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MULTI USER (Network)

SOFTWARE  MS Windows NT, Windows 2000, UNIX, and LINUX


are operating systems used by multiple users at a time
on mainframes and minis and also on PCs, in a network.
 Software, also called program, is a series/list of
instructions that tells the computer
EMBEDDED
 What to do?
 How to do?  Embedded operating systems are embedded on ROM
 Software must be installed on computer before you use it. chip, instead of providing them to users to be installed by
Installing is the process of setting up the software to them.
work with the computer.  They are firmware, not software. Used in most PDAs,
 Software is the key to productive use of computers. Smart phones, and other mobile devices.
With proper software, a computer can be a valuable tool.  Examples are Windows CE.NET, Pocket PC 2002,
Types of Software are given below. Palm OS, and Sybian OS.

UTILITY PROGRAMS/SERVICE PROGRAMS


System Software  Programs (instructions) used to enhance existing
 System software consists of the programs (instructions) functions of an operating system or provide new
that control or maintain the operations of the computer services to control and manage the system
and its devices. In other words, the system software hardware.
enables the user and application software to interact with
the computer.  Some Utility Programs are provided by Operating
 Types of System Software System (Built-in). Examples are Notepad, File
manager (Explorer), Disk scanner (Scandisk), Screen
 Operating System saver, Disk defragmenter, etc.
 Utility / Service Programs  Other are needed to be installed by user. Examples
 Device Drivers are AntiVirus (McAfee, and Norton Antivirus), Data
 Language Translators Recovery Software, Data Compression (WinZip).

OPERATING SYSTEM DEVICE DRIVERS


 Operating System is a set of instructions that  They are specialized software/programs/instructions that
coordinates all the activities among computer allow input and output devices to communicate with
hardware devices, and allows the users to run the rest of the computer system.
application software.  Device drivers enable a specific hardware device (for
 Different types of computers have their own Operating which they have been written) to perform its function.
Systems.
 Many basic drivers come/ built-in with Operating
 Cray Super Computer – Uses UNICOS or COS System, such as that of keyboard, mouse, buses, etc.
 IBM Mainframe – Uses MVS or VM  Other are needed to be installed by user by himself,
 PCs – Use Windows or Macintosh such as that of some Sound Cards, LAN Cards, and
 Hand Held Computers – Use Palm OS, Windows CE, Video Adapter Cards.
and Pocket PC

LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS
Functions of Operating System  A type of system software that translates the source
Following are the functions that an operating system typically code (program) of a computer programming language
performs. into machine language code (i.e. 0 and 1 form).

 Booting/ Starting a computer


 Providing User Interface (Command line, Menu Types of Language Translators
driven, or GUI – Graphical User Interface)
 CPU management ASSEMBLER
 File management
 Task management  Assembler is a system program that translates the
 Formatting the disks assembly language program (low-level language) into
 Security management machine language code.
 Configuring devices  An assembler first, assembles the machine code in the
 Establishing an Internet Connection main memory of the computer and makes it ready for
 Controlling a network execution.
 After the source program has been converted into machine
language by an assembler, it is referred to as an object
program. The assembler then executes the object
Operating System Types program.

SINGLE USER (stand-alone)


Assembly Machine
 MS Windows 9x/Me, Dos, and Macintosh are operating
language Assembler language
systems that can be used by one user at a time, mostly
Program Program
on PCs.

Source code Machine code


INTERPRETER  As a business tool
 To assist with graphics and multimedia
 Used to translate the source code of a high-level
 To support home, personal, and educational
language into machine language code.
activities.
 An interpreter translates the source program one
 To facilitate communications.
line/statement/instruction at a time into machine
instruction, which is immediately executed.
 An interpreter does not produce an object code for
future translation. TYPES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE (W/R to Their Use)
 Change or modification in a statement (s) of a program
needs only that/those statement (s) to be executed.
 Fast response to changes in the source program. Business
 Interpreting is a time-consuming translation method, WORD-PROCESSING (Text and some graphics)
because each statement must be translated every time it  Microsoft Word  Son StarOffice Writer
is executed from the source program.  Corel WordPerfect
 Interpreters are not complex programs; instead they are
easy to write. SPREAD-SHEETS (Accounting and Calculations)
 The interpreted program runs slower than compiled
 Microsoft Excel  Sun StarOffice Calc
program.
 Corel Quattro Pro
Statements
DATABASE (Record Keeping In Easily Accessible Form)
Machine
 Microsoft Access  Dbase
Interpreter language
 Oracle  Visual FoxPro
code

