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Maturing and Bleaching Agents

Used in Producing Flour

U

C. G. HARREL

Research and Development Department, Pillsbury Mills, Inc., Minneupolis, Minn.

OOD processing represents man’s age-old endeavor to in- Fcrease the efficiency and enjoyment of food utilization and to

extend the resources of raw materials available for supplying food

nutrients. From earliest recorded times man has tried to secure a white flour, because it symbolized to him a pure and wholesome product. Many of the millers guarded their early application of bleaching agents to flour with secrecy, because they had discov- ered the desire of the consumer for an improved flour. The bleached flour of today represents the culmination of centuries of such efforts.

Figure 1.

Extensograms of Hard Winter Wheat Flour

The earliest bleaching agent used extensively in America for aour was nitrogen peroxide (I, 3, 6) which was introduced at about the turn of the century. It produced a flour with slightly improved color characteristics, but did not otherwise affect baking quality. This treatment was largely abandoned in favor of other processes which have proved much more effective. One of these was chlorine, introduced in 1912 (46). This method improved color and also tended to improve baking quality. Later it was discovered that chlorine was markedly useful in the improvement of baking qualities of flour used in making cakes, especially cakes which carry a high proportion of sugar-namely, 120 to 140%. This “percentage” is obtained by dividing the weight of the sugar t)y the weight of the flour (20,33,43).

This rea-

gent, like chlorine, improved both color and baking quality, and was especially effective as a treatment of flour used in bread mak- ing (11, 29, 38). It was the advent of nitrogen trichloride which tended to eliminate the price differential between southwestern and some northwestern wheats as compared with spring wheats by improving baking values. It aided the southwestern part of the United States in becoming the major flour-producing area. At about the same time nitrogen trichloride was introduced, benzoyl peroxide (44) began to be used as a bleaching agent. This powder differs from the two gas-type bleaches-namely, ni- trogen trichloride and chlorine-in that it has no developmental or maturing effect, but is an efficient whitening agent (19,dS). Nitrogen trichloride was continuously used until August 1, 1949,when it was replaced with chlorine dioxide (18). Chlorine dioxide has completely replaced nitrogen trichloride as a maturing

Nitrogen trichloride was introduced in 1921 (la).

and bleaching agent. It gives similar beneficial developmental and maturing results at slightly lower levels of treatment (20,9526). It is approximately 80% as efficient for color removal as is nitro- gen trichloride. Unlike nitrogen trichloride, flour treated with chlorine,dioxide shows no toxic effects on animals (3,34,36).

A

Figure 2.

Chopin Alveograph Tests on Clear Flour

It is possible to demonstrate the effects of these maturing agents in the laboratory by physical methods (10,24, .@). Figure 1 is a diagram of the rheological properties of a piece of dough made by the Extensograph. The Extensograph is a machine which provides a measure of the extensibility of the dough and the force required to obtain the maximum extension of which the dough is capable without breaking. The horizontal axis indicates extensibility and the vertical axis resistance to extension. The effect of chlorine dioxide is clearly visible. The resistance to ex- tension is increased and the extensibility decreased by chlorine dioxide treatment of the flour. The surface area of the diagram indicating general strength of the dough, mainly based on protein quantity and quality, is the same in botH cases or slightly in- creased in the case of a treated flour. Figure 2 shows a typical chlorine dioxide effectas measured by means of the Chopin Alveograph in the laboratory.

Figure 3.

Extensograms of Soft Winter Wheat Flour

In Figure 3 are Extensograph curves showing the rheological properties of a low protein, low strength soft wheat flour before and after treatment with chlorine. The changes, clearly visible, are an increased resistance to extension and a decreased resistance to extensibility. Contrary to the chlorine dioxide treatment in bread flours, the oxidizing action in the case of.this chlorine treatment is usually so great that the strength of the dough, as reflected by a decrease in

95

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VO~,.44, NO. 1

the surface area of the extenssgram, is greatly impaired. Thip, of course, is a desirable factor in this case. For up-to-date official views and rulings on the treatments used

for both bleaching and maturing of flour, the reader is referred to

Unless such addition con-

ceals damage or inferiority of the flour or makes it appear better

or of greater value than it is, one or any combination of two or more of the following optional blerqching ingredients may be added in a quantity not more than sufficient for bleaching or, in case such ingredient has an artificial aging effect, in a quantity not more than sufficient for bleaching and such artificial aging ef-

fect. ,

(16),which states in part: “15.00 ,

.”

