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“ECOTECTURE: Redevelopment of a Recreational Tourist Resort in

San Nicolas, Pangasinan”

Members:

Vinluan, Anton Louise R.

Pulmano, Lex Louise S.

Ramos, Stephanie D.

Ruiz, Xyla Colleen E.

Tipay, Catherine Nicole T.

Submitted to:

AR. Nestor J. Lazaga


I.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

WHAT IS A RESORT?

A Resort is a place to spent holiday for relaxation and recreation so that, one can enjoy

their leisure time. Merriam – Webster dictionary defined it as a place designed to provide

recreation, entertainment, and accommodation especially to vacationers: a community or

establishment whose purpose or main industry is catering to vacationers.

A recent study by the Boston Consulting Group identifiied that 55% of all luxury spending

worldwide is now “experiential”-a strong movement away from status symbol consumption to

spending on entertainment, travel and unique adventures. There is an underlying assumption that

this trend is driven by non-material, adventure-focused, millennials, but that might not full be the

case (Muirden M.).

A resort is a full-service lodging facility that provides access to or offers a range of

amenities and recreation facilities to emphasize a leisure experience. Resorts serve as the primary

provider of the guests' experience, often provide services for business or meetings, and are

characteristically located in vacation-oriented settings (Brey E.). Resorts should focus on activities

and amenities that provide a leisure experience in a vacation setting, they will feel free from their

duties or works, rest, enjoy hobbies or play their sports and, with guests encouraged to spend most

of their time on property. Furthermore, resorts must meet the following minimum qualifications

that set them apart from other lodging or recreation facilities:

• provide one signature amenity or anchor attribute;

• provide five secondary recreation, leisure, or entertainment experiences;

• provide one full-service food and beverage outlet;


• include short-term or overnight lodging in the bed-base;

• comprise a minimum of twenty-five rooms or other accommodations (exception to

minimum are properties with two signature amenities or anchor attributes and ten

recreation, leisure, or entertainment experiences); and

• emphasize a leisure or retreat-environment experience.

Despite many attempts to define resorts, inconsistencies abound, and resort is applied to a

multitude of non-resort (or resort-like) properties and businesses. Lodging operators capitalize on

the term as a competitive advantage in attracting consumers who anticipate that a property with

“resort” in the title will offer a range of facilities (King and McVey 1996).

A resort is essentially a place developed for the sojourn of tourists, providing multiple

facilities for their accommodation, recreation, entertainment, rest and other needs. Through the

concentration of facilities the resort acquires an identity and character: it becomes a specific place

to go to and to enjoy in its own right, in addition to serving as a gateway to other resources in the

area. Tourist resorts enable the best use to be made of infrastructure and land and operational

services. (Baud-Bovy, 1998)

According to Brey (2011), a resort is a full-service lodging facility that provides access to

or offers a range of amenities and recreation facilities to emphasize a leisure experience. Resorts

work for as a primary provider of the guests’ experience, often provide services for business or

meetings, and are characteristically located in vacation-oriented settings. Brey cites that the

minimum qualifications of a resort, related to recreation amenities, include: (1) Provide one

signature amenity or anchor attribute, (2) provide five secondary recreation/leisure/entertainment

experiences and (3) emphasize a leisure or retreat-environment experience.


One of the primary objectives of resort planning and design is to create a sense of place

and the effort begins with the setting. Planning and design are essential on shaping the setting,

visitors’ or residents’ perception of it, and, ultimately, the sense of place conveyed by the resort in

the context of its natural surroundings. (Schwanke et al, 1997) Sustainability has become a widely

applied concept – so much, that the meaning lost precision and definition; today, it probably acts

more like a symbol of a necessary civilizational change, i.e. a different perception of human

activities and values, in relation with an environment conscious attitude and accounting.