PRESENTATION (Slide Animations)


Source code (Translates only Machine code  Microsoft PowerPoint  Sun StarOffice Impress
one statement of (In interpreted  Corel Presentations
the source and executed
program) form)
COMPILER Graphics and Multimedia
 Compiler is also used to translate the source code of a CAD (Computer Aided Design - For Engineers, Architects)
high-level language into machine language code.  Autodesk AutoCAD  Microsoft Visio Professional
 But it differs from interpreter in that, it merely translates
the entire source program into an object program DESKTOP PUBLISHING (For Professionals)
and is not involved in its execution. Object code is the  Adobe InDesign  Adobe PageMaker
equivalent machine language program of the source  Corel VENTURA
program.
 The object code is then permanently saved for future use. PAINT/IMAGE EDITING (For Professionals)
 The object code does not required to be repeatedly  Adobe Illustrator  Adobe PhotoShop
translated into machine code, once compiled. But once  CorelDraw  Macromadia Free Hand
compiled, the translated program (object program) can
then be executed repeatedly. Thus compiler saves
VIDEO AND AUDIO EDITING
execution time.
 Adobe Premiere  Macromadia Sound Edit
 In case of modification/changes in the program, the
 Pinnacle Studio DV
whole program must be re-compiled into machine code.
 No fast response to changes in the source program.
 Compiler are complex programs than interpreters, thus MULTIMEDIA AUTHORING
required more space in memory. (For Creating Dynamic Presentations Including Text,
 Compiled machine language program runs much faster Graphics, Video, Sound, And Animations)
than an interpreted program.  Macromadia Authorware
 Macromadia Director
Statements
WEBPAGES AUTHORING
Machine  Adobe GoLive  Lotus FastSite
Compiler language  Macromadia Dreamweaver
Program  Macromadia Fireworks
 Macromadia Flash  Microsoft FrontPage
(Translates the
whole source Object code
Source code (machine
program into
machine code) code not yet Home, Personal & Educational
executed)
DESKTOP PUBLISHING (Personal Use)
 Microsoft Publisher
Application Software
 Application software consists of programs (list of PAINT/IMAGE EDITING (Personal Use)
instructions) that performs specific tasks for users.  Corel PHOTOPAINT
 Application programs provide an interface between user  Microsoft Picture It! Photo
and operating system.
 Application programs perform a variety of functions, such
as:
ENTERTAINMENT
 Games
CAD/CAM (Special Purpose Software)
Computers are widely used in organizational systems /
 Video/Audio Players
companies to improve productivity both
- at design time/phase – Through CAD
EDUCATIONAL - at manufacture time/phase – through CAM
 E-books and Tutorials
CAD
 Professional workers such as engineers and
Communications designers, require specialized software and system to
perform their tasks (i.e. developing products) in a
E-MAIL reduce time.
 provided by some web-sites  CAD uses a computer and specialized software to aid
(help) in product design.
WEB BROWSER  CAD software offers several advantages over traditional
 Internet Explorer manual methods of designing. For example, they allow
a designer:
CHAT ROOM  To modify a design more easily than before
 MSN Messenger  To immediately view the results
 Yahoo Messenger  To view the design from different angles (3D
design)
VIDEO CONFERENCING/ TELEPHONE CALLS  Examples of CAD software are:
 Auto CAD
 Quality Plans Chief Architect
 Microsoft Visio Professional
CAM
Types of Application Software (W/R TO THE USER’S  Designs and specifications produced by CAD are input
RIGHT) into an automated manufacturing system that makes
the products, using robots and other systems.
 CAM is the use of computers to control production
PACKAGED SOFTWARE equipment.
 CAM production equipment includes software-controlled
 Packaged software is mass produced, copyrighted
drilling, lathe, welding, and milling machines.
retail software that meets the needs of a wide variety of
users, not just a single user or company.
 All the above-mentioned software, fall in the category of
packaged software.
 Users must purchase the license of the software to use.
TOPIC 5

CUSTOM SOFTWARE
 A Company some times may use a programmer to develop
software, because it does not find the packaged software FLOW CHARTS
that meets its unique requirements. This type of software
is called custom software.
 There is no license to use custom software.