Figure 4.

Yield of Flour and Feeds Obtained from Wheat

From this it is seen that two effects are definitely recognized by the administrator of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of the Federal Security Agency-namely, bleaching and artificial aging effects, which have been referred to previously as developmental or maturing effects (37). The following substances are permitted in the United States:

oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, nitrosyl chloride, chlorine diox- ide, and benzoyl peroxide. Under the definitions and stand- ards of identity of flour, potassium bromate i~ a permitted con- stituent. Potassium bromate has a maturing action in a dough made from bromated flour. As its action occurs almost com- pletely in dough stage, it will not be discussed in detail in this pa- per (17). Jorgensen (d6), Shen and Geddes (QI),and Freilich and Frey (21)have discussed the bromate effect at considerable length.

DEFINITION OF BLEACHING

Since bleaching and artificial aging (maturing or developmental action) are clearly recognized, these terms should be defined. In the milling trade the term “bleaching” has been all-inclusive and in many instances this terminology remains. Actually, bleaching action should be differentiated from maturing effects. Bleaching of flour is obtained by an oxidation reaction on its yel- low pigment so that the finished flour is whiter than untreated flour. Kent-Jones, English cereal chemist, stored unbleached flour in air, in vacuum, and in hydrogen (27),and he found, to quote his concluding paragraph: “After the two months, the flours were compared again. The one exposed to the air had acquired the usual bleach. The one kept in the vacuum had not bleached at all. The hydrogen-bottled flour was also scarcely changed. The oxidizing action of the air in causing the bleach in aged flours was thus proved conclusively.” The usual pigmentation of patent flour will vary from l1/2 to 4 p.p.m. expressed as carotene (9). Commercial bleaching may reduce this pigmentation by 90 to 97y0. There appears to be some confusion in the literature regarding the term “carotenoid” pigments. Formerly it was supposed that the pigmentation was due to carotene, but recent work by Bailey, Zechmeister, and others (30,31 ,46) using chromatography and advance techniques of sepa- ration and isolation have shown the yellow pigment of wheat to be xanthophyll, usually in esterified form. The term “carotene” re- mains because it has been used at times for standardization pur-

poseR, and actually the absorption spectra of carotene and xan- thophyll esters are very similar. Bleaching is thus a means of control of flour color, allowing rela- tively high pigmented but good baking wheats to be used withoub penalty. Benzoyl peroxide and, to a leseer extent, nitrogen per- oxide produce these whitening results and have practically no ef- fect on baking characteristics. Table I shows the effect of various levels and types of treatment on flour pigment. As the level of treatment is increased the carotenoid pigment expressed in parts per million decreases.

DEFINITIOBN OF MATWRING

Maturing of bread flour by careful chemical treatment has :I similar objective to natural aging in that each is characterized i)) the application of an oxidation process to flour which changes it. properties, so that when made into dough, a livelier, drier, more machinable, better baking, and also whiter product results Chlorine dioxide produces these typical effects much mole spc,ed- ily and uniformly than does natural long-time storage aging.

Maturing of cake flour enables the baker and the housewife to obtain products with greatly improved grain and texture, and larger volume. In performance cakc batters made from chlorine- treated flour are more tolerant, less likely to fall, and will carry a higher percentage of shortening and sugar, and thus they product

a sweeter and more tender cake than untreated

Use of these maturing agents in treatment of flour for bread

and cake are of major importance. Additional whiteness in both bread and cake may be obtained because of the finer texture and grain resulting lrom the use of such maturing agents. Thrv cause a greater number of gas cells in the bread or sake, thereh\, producing this whiter coloi by a simple but sigaificant change in physical structure. By way of recapitulation, maturing agents cause the follov ing.

flours (IS, SS,Qi?),

1. Developmental maturing or artificial aging which direct11

improves the baking quality.