Resort attributes such as scenery, climate, activities, accommodation, accessibility, cultural

experience, security, serenity of environment, food and entertainment, service, reputation, price,

friendliness of staff, safety and security, nightlife and entertainment are of the most important

factors influencing its attractiveness and the tourist’s decision to visit it or not (Van Vuuren &

Slabbert, 2011). According to Pike (2002), such attractiveness is a mental image that is formed on

the basis of the presence and/or availability of specific attributes at the resort or not. These

attributes of attractiveness represent the comparative advantage of the resort, which can be turned

into a competitive advantage – resulting in high levels of competitiveness and a favourable market

position for the resort (Vengesayi, 2003; Cakici & Harman, 2007; Das, Mohapatra, Sharma &

Sarkar, 2007; Kresic, 2007; Cheng-Fei et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2011).

Several major elements in tourism enterprises which are closely linked to the growth of

tourism as a form of recreation are the theme parks, water parks, fun centres and sports’ tourism.

Recreational activities include all kinds of sports, both team and individual, such as baseball,

football, basketball, tennis, badminton, swimming and skiing. Hiking, jogging, aerobics and rock

climbing are active forms of recreation. Passive recreational activities include reading, fishing,

listening to music, playing computer games, and watching television or movies. The most common
form of recreation is participation in sports and games. Recreational activities area rewarding form

of human experience and constitute an important aspect of economic development and government

responsibility (Tumanque, Escoto, Dizon & Cabagan, 2014).

Further, tourism could be a source of revenue (foreign exchange earnings, tax revenue) to

the government and because of its multiplier effect, could provide opportunities for local economic

development (LED). The direct, upstream, and downstream industries involved in tourism

activities have the potential for creating sectoral linkages and economic opportunities in the

localities. (Aser B. Javier, Ph.D. and Dulce B.Elazigue)

Resorts in the Philippines

The Philippines offers diverse tourism activities and destinations for tourists with various

inclinations. As the destinations and activities become more multi-faceted, the Philippine tourism

industry is seen to increasingly play a significant role in the country’s economic development

In the Philippines, according to the Department of Tourism, the increase in tourist arrivals

during the months of January to April of 2012 which also contributed to the economic growth of

the country was also due to the contribution of the resort industry that offers good facilities,

products and services both to foreign and local market (Raquel, 2012).

The resort industry aims to provide business, leisure and recreation to the guests. Customer

satisfaction and customer loyalty can contribute to financial performance of an industry (Gruca &

Rego, 2005). A satisfied and loyal guest can contribute to the increase in market share of tourist

arrivals in the Philippines and sustainability of the industry. Moreover, an increase in market share

can have a domino effect in the Philippine economy, social and environment.
San Nicolas, Pangasinan

Geographic location

The Municipality of San Nicolas is located in the eastern part of the Province of

Pangasinan. It is bounded on the north by the municipality of Itogon, Benguet; on the east by the

Municipality of Santa Fe, Nueva Vizcaya; on the south by the Municipalities of Tayug and

Natividad, Pangasinan; and on the west by the Agno River which serves as a natural boundary

with the Municipality of San Manuel, Pangasinan.

Visitors from the north could access the municipality from the Manila North Road

through the municipality of Binalonan while tourists from Manila and other southern places

could reach the municipality through Carmen East of the municipality of Rosales. San Nicolas is

located 86.04 kilometers due south of the City of Baguio and 201 kilometers north of Manila.

Land Area

As per the record of Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), the total

land area of San Nicolas is 23,778.85 hectares of which 14,706.82 hectares constitute public

forests. The municipality is divided into thirty-three (33) barangays with Casaratan (37.943

hectares), Nagkaysa (43.713 hectares), Poblacion East (94.847 hectares) and Poblacion West

(21.191 hectares) comprising its urban core. Fianza, at the northeastern flank of the municipality,

is the municipality’s largest barangay, with its (6,258.16 hectares) constituting more than one-

fourth of the entire municipality while Poblacion West is the smallest barangay with merely

(21.191 hectares). Malico and San Felipe East are also fairly large barangays with areas of 4,016.94

hectares and 3,350.54 hectares respectively (Refer to Table 15; see also Maps No. 3 and 4, General

and Urban Base Maps).