Flowcharts
SHAREWARE  A flowchart is a pictorial / graphical representation of
 Shareware is Copyrighted software that is distributed the logic or sequence of steps that solve a problem.
free for a trial period.  Flowcharting helps the programmer and system designer,
 To use a shareware program beyond that period, you send design an effective system. The graphical representation
a payment to the person or company who developed the of statement/sentences instead of writing them is more
program. effective and easy to understand.
 Two common types of flow charts are the program
flowchart and the system flowchart.
FREEWARE
 Those software, which are provided at no cost to users by
an individual or a company. PROGRAM FLOWCHART
 Freeware are copyrighted. Thus programmers cannot  A program flowchart is a chart consisting of some
incorporate freeware into their own applications they graphical symbols that presents the detailed series of
intend to sell. steps (algorithm) needed to solve a programming
problem.
 The program flowchart uses standard symbols called
PUBLIC-DOMAIN SOFTWARE ANSII symbols, after the American National Standard
Institute, which developed them.
 Free software but it has been donated for public use and  Symbols of program flowchart and their uses are given
has no copyrighted restrictions. below.
 Any one can copy or distribute public domain software
to others.
Symbol Name Use
Start
Oval shaped symbol indicates the
Terminal beginning (start) and end of the
program Input Property
Rectangular shaped symbol Value
Example 2
Process represents a process e.g. calculation
or assigning a value to a variable
Parallelogram shaped symbol
represents any statement that causes False Value > True
Input / data to be input to a program or 100,000?
Output output from the program, such as
printing on the display screen or
printers
Diamond shaped symbol indicates
program decisions. Adecision Calculate Tax = Calculate Tax
indicates a question (condition) that Value x .12 = Value x .15
Decision can be answered (checked) yes or no
(true or false). A decision symbol can
be used for more than alternative
decisions.
This symbol indicates a group of
Predefined statements that together accomplish
Process one task. Used extensively when
programs are broken into modules. Print Property
Small circular shaped symbol Tax
eliminates the use of lengthy flow
Connector
lines. It represents the one symbol is
connected to another.
Stop
This symbol represents entry from or
Connector exit to another part of the flowchart
on a different page.
These lines and arrows are used to
connect symbols and indicate the SYSTEM FLOWCHART
sequence/flow of operations. The  The graphical representation of the sequence of physical
Flow Lines
flow is assumed to go from left to devices used to solve a problem.
&
right and from top to bottom.  The following symbols are commonly used to design a
Arrowheads
Arrowheads are only required when system flowchart.
the flow violates the standard
direction.
This symbol represents additional
Comment / Symbol Name Use/Purpose
descriptive information about the
Annotation
program.
Punched Represents the reading or punching
Card of a punch card deck.
Represents innput and output of the
The following examples illustrate the concept of Punched
punched paper tape. Contains the
flowcharts. Paper Tape
name of the file in use.
Start Magnetic
Tape Represents input and output of the
Example 1 MAIN (Sequential magnetic tape. Exact use is specified
Access inside in the symbol.
Storage)
Input Name
Represents input and output of data
Magnetic
through a magnetic disk. Exact use is
Disk
specified inside the symbol.
Represents input and output of data
Name = True Any Direct
through a direct access storage
”NOOR”? Access
medium. Exact use is specified
Storage
inside.

False Internal Represents input and output of data


Storage through main memory.
Print Name
Display / Shows the communication with the
Stop Console computer operator.
Printer Represents output of a program.
Input Name Device / Name of the report or document is
Document written inside the symbol.
TOP-DOWN APPROACH
TOPIC 6
 Identifying the top element, or module, of a program and
then breaking it down into in hierarchical fashion to the
lowest level of detail is known as Top-Down Approach.

PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS PSEUDOCODE


 A method of designing a program using normal human-
language statements to describe the logic and
PROGRAM processing flow.
 Pseudocode represents the outline or summary form of
 A program is a list of instructions that the computer the program.
must follow in order to process data into information.  Example:
 The instructions consist of statements used in a
programming language, such as Visual Basic, C/C++, Set COUNT to zero
Java, etc. Read first student marks
 Examples are programs that do word processing, desktop Calculate PERCENTAGE
publishing or payroll processing. DO WHILE CODE is not equal to zero
IF PERCENTAGE => specific number THEN

PROGRAMMING/ SOFTWARE ENGINEERING Calculate GRADE


Add 1 to COUNT
 Programming (also called Software Engineering) is a END IF
multi-step process for creating the list of instructions Read next student marks
(i.e. program). Calculate PERCENTAGE
 Generally, a programmer to create an effective program END DO
(software) must follow the following five steps. Write COUNT
STOP

Five Steps to Develop A Software/Program ALGORITHM


 Algorithm is a step-by-step logical solution of the
1. CLARIFY THE PROBLEM specific programming problem.
 Analyze programming needs  Example: Purpose of the algorithm is written on the top
 Clarify program objectives and users and then steps are started.
 Clarify desired output, input and processing
 Study the feasibility of implementing program Step 1. [INPUT Individual Marks]
 Document the analysis Read (M1, M2, M3, M4)
Step 2. [COMPUTE average grade]
Average = M1+M2+M3+M4/4.0
2. DESIGN THE PROGRAM Step 3. [OUTPUT result]
 Determine the program logic (using a Top-Down Write (“Final grade is: ”, Average)
approach) Step 4. [FINISHED]
 Design Details (using Pseudocode and/or Exit
Flowcharts and/or Algorithms.
Note: See Flowchart examples under the topic Flowcharts.
Payroll process
1.0 3. CODE THE PROGRAM
 Writing a program is called coding. Coding consists of
Read input Calculate Pay Generate output translating the logic requirements from Pseudocode, or
Flowcharts into a programming language – the letters,
2.0 3.0 4.0 numbers, and symbols that make up the program.
 Select the Appropriate Programming Language
(Programming language is a set of rules that tells the
Read Read Generate Generate
computer what operation to do)
employee individual payroll report paychecks
 Follow the syntax (Syntax is the rules and grammar of the
master record time-card
programming language)
2.1 2.2 4.1 4.2
4. TEST THE PROGRAM
Calculate Calculate Running various tests and then running real-world data to
gross pay Top-Down net-pay make sure the program works.
Approach
 Desk-checking (Desk-checking is the program checking to
3.1 3.2 make sure that is free of errors and that the logic works)
 Debug the program (Debug means to detect, and remove
Calculate all errors (Syntax errors and Logical errors) in computer
Calculate Calculate Calculate
deductions program)
regular pay overtime taxes
 Run real-world data (also called Beta Testing)

