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2014 Fourth International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies

4-2 Compressor Design with New XOR-XNOR Module

Sanjeev Kumar Manoj Kumar


Department of Electronics and Communication University School of Information and Communication
Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Technology. Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha
Science and Technology, Hissar (Haryana) University, New Delhi
sanjeev.kumar191@gmail.com manojtaleja@yahoo.com

Abstract—In this paper, a low-power high speed 4-2 multipliers, compressors, parity checkers, etc. Optimizied
compressor circuit is proposed for fast digital arithmetic design of these XOR-XNOR gates can improve the
integrated circuits. The 4-2 compressor has been widely performance of multiplier circuit [3]-[7]. In present work, a
employed for multiplier realizations. Based on a new exclusive new XOR-XNOR module has been proposed and 4-2
OR (XOR) and exclusive NOR (XNOR) module, a 4-2 compressor has been implemented using this module. Use
compressor circuit has been designed. Proposed circuit shows proposed circuit in partial product accumulation reduces
power consumption variation in the range of 718.72 pW to transistor count as well as power consumption. This paper is
3357.40 pW. Maximum output delay of the circuit presents organised as follows: In section II building blocks of
variation in the range of 43.83 ps to 27.74 ps. Further, power-
compressor circuit are described and a new XOR-XNOR
delay product (PDP) of circuit is varying from 315.01×10-22(J)
to 931.34×10-22(J) with change in supply voltage from 1.8V to
circuit has been proposed. In section III a 4-2 compressor
3.3V. Power consumption, delay and PDP of proposed 4-2 has been designed with new XOR-XNOR module. Sections
compressor circuit have been compared with earlier reported IV discuss the results. Finally section V concludes the work.
circuits and proposed circuit is proven to have the minimum
power consumption and the lowest delay. Simulations have
II. COMPRESSOR CIRCUIT BUILDING BLOCKS
been performed by using SPICE based on TSMC 0.18m There are different architectures and designs of 4-2
CMOS technology. compressor circuits reported in literature. These are mainly
composed of two types of circuits: XOR-XNOR circuits and
Keywords- 4-2 compressor, CMOS, full adder, power delay multiplexers (MUX). Complementary CMOS uses the dual
product (PDP).
networks to implement a given function. One part consists
I. INTRODUCTION of complementary pull-up PMOS network while other part
consists of pull-down NMOS networks. This technique
Multipliers are one of the most significant blocks in
requires more numbers of transistors and large layout area.
computer arithmetic and are generally used in different
digital signal processors. There is growing demands for high Static CMOS XOR and XNOR [3] gate is shown in figure
speed multipliers in different applications of computing 1(a). Another implementation of XOR-XNOR circuit with
systems, such as computer graphics, scientific calculation, 12 transistors is shown in figure 1(b) [4]. Further in figure
image processing and so on. Speed of multiplier determines 1(c) two pull-up PMOS-transistors and two pull-down
how fast the processors will run and designers are now more NMOS–transistors are added to restore full swing operation.
focused on high speed with low power consumption. The The circuit performs successfully at low supply voltages but
multiplier architecture consists of a partial product this comes at the expense of increased area and number of
generation stage, partial product reduction stage and the final transistors. Another disadvantage of the circuit is that each
addition stage. The partial product reduction stage is of the inputs drives four gates instead of two gates doubling
responsible for a significant portion of the total the input load. This will cause slow response when this
multiplication delay, power and area. Therefore in order to circuit is cascaded [5].
accumulate partial products, compressors usually implement
this stage because they contribute to the reduction of the
partial products and also contribute to reduce the critical path
which is important to maintain the circuit’s performance [1].
This is accomplished by the use of 3-2, 4-2, 5-2 compressor
structures. A 3-2 compressor circuit is also known as full
adder cell [2]. As these compressors are used repeatedly in
larger systems, so improved design will contribute a lot
towards overall system performance. The internal structure
of compressors are basically composed of XOR-XNOR
gates and multiplexers. The XOR-XNOR circuits are also
building blocks in various circuits like arithmetic circuits, (a)

978-1-4799-4910-6/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE 106


DOI 10.1109/ACCT.2014.36
(b)
(b)

(c)