3. Topography

Compared to other municipalities of the province of Pangasinan which are either generally

flat or hilly, the town of San Nicolas has a rolling and mountainous terrain although there are also

parts where the land is relatively flat. The lowlands of San Nicolas comprising about 33% of the

total municipal land area are relatively flat with 0 to 3% slope. On the northeastern portion adjacent

to the Caraballo Mountains and the Benguet Province, slopes range from 18 to 30%. Terrain in the

mountainous areas of Barangays Fianza and Malico is characterized by more than a 30% slope on
the northern and northeastern parts of San Nicolas, in the barangays of Fianza and Malico, the

Caraballo rises to heights of some 1,600 meters. These areas are characterized by steep and rugged

terrain that is still thickly forested. So too are the mountainous and rugged areas in Salpad and San

Felipe East.

II.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The continuous growth of tourism industry, both international and local, the challenges in

the field of tourism cannot be avoided. Boosting one’s tourism has a big impact in the society’s

economy. While observing the area, it somehow lacks in serving its purpose as a recreational

resort. The resort has a massive land area, swarming with trees, weeds, and some farm animals.

The resort is located far away from the main road, that’s why it seems like it doesn’t exist at all.

The focus of this study is to help the owners, attract more tourists and let people know the existence

of the resort. And also imply an increase in the tourist market of San Nicolas, Pangasinan.

III.HYPOTHESIS

Through the application of Eco - Architecture, this study can not only change the mindset of the

public regarding Recreational Tourist Resorts, but also let the people enjoy and experience various

recreational activities present at the facility. With passive cooling technology, and ecological

power generating techniques, the carbon footprint of this project would be lessened benefiting both

the environment and the people around it.


It is also Ideal for the researchers to be able to answer the research questions that could further

make this study a viable solution regarding the tourism rate in San Nicolas, Pangasinan.

1. What types of ecological power generating techniques or machineries would be

incorporated in the project?

2. What economical materials would be used?

3. What could the project offer that other resorts in the vicinity don’t?

4. What is the effect of the application of Eco-Architecture to the Recreational Tourist Resort?

IV. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Schwanke et al. (1997) stressed that one of the primary objectives of resort planning and

design is to create a sense of place and the effort begins with the setting. Planning and design are

essential on shaping the setting, visitors’ or residents’ perception of it, and, ultimately, the sense

of place conveyed by the resort in the context of its natural surroundings.

Ecotecture or Eco-Architecture is similar to what the concept of sustainability offers but

focuses more on techniques that help preserve the environment through aiming to lessen power

consumption.

Sustainability has become a widely applied concept – so much, that the meaning lost

precision and definition; today, it probably acts more like a symbol of a necessary civilizational

change, i.e. a different perception of human activities and values, in relation with an environment

conscious attitude and accounting.

According to (Bromberek, Z. 2009) ‘Sustainability’ is a term that represents a social and

cultural shift in the world order. It has become a symbol describing this inevitable, ongoing
transformation. As such, the term has little to do with the literal description or dictionary definition

of the word but is the name for a new attitude and new way of looking at the world. ‘Sustainability’

is also a concept increasingly used as a measure of worth -when it comes to evaluating the

contemporary built environment. It appears that a lot of effort has been put into integrating various

assessment techniques related to environment-friendly, energy-efficient buildings and

developments as well as other activities involving management of natural resources under a banner

of ‘sustainability’.

Development methods and approaches have been changing worldwide to adopt the

concept of sustainability into the planning and design of the built environment. To build, by

definition, means to make a lasting impact on the environment. The challenge is to find a balance

between the aesthetic and environmental needs of a project, as well as between tangible and

intangible threats and opportunities, to secure increasingly scarce resources for future generations.