3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2.1 3.2.2


5. DOCUMENT AND MAINTAIN THE PROGRAM  Employees of government agencies use computer as part
of their daily routine.
 Documenting written descriptions of what a program is
and how to use it.
 User and Operator Documentation (Manual) HEALTH CARE
 Programmer Documentation  Nearly every area of health care uses computers.
 Maintain the program  Hospital and doctors use computers to maintain patient
records
Maintenance: include any activity designed to keep  Computers monitor patients vital signs in hospital rooms
programs in working condition, error-free, and up-to- and at home
date – adjustments, replacements, repairs, measurements,  Computers and computerized devices assist doctors,
tests and so on. nurses, and technicians with medical tests
 Doctors use E-mail to correspond with patients
 Surgeons use computer controlled devices to provide
TOPIC 7 them with greater precision during operations, such as for
laser eye surgery and robot-assisted heart surgery
 Many web-sites provide up-to-date medical fitness,
nutrition, or exercise information. These web-sites also
IMPACT OF COMPUTER ON SOCIETY maintain lists of doctors and dentists to help you find
the one that suits your needs. They have chat-rooms, so
you can talk to others diagnosed with similar conditions.
 Impact of computer on society refers to the uses and Some web-sites even allow you to order prescriptions
misuses of computer in the society. online.
 The computer has changed society today as much as the  Tele-medicine (long-distance health care) – through
industrial revolution changed society in the eighteenth and Tele-medicine health care professionals in separate
nineteenth centuries. Now days, a tremendous amount of locations have live conferences on the computer
productivity is possible with computer.
SCIENCE
USES  All branches of science from biology to astronomy use
computers to assist them with collecting, analyzing, and
 Computer is broadly used in fields such as education, modeling data.
finance, government, health care, science, publishing,  Tiny computers now imitate functions of the central
travel and industry. nervous system, retinas of the eye, and cochlea of the ear.
A cochlear implant allows a deaf person to listen.
EDUCATION Cameras small enough to swallow take pictures inside
your body to detect polyps, cancer, and other
 E-Books / Tutorial software / Encyclopedias / Dictionaries abnormalities
 Schools and colleges use PCs, Notebook and PDAs both  A neural network is a system that attempts to imitate
at primary level and high level the behavior of the human brain. Scientists create neural
 Online learning – More than 70 percent of colleges offer networks by connecting thousands of processors
distance learning classes on the Internet together much like the neurons in the brain are connected
 A few offer even degrees online  Computers simulation for training
 Many vendors offer substantial discounts on software for
students to promote education  Pilot Training
 Vehicle Training
FINANCE  Bomb Making Training
 Running Nuclear Plant Training
 Many people and companies use computers to help
manage their finances.
 Finance software is used to balance checkbooks,
TRAVEL
paybills, track personal income and expense, manage  Whether traveling by car or airplane, your goal is to arrive
investments, and evaluate financial plans. safe at your destination.
 On-line banking – With online banking, users access  Many vehicles include today some type of onboard
account balances, paybills, and copy monthly transactions navigation facility.
from the bank’s computer right into their computers. The  Provides directions
advantage is you can access your financial records from
anywhere in the world.  Provide emergency services as soon as you press
 Computer in banks keep track of customers accounts, emergency button in the car
deposits, withdrawals, loan interest, etc.  Unlock the driver’s side door if you lock the keys in
 MICR reads Cheques in banks. the car
 Track the vehicle if it is stolen
GOVERNMENT  Many vehicles today also include options such as screens
 A government provides society with directions by making with e-mail and Internet access, printers, and b
and administering policies. capability.
 To provide citizens with up-to-date information, most  In preparing for a trip, you may need to reserve a car,
government offices have web-sites. hotel, or flight. Many web-sites offer these services to the
 Citizens file taxes, apply for permits and licenses, pay public.
parking tickets, buy stamps, report crimes, apply for
financial aid, and renew vehicle registration and driver’s  Order airline ticket on the web
licenses.  You can print directions and a map of a new place
unknown to you, from the Web. By entering the
starting address and ending address, the Web-site  Software pirates give up the right to receive upgrades
generates the best route for your trip and technical support, but they gain the use of the
program without paying for it.
 Piracy is a big commercial problem for software
INDUSTRY
companies, because the cost of the their commercial
 In industries CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) is used software is too high than the pirated software.
to assist with manufacturing processes such as  Shareware also suffers from a high piracy rate; while
fabrication and assembly of items. freeware does not.
 Industries use CAM to reduce product development costs,  How pirates work?
shorten a product’s time to market, and stay a head of
the competition.  They can copy this software from its original floppy
 Often, robots carry out processes in a CAM environment. disk or compact disc, which is purchased by
Robots have on or more arms, which can move like human someone getting the end-user license agreement or
arms, but are controlled by the programs stored in the the right to use the software.
computer and thus perform such tasks that are difficult  They can copy the software directly from the server,
and dangerous for human beings to perform, such as when they are in a network.
automobile assembly work, drilling for oil, generating
power. Robots can work in intense heat or in a
temperature below zero degrees centigrade. THEFT / UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS OR USE
 Special computers record actual labor, material,  Theft means the use of computer or network without
machine, and computer time used to manufacture a permission.
particular product.  Hackers and Crackers are those who try to access a
computer or network illegally. They are the computer
experts who break into a computer for the challenge or
ENGINEERING AND DESIGNING MAPS
use or steal computer resources or corrupt a computer’s
 CAD (Computer Aided Design) system is used by data or steal valuable information.
engineers, architects and mapmakers to design maps,  Theft may be:
draw buildings, and cars. A design of product, machine, or
building is created in CAD software and then forwarded to  Hardware
the CAM system.  Software
 With CAD system engineers can re-change the design  Information / Data
easily and repeatedly with no time lose. The design can  Time and Services
be seen or checked from all sides.

