogram developed in an essentially closed system?


 It is done in a closed system so that the atmosphere inside is saturated with solvent vapor.
It stops the solvent from evaporating.

2. What are the considerations in choosing a chromatographic solvent?


 The solvent should have constant composition. Solvents should be pure/ dust-free. It
should not chemically react with the solute.

3. Compare and contrast between normal phase and reverse phase chromatography.
 In comparison, the normal phase and reverse phase chromatography both have two phases
which are the mobile phase and the stationary phase. In contrast, in normal phase
chromatography, the stationary phase is more polar than the mobile phase while in reverse
phased chromatography, the mobile phase is more polar than the stationary phase.

4. Explain how iodine crystals help to visualize the other pigments.


 The iodine reacts with the compounds and forms yellowish brown spots. This is because
Iodine forms colored complexes with organic compounds

5. Suggest one method that can be used to visualize highly conjugated compounds but are not
colored.
 Ultraviolet Absorption could be used. Ultraviolet absorption is a method where a UV lamp is
shined on the plate. The compounds that absorb UV light will appear dark

6. Given a mixture that contains the following compounds: 2-chloropentane, pentanoic acid,
cyclopentane and pentanal. Arrange the following compounds in increasing Rf if the mixture is ran
using paper chromatography with the same solvent system used in the experiment
 The ranking with increasing polarity of the functional groups are cycloalkane
(cyclopentane), halide(2-chloropentane), Aldehyde(Pentanal), Organic Acid(Pentanoic
acid). The solvent is non-polar which means the functional group which is most non-polar
will have a higher Rf Value. So it should be arranged in this order: Pentanoic acid, Pentanal,
2-chloropentane, cyclopentane.
J.M.E. Santiago / Chemistry 31.1 (2019) Page | 2

REFERENCES
[1] A. Braithwaite, F.J. Smith, Chromatographic Methods Fifth Edition; Kluwer Academic Publishers
: P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1999 author. Book; publisher: where, year
[2] Chemistry LibreTexts. https://chem.libretexts.org/ (Accessed September 10, 2019)
[3] Scribd. https://www.scribd.com/document/108791611/funcitonal-Group-Ranking-by-Boiling-
Points (Accessed September 10, 2019)