Architecture these days more often than ever is judged as ‘good architecture’ as long as it provides

a high-quality environment that is cost-optimal and consistent with energy-efficiency at all stages

of construction and use.

A specific definition has been provided by Lombardi and Basden (1997), saying that:

"Sustainability in the built environment is a result of the subjects related to the built environment

acting in line with the laws of all aspects in an integrated and balanced manner over the long term,

and threats to sustainability come from going against or ignoring the laws of one or more aspects".

The concept of environment was also evolving, at the same time - from an almost identity with

nature and the physical quality of its components affecting mankind, to the perception and

evaluation of the surrounding universe, through social, economical, philosophical and cultural

criteria, focused on the more subjective goals of “quality of life” and “sustainable development”.
Sustainable decision-making is a complex process, not only because of the variety of

criteria (economic, environmental and social) to be considered, but also because of the multiple

stakeholders involved. Indeed, due to the special characteristics of tourism, public authorities have

gradually come to play a more determining role than in other sectors. In fact, the collaboration

between public and private stakeholders has been one of the main approaches to policy-making

for sustainable tourism. Moreover, the strategies and objectives of sustainable tourism require the

implication and participation of the stakeholders in the process (Patterson I.). The challenges for

making a Sustainable tourism are; having a limited resources, high environmental vulnerability

and the social and territorial impact of the tourism industry.

The “eco-resort” means an environment friendly development of the area and has assumed

the figure of a concept of resorts whose localizations and destinations offer a set of products,

services and animation related to the environmental questions. Through the concentration of

facilities, the resort acquires an identity and character: it becomes a specific place to go to and to

enjoy in its own right, in addition to serving as a gateway to other resources in the area. Tourist

resorts enable the best use to be made of infrastructure and land and operational services. (Alho,

C., Pina, J.C.)

Ecotourism as defined is a form of nature-based tourism in the marketplace but it has also

been formulated and studied as a sustainable development tool by the NGOs. The term ecotourism,

therefore, refers on one hand to a concept under a set of principles, and on the other hand to a

specific market segment (Wood, 2002).

The Philippines offers diverse tourism activities and destinations for tourists with various

inclinations. As the destinations and activities become more multi-faceted, the Philippine tourism
industry is seen to increasingly play a significant role in the country’s economic development.

(Jalani, J., 2012)

According to Jalani J., Ecotourism is one strategy for supporting conservation and

providing income for communities in and around protected areas. It can contribute to economic

development and conservation of protected areas by: a) generating revenues that can be used to

sustainably manage protected areas, b) providing local employment and c) inculcating a sense of

community ownership. However, without a careful planning and management that will balance

ecological, social, and economic objectives, it may lead to environmental damage.

Hui S. (2002) further explained that The word development in this definition implicates

two important aspects of the concept: It is omnidisciplinary, it cannot be limited to a number of

disciplines or areas, but it is applicable to the whole world and everyone and everything on it, now

and in the future. Secondly, there is no set aim, but the continuation of development is the aim of

the development. The definition is based on two concepts:

• the concept of needs, comprising of the conditions for maintaining an acceptable

life standard for all people, and

• the concept of limits of the capacity of the environment to fulfill the needs of the

present and the future, determined by the state of technology and social

organization.

He further suggested that the needs consist mainly of the basic needs such as food, clothing,

housing and employment, and that every individual that inhabits the world should have the

opportunity to try and raise his or her life standard above this absolute mnimum.
Also mentioned in the book Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD), are the

various Viewpoints on many other definitions of sustainable development. The following

illustrates the variety of foci evident in discussions of sustainable development.

• ". . . requires meeting the basic needs of all people and extending opportunities for

economic and social advancement. Finally, the term also implies the capacity of

development projects to endure organizationally and financially. A development initiative

is considered sustainable if, in addition to protecting the environment and creating

opportunity, it is able to carry out activities and generate its own financial resources after

donor contributions have run out." Bread for the World, Background Paper No. 129,

Washington, DC, March 1993.

