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A.

MAJOR CAUSES OF CONSTRUCTION SITE ACCIDENTS

1. Falls. Falls accounted for 278 out of 775 (36%) total deaths in construction in 2012, according to
OSHA. An injury of this type may occur when a worker near an open-sided floor steps backwards
or sideways without looking.
2. Struck by object. Seventy-eight construction workers died as a result of being struck by an object
in 2012. A number of these deaths may have been prevented if the workers had undergone
proper training and used equipment and machinery properly.
3. Electrocutions. In 2012, 66 workers (9%) were seriously injured or killed by electrocution.
Electrocution is when a person, tool or piece of equipment comes into contact with power lines
or exposed electrical sources.
4. Caught-in/between. Although it seems obvious to never stand between a piece of heavy
equipment and an immovable object, sometimes workers concentrating on their jobs find
themselves in unexpected danger. Caught in/between accidents are when a worker’s body part
is caught, crushed, squeezed, compressed or pinched between two or more objects.
5. Slip and falls. These are among the most common accidents on a construction site. These
accidents may be linked to unsafe conditions conditions including uncovered holes or trenches
and exposed stakes.
6. Ladder accidents. This is one of the leading causes of injury and long-term disability.
7. Scaffolding accidents. Despite strict regulations, scaffolding accidents occur.
8. Power tool and machinery accidents. Power tool and machinery injuries may occur for reasons
that include mechanical defects, electrical failure, inadequate training and failure or lack of
proper safety equipment.
9. Vehicle Accidents. Dangerous construction site vehicles include forklifts, graders, backhoes and
dump trucks. A common forklift accident occurs when the vehicle is turned or maneuvered with
the load raised. Large trucks all too often back up and hit a pedestrian. Another hazard on
construction sites is falling from a vehicle.
 How to Prevent an Accident at Construction Site
 Provide safety training for all employees. Employers should educate employees
on all workplace safety standards and the hazards that they may face while on
the job.
 Hold frequent crew safety meetings. At some workplaces these meetings should
be held daily, for example, if high-risk work is being done.
 Utilize protective clothing and gear. Workers should always wear the
recommended safety equipment for their jobs.
 Keep the workspace clean. Keeping work areas clean and free of debris will
lessen the chances of construction worker injuries and help prevent worksite
accidents such as slips, trips, and falls.
 Maintain the equipment and tools. Before using a piece of equipment or
machinery, workers must ensure it is in proper working order.
 Prevent falls. Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in the construction industry.
It is important that workers are protected from falls on the job. The installation
of fall protection systems can protect construction workers.
 Recognize the hazards and make a plan. Before any project starts, the site
should be inspected for any unusual hazards.
B. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Construction
1. Hard hats – These are essential at most construction sites. They protect against head injuries
related to swinging or falling objects, striking the head against something, or accidental
head contact with an electrical hazard.

2. Foot protection – This often refers to steel-toe boots. Work boots should be worn on site
that protect against crushed toes due to heavy or falling equipment or materials.

3. Hand protection – Different types of work gloves are best suited to particular tasks and risks
at construction sites. For example, there are heavy-duty leather and canvas gloves for
protecting against cuts and burns, welding gloves for welders, heavy-duty rubber gloves for
working with concrete, insulated gloves with sleeves for working with electric hazards, and
chemical-resistant gloves for working with chemical agents.

4. Work pants and work shirts – Workers should protect their full legs, full arms, and torso
against cuts, scrapes, burns, and other superficial injuries with thick, flexible work pants and
shirts.
5. Face and/or eye protection – Safety glasses or face shields should be worn whenever there
is a danger of flying debris or harmful dust getting in the eyes.

6. Hearing protection – Chainsaws, jackhammers, and other tools and heavy equipment create
noise levels that can damage workers’ hearing—particularly with prolonged exposure.

7. Reflective/high-visibility garments – Brightly colored and/or reflective jackets, vests, or


other upper-body clothing is important for worker visibility.
C. General Sanitation Program for Construction Sites

1. Potable water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided in all places of
employment.
2. Nonpotable water. Outlets for nonpotable water, such as water for industrial or firefighting
purposes only, shall be identified by signs meeting the requirements of Subpart G of this
part, to indicate clearly that the water is unsafe and is not to be used for drinking, washing,
or cooking purposes.
3. Toilets. Under temporary field conditions, provisions shall be made to assure not less than
one toilet facility is available.
4. Temporary sleeping quarters. When temporary sleeping quarters are provided, they shall be
heated, ventilated, and lighted.
5. Washing facilities. The employer shall provide adequate washing facilities for employees
engaged in the application of paints, coating, herbicides, or insecticides, or in other
operations where contaminants may be harmful to the employees. Such facilities shall be in
near proximity to the worksite and shall be so equipped as to enable employees to remove
such substances.
6. Waste disposal. All sweepings, solid or liquid wastes, refuse, and garbage shall be removed
in such a manner as to avoid creating a menace to health and as often as necessary or
appropriate to maintain the place of employment in a sanitary condition.
NEW ERA UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
Department of Civil Engineering

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

FINALS: Construction Site Safety and Sanitation

Submitted By:
Dela Rosa, Alyzza Mae L.
TF 5:30-7:00PM

Submitted To:
Engr. Benjamin V. Ramos