2. A chemical bleaching action .rzhich results in a chaiige in

the yellow pigment of flour. These pigments are not only prebeiil in extremely small amounts but they also consist primarily of xanthophyll and xanthophyll esters which are not convertible into vitamin A in animals.

3. A better color because of a physical change in the halictl

bread which is caused by finer texture and grain.

TABL~EI.

EFFECTOF TEE~T~IENTON COLOR

Treatment

Carotenoid

Pigment,

P.P.M.

Patent flour Untrca-ted

2.52

0.2 gram chlorine dioxidea

2.34

0.4 gram chlorine dioxide

1.94

0.7 gram nitrogen trichloride

1.95

Clear flour Untreated

3.15

1 .O gram chlorine dioxide

2.15

1 .B grams chlorine dioxide

1.74

2.85 grams nitrogen trichloride

1

84

a Per 100 pounds of flour.

Before continuing further, it is well that the person riot in- formed in milling technology understand the separations made in wheat with particular reference to the grades of flour produced. Figure 4 presents these separations. Here 2.3 bushels, or 138.9 pounds, of wheat have been separated into two major divisions- feed and flour. From this 138.9 pounds of wheat approximately 100 pounds of straight-grade flour can be produced. If, instead of making a straight-grade flour, it is desired to divide this into two grades, an Soyopatent and a 20y0 clear flour can be com- pounded. In pounds this would correspond to 80 pounds of pat- ent and 20 pounds of clear. The patent streams come from the

January

1952

Fip.ure 6.

INDUSTRIAL

H

AND

ENGINEERING

Effect or Maturing on il Long Extraction

A.

FIour

Ma~uml

R. Ne1 matured

CHEMISTRY

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Vol. 44, No.

1

The maturing eKect is mwe rnnrked on the clear Hourc tliaii on the patent floum. This type of flour is used in admixture of rye snd whole wheat Hours for those types of bread, as well 8s B flour constituent of longer extraction flours, such 89 strxights and etuKod atrsights (a stieight being the total flour from the wheal nnd the stuffedstraight heing the straight, Hour plu~added clear),

A

B

Fi(rure 8. Effect of Maturing OD Southwest Patent

Flour

A. 1934cmp

8.

1935crop

Top. Impnrssd. marurod losras

use of UR-

matured cake flour. Figure 10 shows lion cooky Hours oan be treated and the spread and thiekuevs owtrolled fur more uniform production and elimination of packaging difficulties.

perieuceii trouble in their bake shups because of the

ADVANTAGESOFBLEACIIING

AND MATURING FOBTHE WIlE*T

GROWER

Over 2M) recognized viLriet,irtsof wheat RE grown eomnrercially

in the Uiriled States under all kinds of environmental oonditions. These two factors-wheat, variety and environmental condi- tions--largely determinc the quwlity uf the wheel and the qmlity tof the flour produced from tlie wiieilt. It follows that thc quality of the many kinds of flour produced is distinctly variable ($8) Not only is this true for any one seirson, hut it is equally true for wheats grown in any given %rea fmm maon to sesmn. Thiw ir due to the variation of the euvimnmental conditions of growth and development of the what plant. Maturing 8nd bleaching of flour make it possible four the miller to produce a standard and more uniform pmduct regardlese of the variations encountered in wheat production. The differences referred to BI~twofold in nsture-ht, in baking quality and maturing, and second, in color or pigmentation. Bath must bc adjusted. Flour from southwestern and from =me northwestern whests,in particular, require more trestment than fmm wheats gmwn in other areas. Before the advent of artificial maturing, the average price of Kiln- 9~shard winter wheat in Chicago was lower than spring wheat in all but 2 of the 15 yeara bet,ween 1900 and 1914. In wmtmat, after the introduction of maturing agents, the Kansas hard winter wheat price was higher in 6 years, equal in 1 year and lower in 7 years for tho period from 1919 tr, 1933, thus indicating that the