• "[improves] . . . the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of

supporting ecosystems." International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural

Resources (IUCN), World Conservation Union, United Nation Environment Programme

(UNEP), and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Caring for the Earth, pp. 10,

IUCN/UNEP/WWF, Gland, Switzerland, 1991.

• "[uses] . . . natural renewable resources in a manner that does not eliminate or degrade them

or otherwise dimish their renewable usefulness for future generations while maintaining

effectively constant or non-declining stocks of natural resources such as soil, groundwater,

and biomass." World Resources Institute, Dimensions of sustainable development, World

Resources 1992-93: A Guide to the Global Environment, pp. 2, Oxford University Press,

New York, 1992.


• "[maximizes] . . . the net benefits of economic development, subject to maintaining the

services and quality of natural resources." R. Goodland and G. Ledec, Neoclassical

economics and principles of sustainable development, Ecological Modeling 38 (1987): 36.

• "[is based on the premise that] . . . current decisions should not impair the prospects for

maintaining or improving future living standards . . . This implies that our economic

systems should be managed so that we live off the dividend of our resources, maintaining

and improving the asset base." R. Repetto, World Enough and Time, pp. 15-16, Yale

University Press, New Haven, CT, 1986.

• " . . . is taken to mean a positive rate of change in the quality of life of people, based on a

systemthat permits this positive rate of change to be maintained indefinitely." L. M.

Eisgruber, Sustainable development, ethics, and the Endangered Species Act, Choices,

Third Quarter 1993, pp. 4-8.

• " . . . is development without growth --- a physically steady-state economy that may

continue to develop greater capacity to satisfy human wants by increasing the efficiency

of resource use, but not by increasing resource throughput." H. E. Daly, Steady state

economics: concepts, questions, and politics, Ecological Economics 6 (1992): 333-338.

• " . . . is the search and the carrying out of rational strategies that allow society to manage,

in equilibrium and perpetuity, its interaction with the natural system (biotic/abiotic) such

that society, as a whole, benefits and the natural system keeps a level that permits its

recuperation." E. Gutierrez-Espeleta, Indicadores de sostenibilidad: instrumentos para la

evaluacion de las politicas nacionales", unpublished paper presented at 50th Anniversity

Conference of the Economic Sciences Faculty sponsored by the University of Costa Rica,

San Jose, Costa Rica, Nov. 19, 1993.


Three dimensions of Sustainability

Economic dimensions of Environmental Social dimensions of


sustainability: dimensions of sustainability
• Creation of new sustainability • Worker health and
markets and • Reduced waste, safety
opportunities for sales effluent generation, • Impacts on local
growth emissions to communities, quality
• Cost reduction environment of life
through efficiency • Reduced impact on • Benefits to
improvements and human health disadvantaged groups
reduced energy and • Use of renewable raw e.g. disabled
raw material inputs materials
• Creation of additional • Elimination of toxic
added value substances
V.CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

• CLIMATE
• GEOGRAPHY AND
GEOLOGY
• TOPOGRAPHY
• SITE/LOCATION
INDEPENDENT • CLUP of San Nicolas, A PROPOSED
VARIABLES Pangasinan RECREATIONAL
• FLUP of San Nicolas, TOURIST
Pangasinan RESORT
INTEGRATING
• NO. OF USERS
ECO-
MODERATING ARCHITECTURE
FACTORS

DEPENDENT
VARIABLES

Fig . A diagram of the proposed framework.

VI.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study will greatly contribute to the benefit of the municipality of San

Nicolas, Pangasinan as it can aid in the increase of the tourism rate of the said municipality. The

use of Eco – Architecture as an approach to the project, greatly diminishes the fear of most

recreational facilities, which is the excessive power consumption caused by the facilities. Through
economical power generating techniques and machineries, the resort itself could itself could run

certain facilities in the site.