(c) Fig.2: Different implementation of multiplexer

Fig.1: Different implementation of XOR-XNOR Proposed design of XOR-XNOR circuit using eight
transistors has been shown in figure 3(a). This circuit
Multiplexer module produces an output that accurate provides good driving capability as it uses static CMOS
reflects state of one of the number of data inputs, based on inverter and can operate at low supply voltages. In this
value of one or more control inputs. Two data inputs circuit when X1=X2=0 output is low because P1, P2 and N3
multiplexer is named as 2-1 multiplexer. The carry transistors are on and logic 0 is passed to output. With input
generator module in compressor produces the signals combination of X1=0 and X2=1 circuit show high output as
generated by multiplexer. Figure 2(a) shows the multiplexer transistor P1, N2 and N3 transistors are on while transistors
implemented in standard CMOS logic style. Figure 2(b) by P2, P3 and N1 are off and high logic is passed to output
adding an output buffer improves the driving capability but node. In another case when X1=1 and X2=0, transistor P2,
consumes more power. Multiplexer in figure 2(c) is also P3 and N1 are on and high logic is passed to output node. In
widely used in low power full adder cells. When buffers are last case when X1=X2=1, output node show low logic as
not used at the output, this design of the multiplexer is faster transistor P3, N1 and N2 are on, so proposed circuit works
than the CMOS design. This design consumes lesser power as XOR gate. XNOR operation has been obtained with
than the CMOS design [7]. addition of inverter. Figure 3(b) shows the input and output
waveforms for XOR-XNOR circuit.

(a) (a)

107
(b)

Fig.3: (a) Design of proposed XOR-XNOR (b) Input and


output waveform for XOR-XNOR
III. DESIGN OF 4-2 COMPRESSOR Fig. 4: (a) Block diagram (b) Full adder representation (c)
Logic decomposition of 4-2 compressor
A compressor is a device which is mostly used in
multipliers to reduce the operands while adding terms of The 4-2 compressor has five inputs and three outputs, where
partial products. A typical M-N compressor takes M equally the four inputs X1, X2, X3, X4 and the output Sum have the
weighted input bits and produces N-bit binary number. The same weight. On the other hand, the outputs Carry and Cout
simplest and the most widely used compressor is the 3-2 have one bit order higher, thus presents a higher
compressor which is also known as a full adder [8]. It has compression ratio and a more regular interconnection
three inputs to be summed up and provides two outputs. arrangement. One vital point to be emphasized in this
Similarly, a 4-2 compressor can also be built from two compressor is the independence of the input carry Cin in the
cascaded 3-2 compressor circuits. The conventional output carry Cout [12]-[14]. The 4-2 compressor optimized
implementation of a 4-2 compressor is composed of two at gate level with XOR-XNOR modules and carry
serially connected full adders, as shown in figure 4 [9]-[11]. generators by 2:1 multiplexers (MUX) reduces the critical
Different structures of 4-2 compressors are reported in path delay as shown in figure 4(c) [15]. The multiplexer
literature and these are governing by the basic equation as block at the SUM output takes the select bit prior to the
follows: inputs obtain and thus the transistors are already switched
by the time they come. This minimizes the delay to a
X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 + Cin = Sum + 2·(Carry + Cout) (1) significant level. The complete circuit diagram of proposed
 X1 X2 X3 X4 4-2 compressor is shown in figure 5.

Cout 4-2 Compressor Cin

Carry Sum

(a)
 X1 X2 X3 X4

FULL ADDER
Cin

Cout
FULL ADDER

Carry Sum

(b) Fig. 5: Proposed 4-2 compressor circuit

108
The equations determine the outputs of the circuit (figure 5) 3.18

Maximum output delay (ns)


are given below. The critical path delay of the compressor
3.17 XOR Delay (ns)
circuit is -XOR + 2*-MUX.
3.16
Sum= X1† X2 x X3† X4+ X1† X2 x X3† X4 x Cin+
3.15
X1† X2 x X3† X4+ X1† X2 x X3† X4 x Cin 3.14
Carry= X1† X2† X3† X4 x Cin+ X1† X2† X3† X4 x X4 3.13
Cout= (X1† X2)x X3+ (X1† X2) x X1 3.12
1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.3
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Supply voltage(V)
In this work an improved 4-2 compressor circuit has been
designed with new XOR-XNOR module and 2:1
multiplexer in 0.18m CMOS technology. The results of (b)
power consumption, maximum output delay of proposed 1.94

Maximum output delay (ns)