The matured tioun are <!ehitely advantageous heoauaa of their ability to stabilize the (doughs and markedly improve the final product,. Percentage-wise, more rye or weaker wheatr can he carried hy B matured Hour than an untreated flour and om pro- duce better products. Irere again it is clearly evident that maturing hlia definitely

improved the volume, grain, and texture of the resulting bread Wore it not for usinp these maturing processes on the longer ex- traction flour, it doubtful if they would find their way into the channels destined for human consumption. &xnetimes there i8 a distinct difference in wheat properties from one crop year to another, nnd Figure 8 is offered to show that the 1934 crop wm mature enough so that very little maturing

agent was required-juat

enough to mako a more lively mid drier

dough in the machiue-operated shop.

The 1935 c~pshows, by

the two loavw on the right in Figure 8, that the unmatured flour made p or Irieud and would cause serious trouble in tho hake shop, wherwn tho maturing processes improved the dough atid the loaf ehameterirtics to equal thoso of the 1934 crop. The photograph illustrates olesrly onrof the important fuiieliona of maturing pmc- eases in maintaining a uniform ingredient for the hilkor and at the same time permitting the miller interchange&hilityfnm crop yesr to crop year with less difficulty. Figure 9 shows the resulta obtained by using uotrwted and chlorinetteated Hours in making white layer and angel food cakes. In both instances the cakes on the right are msde with un- treated flour, and the cakes on the loft are made from chlorine- treated flour. Note the differencein grain, texture, and volume of the products. The troittment results in more tender, better- eating cakes, and in cakes which can carry more Sugar and short- ening. Moreover,,such untreet.ed flour would he trouhlesome to the baker in his efforts to produce fine cakes. Many a case his-

tory can lie cited by flour millers whose bakery elienta hiive ex-

Cake Flour

1.

Chlorioctrrarsd

P.

Untreptsd

formerly poorer bakiirg wheat WM tbus enabled to compete 011 "e. equal baais. It'is apparent that the agricultural eoanomy of the Southwest and of mme northwestern ltrwa would have suffered disadvantages if suitable wnd acceptable maturity methods had not t,een available for modifying the properties and improving the utilityof these wheat,p.

ADVANTAGE OF BLEACHING *TI> MAI'UHINO TO 'THE FLOUR

MILLER

ANI) THE BAKER

Flour kept in atorage improves in haking value until an opti- mum is reached ($8). Months may he required for this change. Further tora age may be damaging. In addition, there is a serious and very red dilngef of insect infeatation. Flour stored to secure natural aging will not be uniform in perfwmance. Uniformity depend8 upon temperature conditione and the ability of air to

gain RCC~SSto the flour. The increaaea use of multiwall paper

sacks to minimize insect infestation undoubtedly has 8ome effect

January 1952

country

AusLrdia. S.

Austraiia, New South Wale-

Belgium

Belgian Congo

Breaii

Ralgaiia

Canada

CEO*

Colombia(

Costa Rica

Cuba

Denrnsrk

Ecuador

Eire

Franoe Frenah W. Indiea

Germany

Greece

Guatemela

fiong Ken*

cnaia

z::xLd.nda

New Zedand

Pskiatan

Phiiippinca

Spain

Sweden Switzerland union of S. Afrioe

Turkey

VWJe."ela

0 - signifies rxohibited. * + signi6es permitted.

e No regulation.

%%a

+

+

+

+

+

+

2

i

+

-

+

+

-

-

+

+a

+

+

-

+

+

+

-

+

-

ff

INDUSTRIAL

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CHEMISTRY

TABLEIT.

FLOURBLEACWINQRSQULATIONSIN FOREIQNCormns

Bleaching Agenta Permittad and Prohibited

AW

Wholeeome

Agent

Nitrogen

Peroxide

Chlorine

Nitrogen

Triahloride

t

+

+

+

+

t

i

+

t

t

+

 

t

+

+

+

+

-

Adulteretion of Uour pmhibited.

* Except by irradiation.