If this study would take effect, it would be an aid in the increase of the tourism rate of San

Nicolas, Pangasinan and could serve as a reference for future studies for those who wish to add

possible solutions regarding recreational tourist resorts as an aid to increase tourism rates.

VII.REFERENCES

Enriquez-Magkasi, E. M. & Caballero, R. T. (2014). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in

Philippine resorts. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1 (9),

588-610.

Bhattarai, B. (2011). Thesis Proposal on Designing Recreational Tourist Resort. Retrieved from

https://www.scribd.com/doc/77665369/Thesis-proposal-on-resort-design

Rigatti, V. (May 2016). How can an eco lodge become a sustainable and successful

business model. Retrieved from

https://www.modul.ac.at/uploads/files/Theses/Master/Grad_2016/Thesis_1413005_RIGA

TTI__Vittorio.pdf

Alho, C., Pina, J. C. Sustainable Eco-Resorts retrieved from

https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB_DC24679.pdf

Baud-Bovy, Manuel & Lawson, Fred (1977/1998). Tourism and Recreation Handbook of

Planning and Design. (2nd ed). Oxford: Architectural Press


Renee, H. (2017). African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure. Retrieved from

http://www.ajhtl.com/

Schwanke, D., Middleton, D.S., Hyatt, W.S. & Stubblefield, J.A.P, McElyea, J.R. & Chichering,

R. et al. (1997). Resort Development Handbook. Washington, D.C.:ULI- the Urban Land

Institute

Mary, W. (2013). Resort Recreation Amenity Report. Journal of Tourism Insights: Vol. 4: Iss. 1,

Article 1. Retrieved from : http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/

Majeed, S., Lu, C., Majeed, M., and Shahid, MN., (2018). Health Resorts and Multi-Textured

Perceptions of International Health Tourists. Retrieved from:

www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability

Corral, S., Hernández, J., Ibáñez, M., Ceballos, C. (2016). Transforming Mature Tourism Resorts

into Sustainable Tourism Destinations through Participatory Integrated Approaches: The

Case of Puerto de la Cruz. Retrieved from: www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability

Bromberek, Z. (2009). Eco-resorts Planning and Designing for the Tropics First ed. British

Library: Elsevier Ltd.

Hui, S. C M. (August 2002). Sustainable Architecture and Building Design. Retrieved from

http://www.arch.hku.hk/research/BEER/sustain.htm

Municipal Sub-Committee of the BC Resort Task Force. (September 2005). BEST

PRACTICES GUIDE: For Resort Development in British Columbia. Vol. II. Best

Practices Project.
VIII.ACTIVITY PLAN

Action Steps Responsibilities Timeline Resources Output


(What will be done) (Who will do it) (Target date) (Resources (possible
needed) outcome)
Step 1
Data and Information Each group April – First Related/Similar Soft copy of the
Gathering member week of May studies to the summarized
proposed relation of the
research resource to the
proposal
Step 2
Presentation on and All Members of 1st and 2nd week Output from the Required
Submission of Research the group of May previously printed Output
Proposal summarized for Research
relation of the Proposal
gathered data
Step 3
Floating of Survey Any members June – July Information from Formal
Questionnaires to the from the Group (Entire short the target Accomplished
Target Respondents, available term) respondents, Interviews and
Interviews and Formal their preferences Observations
Data Gathering and
recommendations Soft copy and
printed copy of
the manuscript.
Step 4
Formulation and All Members of August – Guide for solution Architectural
Proposal of Design the group December to the problem Outputs of
Solution (Entire 1st (the printed Design
semester) Manuscript) Proposals

Step 5
Prototyping/Simulation All Members of August – Guidance of A working
the group December professionals with model ready for
(Entire 1st knowledge of the presentation
semester) subject
(mentors,
advisers, etc.)