XOR-XNOR circuit has been obtained as shown in table I. XNOR Delay (ns)
1.935
TABLE I. POWER AND DELAY OF XOR-XNOR CIRCUIT
1.93
Supply Power
voltage consumption
XOR Delay XNOR Delay 1.925
(ns) (ns)
(V) (pW) 1.92
1.8 180.89 3.1702 1.9342
2.0 231.11 3.1618 1.9294 1.915
2.2 290.78 3.1564 1.9257 1.91
2.4 361.81 3.1505 1.9232
1.905
2.6 444.37 3.1468 1.9215
1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.3
2.8 541.42 3.1437 1.9202
3.0 653.05 3.1410 1.9194 Supply voltage (V)
3.3 861.82 3.1375 1.9178
(c)
Power consumption varies from 180.89 pW to 861.82 pW Fig. 6: (a) Power consumption of XOR-XNOR (b) XOR
with variations in voltage from 1.8 V to 3.3 V. Delay of delay (c) XNOR delay
XOR shows variation from 3.1702 ns to 3.1375 ns. Further
the delay of XNOR circuit variation from 1.9342 ns to Figure 6(a) shows the power consumption variation of XOR-
1.9178 ns with varies in supply voltage from 1.8 V to 3.3 V. XNOR module with variation in supply voltage. Power
consumption of XOR-XNOR circuit is increasing with rise
in supply voltage. Figure 6(b) and 6(c) shows that the
1000 maximum output delay of XOR and XNOR circuit decreases
Power consumption (pW)
Power consumption (pW)

with increase in supply voltage. Table II shows the


800 configuration of simulated 4-2 compressor circuits in 0.18m
CMOS technology. Proposed 4-2 compressor uses 40
600
transistors and also works with supply voltage less than 1V.
400 TABLE II. CONFIGURATION OF SIMULATED 4-2 COMPRESSORS

200
4-2 compressor XOR- No. of
MUX
Designs XNOR transistors
0
Static CMOS Fig. 1(a) Fig. 2(a) 76
1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.3
Ref. [15] Fig. 1(b) Fig. 2(a) 62
Supply voltage (V)
Ref. [16] Fig. 1(c) Fig. 2(b) 60

(a) Proposed circuit Fig. 3(a) Fig. 2(c) 40

109
TABLE III. POWER, DELAY AND PDP OF PROPOSED 4-2 consumption of proposed and earlier reported 4-2
COMPRESSOR CIRCUIT
compressor circuits with variation in supply voltage. From
Supply Power Maximum
figure 8(a) it has been observed that power consumption of
PDP proposed 4-2 compressor circuit is least among the
voltage consumption output delay
× 10-22(J)
(V) (pW) (ps) compared circuits.
1.8 718.72 43.83 315.01
2.0 919.00 38.67 355.37 5000 Static CMOS [15]

Power consumption (pW)


2.2 1155.10 35.45 409.48 [16] Proposed
4000
2.4 1433.30 33.15 475.13
2.6 1758.30 31.38 551.75 3000
2.8 2136.40 30.22 645.62
3.0 2573.50 29.00 746.31 2000
3.3 3357.40 27.74 931.34
1000
Table III shows the power consumption, maximum output
delay and power delay product (PDP) of proposed 4-2 0
compressor. Power consumption varies from 718.72 pW to 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.3
3357.40 pW with variation of supply voltage from 1.8V to
3.3V. Maximum output delay and power delay product Supply voltage (V)
(PDP) of 4-2 compressor shows variations from 43.83 ps to (a)
27.74 ps and 315.01× 10-22 J to 931.34 × 10-22 J respectively.
Figure 7 shows the input and output waveforms for 120 Static CMOS [16]
proposed 4-2 compressor circuit. [15] Proposed
Output delay (ps) 100
80
60
40
20
0
1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.3
Supply voltage (V)
(b)

3000 Static CMOS


[15]
2500 [16]
Proposed
2000
PDP (J)

1500
1000
500
0
Fig. 7: Input and output waveform for proposed 4-2 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.3
compressor circuit
Supply voltage (V)
Compressor circuit design using static CMOS and circuits
given in [15],[16] are also simulated in 0.18m technology (c)
and results of power consumption, delay and power delay
Fig. 8: (a) Power consumption (b) Maximum output delay
product have been obtained at supply voltage of 3.3V with
(c) PDP of 4-2 compressor circuits
100MHz frequency. Figure 8(a) shows the power

110
Figure 8(b) compares the maximum output delay of [6] Manoj Kumar “Design of Novel 9-Transistor Single Bit Full
Adder,” International Conference on Computational Science,
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of 718.72 pW with maximum output delay of 43.83 ps.
Further, circuit shows PDP of 315.01× 10-22(J) at 1.8 V. The
performance of this circuit have been compared to earlier
reported circuits in terms of power consumption, maximum
output delay and power delay product (PDP). The proposed
circuit result shows better performance than existing circuits
in all aspect.
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