I Uep of bromatna. peradfatas. and braad impmvera prohibited

98

ivn the natural aging of unmaturwf Hours. There is uneveu ma- turing in any aackdueto the vsrioue conditions. The core will be the greonest.--deficierit in oxidation-and flour nearest the outside of the sack will he the most mature. Under present conditions there is not enough atorage space in the country to pennit using the storage method for aging Hour. The estimated coRt is 20 oente per month per hundredweight, which would undouhtrrily be reHected in the cost of Hour to the consumer. This estimate is made up of the idlowing extra costa retlected in flour storage: re- turn on invstment on the storage space and theatored flour; de- terioration and 5hrinkege in storage; extra labor rout; extra in- aurmee coat; the inability for quick turnover under best market eonditionw; and last but not lehst, avoidance of the gamble of large inventory. Entimating the time for natural zging to be from 4 to 5 months, the east of natural aging varies from 16 to 20% of the selling price of the product. The cost of maturing

and bleaching is appmxinietely half of 1% OT lesa uf the selling price of the product. Thus, the enOrmOU8 economic advantage iii evident. D~~r~ureof the economies involved, the difficulties en- wuntemd in shop production and the nonuniform baked pmducts,

natural sging ia almost extinct. With maturing and bleaching available the millers CRD avoid wasteiul carryover of tremendoua stocks oi dd emp wheat for blending purposcr. With rapid ma- turing agent8 the bxker is able to use flour from new crop wheat BE Roo11 RS it ir available. The modem bake shop ia B highly developed food faotory for the mechsnienl production oi B delicate pmdunt. When the baker must use Rourv of varying maturity, he must contitantly ad- just hin production methods and schedules. lnvolved in thia are high labor costs and wastage due to nonunifarmity in haking re- dt8. Modern bakery machinery makes mandatory II uniformly matured flour. lmmsture Hour caum costly delay8 or stick-ups. When the miller properly uses bleaching and maturing proc- ernes, the baker Hi assured of a uniform ingredient and can adjust hia production metliod~[or the product he wants. Before the advent of maturing methods, bread baking was B ylow and lengthy upccrtion. The traveling oven and other modern auto- matic eqnipment iisv resulted in an increase in daily output. Maturing and blwohing are major factors in securing uniform flour for scheduled porformnnee with modern equipment. It is

evident that the UYB uf uniformly awtured flour ha permitted the baker to make B aonsistently better product snd that upta-dste technology improves upon storage by asauring a given flour the very be& treat,ment requirtxi for opt,imulp haking performance nt a ~2O#lzbleGO&

AbVANTAGE OF BLEACHING

ANV MATURING

CONSUMER

FOR THE

Modern, rapid trebtnients are helpful in household baking 116 chime they permit the succensful use of standard recipes with maximum certainty of fine baked foods. The svailability of %our

of uniiornr maturity BIBOavoids waste in the household.

longer ext.nietion flnum can he made tnore suitable for bresd

The

Figure 10. Effect of Maturing OD Cooky Flour

rnwkiog by wat.uring, thus incmaaiag the potential quality ofHour for tho production of baked pmducte of improved loaf xppeac mce, and hence, the increased appetite appeal. Both the 50ur

and baked products are lesa Cody to the comumer hecause of the

saving in the milling and haking process when modem ",&hods

are used in place of uncertain natural nging.

NOTRITIONAL ASPEC1'9 OF ARTIFICIAL BLEACHING MATURING

&ND

Ay far its data now aveilahle are concerned, there is very little evidence of a decreare in the vitamin content of flour through bleaching or maturing metbodfi now in use. Bailey (9) refers to work done in Germany, showing that flour blesched with benzoyl penrxirle or nitmgon trichloride contained less t,oropherol than

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unbleached flour. The loss of tocopherol became greater as the concentration of bleaching agents increased. Doty and Sher- wood (16) found that the use of ammonium persulfate as a flour maturing agent did not affect thiamine and riboflavin contents of enriched flour. Information given at the flour hearings in 1948 (14) indicated that chlorine dioxide had no deleterious effect upon the contents of thiamine and riboflavin in enriched flour. The el- feet of other commonly used bleaching agents is probably similar.