HARDWARE THEFT
PUBLISHING
 The act of stealing computer equipment. Notebook
 The process of making work available to the public, e.g. computers and other small sized but precious computers
are easy to stole. Many organizations now secure their
 Books computer equipment with steel cables locking the
 Magazines computer or other peripherals to the desk or other thing.
 Newspapers  Hardware vandalism is the act of defecting or destroying
computer equipment.
 Special software assists publishers in designing pages
that include text, graphics, and photographs.
 Journalists carry notebook computers, mobile devices SOFTWARE THEFT
and digital cameras to capture and record news as it  The act of stealing computer programs from remote
occurs. computers in a network, just right into their computers
 In addition to printing material, many publishers make the without getting the permission to use them (copyrighted
content of magazines and newspapers available online. software).
Some Web-sites allows you copy an entire book to your
desktop computer, handheld computer or PDA.
INFORMATION THEFT
 Information theft is the act of stealing personal or
COMPUTERS IN HOME confidential information of others. Both business and
 Children play games, draw pictures, play music, view home users can fall victim to information theft.
movies and do some sort of reading and writing.  A corrupt individual may steal credit-card numbers to
 E-mail/ Internet make fraudulent purchases.
 Calculations  Safeguard against information theft is the encryption
 Robots are used in homes to assist human beings. of data and information. Encryption is the process of
converting readable characters, into unreadable character
to prevent unauthorized access. To read the data the
recipient must decrypt it into readable form.
MISUSES OF COMPUTER (COMPUTER CRIMES)
TIME AND SERVICES THEFT
SOFTWARE PIRACY  People using their employer’s computer time
 The biggest illegal issue affecting the computer industry
 to play games
is software piracy.
 do online shopping
 Software piracy is the illegal copying of computer
 dip into web pornography
programs and operating systems. Illegal copying means
 playing movies and music
duplications of copyrighted software.
 chatting
 to see/browse non-ethical web-sites
MALICIOUS PROGRAMS  Logic bomb – Logic bombs, differ from other virus types
in that they are set to start infection at a certain date,
 Programs that act without a user’s knowledge and
time or event (for example, a change to a file).
deliberately alter the computer’s operations.
 Stealth Viruses – These viruses hide their damage
from the user and the operating system.
 Joke Programs – They are not real viruses. People use
Worms, Viruses and Trojan horses Joke programs only to frighten their victims into thinking
that a virus has infected and damaged their system.