TOXICOLOGICAL

ASPECTS

OF

ARTIFICIAL

MATURING

BLEACHING

AND

The Food and Drug Administration exercises constant vigilance over the treatment of flour by the miller. Only those methods which are approved in the Federal Standards of Identity may be used. The methods which are used today were approved only after extensive public hearings conducted by the Food and Drug Administration. In December 1946 Mellanby, an eminent scientist in Eng- land, reported that when dogs were fed a diet including as its main constituent flour heavily treated with nitrogen trichloride, they developed running fits or canine hysteria (3%'). The news of this discovery led the milling industry and the Food and Drug Administration into an extensive program of scientific investi- gations. Dogs, cats, rats, rabbits, monkeys, chickens, ferrets, guinea pigs, and, finally, humans were involved in experiments in at least ten laboratories under the direction of leaders in the fields

(7, 8,

34,40). It was concluded that when certain animals, notably dogs, were fed a diet consisting of a high percentage of flour treated with extraordinarily large amounts of nitrogen trichloride, the animals developed a nervous disorder. Tests on humans (35), hovever, proved that no deleterious effect occurs regardless of the quantity of nitrogen trichloride-treated flour present in the diet. Despite this conclusion, the milling industry petitioned for a hear- ing at which the Food and Drug Administration eliminated from the Standards of Identity on August 1, 1949, the use of nitrogen trichloride in the treatment of flour, and substituted therefore chlorine dioxide, which in the same investigations had been found harmless to all animals studied, as well as to humans. This is a fine example, not only of vigilance on the part of the Food and Drug Administration, but also of the cooperation the Adrnin- istration had from industry. Other nations followed closely the facts developed at the flour hearings and the final conclusions reached therein which appeared in the Federal Register (18). Table I1 contains a summary of flour bleaching regulations in foreign countries adapted from material given in the Northwestern

Millers Almanac (37).

of biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, neurology, xtc.

CONCLUSION

Continued research is being carried on by the milling and bak- ing industries and by suppliers for the protection of the consumer from both economic and nutritional standpoints. The achieve- ment of these goals is an outstanding contribution to the amount and quality of the food supply of the world today and, conse- quently, to the welfare of mankind.

ACKNOWLEDGiMENT

The author wishes to extend his very grateful thanks to the fol-

lowing persons for their counsel and guidance in the preparation of this paper, so that it might be a paper that would be truly repre- sentative of the practices followed in the milling and baking in-

dustries: C. C. Thomas, Betty

C. Robinson, W. L. Rainey, H. K. Parker, John C. Baker, Paige Lehman, Frank L. Cunderson, R. K. Durham, and C. W. Bra- bender.

Sullivan, John s. Andrews, Guy

LITERATURE CITED

(1) Alexander, G. L., Cereal Chem., IO,623-6 (November 1933). (2) Allison, J. B., White, J. I., Ajemean, E. B., and Roth, J. S., Ibid., 27,495-500 (1950). (3) -4lsop, J. N., U. S. Patents 758,883, 758,884 (May 3, 1904), 759,651 (May 10,1904).

(4) Am. Assoc. Cel'eal Chemists, St. Paul 1, Minn

Methods," 5th ed., pp. 22-50,1943. (5) Ibid., pp. 40-7, 1943. (6) Andrews, John, and Andrews, Sidney, U. S. Patent 693,207 (Feb. 11,1902). (7) Arnold, Aaron, Cereal Chem., 26,46-51 (1949). (8) Arnold, Aaron, and Goble, F. C., Ibid., 27,375-82 (1950). (9) Bailey, C. H., "Constituents of Wheat and Wheat Products,"

ACS Monograph 96, pp. 261-79,316-17, New York, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1944. (10) Bailey, C. H., and Le Vesconte, A. M., Cereal Chem., 1, 59 (January 1924).

(11) Baker,

(12) Baker, J. C., U. S. Patent 1,367,530(Feb. 8, 1921). (13) Bohn, L. J., Cereal Chem., 11,598-614 (1934). (14) Docket No. FDC-21 (C), exhibit No. 22, proposed to amend the Definition and Standard of Identity for Flour, Oct. 8, 1948. (15) Doty, J. M., and Sherwood, R. C., Cereal Chem., 22, 409-14

"Cereal Lab

J. C., J. A.m. Assoc. Cera2 Chemists, 7, 108-11 (1922).

(1950).

(16) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic BUZZ. No. 2, revision 1, p. 13,

Washington, D. C., Fad and Drug Administration, Federal Security Agency (January 1949). (17) Federal Register, 13, 6382 (Oct. 30, 1948).

(18)

(19) Ferrari, C. G., and Bailey, C. H., Cereal Chem., 6, 457-81

(September 1929). (20) Ferrari, C. G., Hutchinson, 1%'. S.,Croye, A. B., and Mecham, D. K., Ibid., 18,699-704 (1941).

Ibid.,pp. 6969-70 (Nov. 27, 1948).

(21)

Freilich, J., and Frey, C. N., Ibid., 16, 485-94 (1939):

(22) Gortner, R. A., "Colloid Chemistry," Vol. 111, pp. 597-625,

New York, The Chemistry Catalog Co., Inc., 1931. (23) Hanson, W. H., Cereal Chem., 9, 358-77 (July 1932). (24) Hill, G., Spots, E. X., and Dalby, G., paper presented at the American Association of Cereal Chemists Convention, Minne- apolis, Minn., 1951. (25) Hutchison, W-.S., and Derby, R. I., CereaE Chem., 24, 372-6

(1947).

(26) Jorgensen, Holger, "Studies in the Nature of the Bromate Ef- fect," London, Oxford University Press, 1945. (27) Kent-Jones, D. W., "Modern Cereal Chemistry," 1st ed., pp. 175-6. Liverpool, England, The Northern Publishing Co., Ltd., 1924. (28) Kent-Jones, D. W., and Amos, A. J., Ihid., 4th ed., p. 251, Liver- pool, England, The Northern Publishing Co., Ltd., 1947. Lawellin, S. J., Nail. Miller, 52 (February 1924). Markley, M. C., and Bailey, C. H., Cereal Chem., 12, 33-40

(1935).

Ibid.,pp. 40-9. Mellanby, E., Brit.Med. J., 2, 885-7 (1946). Montyheimer, J. W., Cereal Chem.,8, 510-18 (1931).

Nakamura, F. I., and

Newell, G. W., Erickson, T. C., Gilson, W. E., Gershoff, S. N.,

Morris, hl. L., Ibid., 26,501-7 (1949).

and Elvehjem, C. A., J. Am. Med. Assoc

135,760-3 (1947).

Xewell. G. W., Gershoff, S.N., Suckle, H. M., Gilson, W. E., Erickaon, T. C., and Elvehjem, C. A., Cereal Chem., 26, 160-6

(1949).

iVorthwestern Millers Almanac, p. 42 (April 24, 1951). Parker, H. K., "An Industrial Application of Nitrogen Trichlo- ride," Proc. First Internatl. Conf. Flour and Bread Manuf., pp. 147-52, abstracted in Chem. Abstracts, 24, 3506 (1930). Parker, H. K., Baker'sBigest, 25,30-1 (February 1951). Radomski, J. L., Woodard G., and Lehman, A. J., J. Nutrition, 36, 15-25 (1948). Shen, Ling, and Geddes, W. F., Cereal Chem., 19, 609-31 (1942)

Smith, D. E., and Andrews, J. S., paper presented at the Ameri- can Association of Cereal Chemists Convention, Minneapolis, Minn., 1951. Smith, E. E., CereaE Chem.,9, 424-8 (July 1932). Sutherland, E. C., U. 8.Patent 1,539,701 (May 26, 1925).

Wesener, J. A,, Ibid.,

1,096,480 (May 12, 1914).

Zechmeister, L., and Cholnoky, L., J. Biol. Chem., 135, 31-6

(1940).

RECEIVEDBeptember 8, 1950.

Presented before the Division of Agricultural

and Food Chemistry at the 118th Meeting of the AMERICANCHEMICAL

SOCIETY, Chicago, 1U.