WORMS
 A program that copies itself repeatedly into a computer’s TROJAN HORSE
memory or onto a disk drive may be in a network.
 Trojan horse is a malicious program that appears to be
 Some times it will copy itself so often that could cause a
friendly. For example, some Trojan Horses appear to be
computer to crash. It can spread to multiple computers in
games.
a network.
 A certain condition or action usually triggers the Trojan
 Worms are spread over the Internet via e-mail message
horse.
attachments and Internet Relay Chat (IRC).
 Unlike a virus or worm, a Trojan horse does not copy
 Examples
itself to other computers. FormatC is one example of
Trojan horse.
 Code Red – primarily affected Windows NT and 2000
system
 Sir Cam – primarily passed through infected Outlook Note
e-mail attachments  Malicious programs are one of three types (virus,
 Nimda – Windows NT or 2000 machines fill victim of worm, Trojan horse), but some programs have
this worm characteristics of two or all three types. For instance,
Melissa is having the characteristics of all the three
VIRUSES malicious programs.
 Correctly more than 62,000 known viruses, worms
 A potentially damaging computer program that infects
and Trojan horse programs exist with an estimated 6
a computer and negatively affects the way the computer
new programs discovered each day.
works without the user’s knowledge or permission.
 A virus stores on computer hard drive and can cause  Virushoax (also called Virus alerts) is an e-
destroying or corrupting data. mail message that warns users of a non-existent
 Once the virus infects the computer, it can spread virus, worm, or Trojan horse. Often these virus
throughout and may damage files and system software, hoaxes are in the form of chain letter that requests
including the operating system. the user to send a copy of the email, to as many
people as possible.

Virus Types
 Boot Sector Viruses – Boot sector is the part of the Symptoms of virus-infection
system software containing most of the instructions for  Screen displays unusual or annoying message or
booting or powering up the system. The Boot Sector image
virus replaces these boot instructions with some of its  Music or unusual sound plays randomly
own. Once the system is turned on, the virus is loaded into  Available memory is less than expected
main memory before the operating system. From there it  Existing programs and files disappear
is in a position to infect other files. Any diskette used in  Files become corrupted
the drive of the computer then becomes infected. When  Programs or files do not work properly
that diskette is moved to another computer, the contagion  Unknown programs or files mysteriously appear
continues. Examples are AntCMOS and AntiEXE.  System properties change
 Cluster Viruses – Makes changes to a disk’s file system.
Cluster viruses creates the illusion that the virus has How malicious programs are passed?
infected every program in the disk.  By diskette
 File Viruses – Attach themselves to executable files  By network
(.EXE, and .COM). Executable files (also called program
files) are those that actually begin a program. Thus File
Viruses infects program files.
Multipart Viruses – A hybrid of the file and boot-

sector types. These viruses infect both files and boot
AntiVirus Software
sectors, which makes it better at spreading and more  Software used to detect and destroy malicious
difficult to detect. Examples are Junkie and Parity Boot. programs is called AntiVirus software.
 Macro Viruses – Miniature programs called macros, are  Antivirus software protects a computer against viruses,
embedded inside common data files, such as those worms, and Trojan horses by identifying and removing any
created by e-mail or spreadsheets, which are sent over of them found in memory, on storage media, or on
computer networks. Examples are incoming files.
 Examples of AntiVirus software are given below.
 Concept – attaches to Word documents and E-mail  AVG AntiVirus
attachments.  Command AntiVirus
 Laronx – attaches to Excel spreadsheet files.  F-Secure AntiVirus
 McAfee Virus Scan
Fortunately the latest versions of Word and Excel  Norton AntiVirus
come with built-in macro virus protection.  RAV AntiVirus
 Trend Micro PC-cillin
Binary Number System
TOPIC 8
 Binary means two. Thus in this system only two digits or
symbols are used (0 and 1). 0 for computer means power
off and 1 means power on.

NUMBER SYSTEMS 

Base
Maximum value of a single digit
-
-
2
1
 The two basic digits represent first two numbers (0 and 1)
 Placing the basic digits in certain pattern/positions
represents other numbers. (E.g. 110 mean six and 111
 Every computer stores numbers, letters and other special
mean seven).
characters in a coded form. Before going into the detail of
 Each basic symbol/digit in the number represents a power
these codes, it is essential to have a basic understanding
of the Base – 2. For example, 111 or 7 (in decimal
of the number system.
system) can actually be expressed as:
 A number system is a term used for a set of different
symbols or digits, which represent values.
 Basically there are two types of number systems. 1 1 1
1 x 22 1 x 21 1 x 20
4 2 1 4+2+1=7
NON-POSITIONAL
 This method/system uses an additive approach or non-
positional number system. In this system, we have Octal Number System
symbols such as I for 1, II for 2, III for 3, IIII for 4, IIIII  Octal means eight. Thus eight basic digits or symbols are
for 5, and so on. Each value represents the same value used. (0 to 7)
regardless of it position in the number and the symbols  Base - 8
are simply added to find out the value of a particular  Maximum value of a single digit - 7
number.  The eight basic digits represent first eight numbers (i.e.
 Used in the early days from 0 to 7)
 Difficult to perform arithmetic operations  Placing or positioning the basic eight digits in a proper
order represents other numbers. (E.g. 15 mean thirteen

POSITIONAL 
and 51 mean forty-one).
Each basic digit or symbol in the number represents a
 In a positional number system, there are only a few power of the Base – 8. For example, 51 or 41 (in decimal)
symbols called digits, and these symbols represent can actually be expressed as:
different values depending on the position they occupy in
the number. 5 1
 The following two characteristics of positional number 5 x 81 1 x 80
system, you must keep in mind. 40 1 40 + 1 = 41

 Base (determines the total number of different


symbols or digits available in the number system. Hexadecimal Number System
 Maximum value of a single digit (which is always
one less than the value of the Base.  Hexa means sixteen. Thus sixteen basic digits or symbols
are used in hexadecimal number system (From 0 to 15).
 Common Positional Number System in Day-to-day life is
 Base - 16
Decimal Number System.  Maximum value of a single digit - 15
 The first 10 numbers are just like the first ten numbers in
decimal number system. (0 to 9).
Decimal Number System
 Capital letter A, B, C, D, E, and F represent Numbers from
 Base - 10
10 to 15 respectively.
 Max. value of a single digit - 9
 First ten numbers consist of the basic digits/symbols. (0,  Placing the basic digits and symbols in a proper position
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) or pattern represents Numbers beyond fifteen.
 Other numbers consist of various combinations of these  Each basic digit or symbol in the number represents a
digits and their values are represented by the position of power the Base – 16. For example, IAF or 431 (in
digits in the number. (E.g. 12 represent twelve, but 21 decimal system) can actually be expressed as:
represent twenty-one.
 In decimal number system the successive positions to the
1 A F
left of the decimal point represents units, tens,
1 x 162 A x 161 F x 160 256 + 160
hundreds, thousands, and so on.
 Each position represents a specific power of the Base – 10 1 x 256 10 x 16 15 x 1 + 15 =
For example, 5678 can actually be expressed as: 256 160 15 431

Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones/Units


5 6 7 8
5000 600 70 8
5 x 103 6 x 102 7 x 10 1 8 x 100

 Common Number Systems used in Computer System are


given below.
Conversions of Number Systems

1 To Decimal From Another Base

From Binary
Example #1 110012 = ?10

1 1 0 0 1
1 x 24 1 x 23 0 x 22 0 x 21 1 x 20
16 8 0 0 1
110012 = 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 2510

Example #2 11.1012 = ?10

1 1 1 0 1
1 x 21 1 x 20 1 x 2-1 0 x 2-2 1 x 2-3
1x2 1x1 1 x 0.5 0 x 0.25 1 x 0.125
11.1012 = 2 + 1 + 0.5 + 0 + 0.125 = 3.62510

From Octal
Example #1 47068 = ?10

4 7 0 6
4 x 83 7 x 82 0 x 81 6 x 80
2048 448 0 6
47068 = 2048 + 448 + 0 + 6 = 250210

Example #2 1.528 = ? 10

1 5 2
1 x 80 5 x 8-1 2 x 8-2
1x1 5 x 0.125 2 x 0.015625
1 0.625 0.03125
1.528 = 1 + 0.625 + 0.03125= 1.6562510

From Hexadecimal
Example #1 1AC16 = ?10

1 A C
1 x 162 A x 161 C x 160
1 x 162 10 x 161 12 x 160
16 160 12
1AC16 =16 + 160+ 12 = 42810

Example #2 5.1A16 = ?10

5 1 A
1 x 160 1 x 16-1 A x 16-2
1 x 160 10 x 0.0625 10 x 0.00390625
5 0.0625 0.0390625
5.1A16 = 5 + 0.0625 + 0.0390625 = 5.101562510