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Anaphy Lecture

“Elements found in the body (% in body mass)
1. Oxygen 65% - part of water, used to generate ATP
2. Carbon 18.5% - backbone of all organic molecules
3. Hydrogen 9.5% - constituent of water and most organic molecules, makes the body fluids more
4. Nitrogen 3.2% - component of all proteins and nucleic acids
5. Calcium 1.5% - hardness of bones and teeth, blood clotting, release of hormones, muscle
6. Phosphorus 1% - nucleic acids and ATP, bones and teeth structure
7. Potassium0.35% - action potential (way nervous signals are sent)
- 3.5 to 5.5 normal range
- strength f heart (Cardio contract activity)
8. Sulfur 0.25% - vitamins and many proteins
9. Sodium 0.2% - water balance, action potential
10. Chlorine 0.2% water balance
11. Magnesium 0.1% - increases the rate of chemical reactions
12. Iron 0.005% - Hgb and some enzymes
13. Trace elements 0.2% - Al, B, Cr, Co, Cu, F, Mn, Mo, Se, Si, Sn, V, Zn

Inorganic Compounds and solutions

1. Water
- most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems
- as solvent
- in chemical reactions
- Lubricant
2. Acids and bases
ACIDS – release hydrogen
- substance that associates into one or more hydrogen ions or one or more anions
- sour taste and can dissolve many metals
- proton donors
- when dissolve in water, release hydrogen ions
BASES – release OH (hydroxide)
- a bitter taste and feels slippery
- proton acceptors
- common hydroxides are inorganic bases*
- like acids, hydroxides ionize and dissociate in water
- NaOH to Na + CH
- a PH scale runs from 0 – 14
- 7 is the scale midpoint number of the hydrogen ions exactly equals the number of hydroxyl
- normal blood PH 7.35 to 7.45
- ACIDOSIS – occurs when PH drops below 7.35
- ALKALOSIS – occurs when PH is above 7.45
3. Salts
- Formed by the reaction of an acid and base

1. Carbohydrates
- ratio of “H” to “O” is 2
- water carbons
1.a Monosaccharide
- Simple sugars
- 3 – 7 carbon atoms
- glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose and deoxyribose
1.b Disaccharide
- Double sugars
- formed by dehydration synthesis
- Glucose + Fructose = SUCROSE
- Glucose + Galactose = LACTOSE
- Glucose + Glucose = MALTOSE
1.c Polysaccharide
- Long branching chains of limited simple sugars
- 2 major polysaccharide in the body
A. Starch – potatoes, carrots
B. Glycogen – animal tissue
- most abundant organic substance on earth

2. Lipids – 18 to 25% of body mass

- CHO; do not have 2:1 ratio of “H” to “O”
- Hydrophobic
- Found in meat, egg yolk, dairy products and oils
2.a Triglycerides
- most abundant lipid in the body
- aka triacylglycerol
- the body’s most highly concentrated form of chemical energy in the body
- adipose (Fat) deposits, CHO, CHON, Fats and oils
- types saturated, mono - saturated, poly – saturated
- protection, insulation, energy storage
2.b Phospholipids
- major lipid component of cell membranes
- transport of lipids in plasma
- abundant in the brain and nervous tissues
2.c Steroids
- have 4 rings of carbon atoms
2.c.1 Cholestarol
- pre cursor of body steroids
- minor component of all animal cell membranes
2.c.2 Bile Salts
- need for absorption of dietary lipids
2.c.3 Vitamin D
- helps regulate Ca++ level in the body and for the bone growth
and repair
2.c.4 Adrenocortical Hormones
- regulate metabolism
- resistance to stress and salt and water balance
2.c.5 Sex hormones
- Simulates reproductive functions and sexual characteristic

2.d Eicosenoids
- have diverse effects on blood clotting inflammation and immunity
- prostalglandins and leukotrienes
RUBOR – Redding
Calor – Heating
Dolor – Pain
Tumor – Swelling

2.e other lipids

2.e.1 Fatty acids
- generates ATP and synthesis of triglyceride and phospholipids
2.e.2 Cerotenes
- synthesis of vit A
2.e.3 Vitamin E
- wound healing prevents tissue scarring antioxidant
2.e.4 Vitamin K
- synthesis of blood clotting proteins
2.e.5 Lipoproteins
- transport of lipids

3. Proteins
- 12 – 18% body mass
- Amino acid peptide bonds
3.a structural
- forms structural framework of various parts of the body
- collagen, keratin
3.b Regulatory
- functions as hormones
- controls growth and development neurotransmitter
- insulin (produced in the pancreas) – carries glucose to the cells
3.c Contractile
- allow shortening of muscle cells
- myosin and actin
3.d Immunological
- antibodies and interleukins
3.e Transport
- hemoglobin (transports oxygen)
3.f catalytic
- salivary amylase, sucrase, ATPase

4. Nucleic Acids
- chain of repeating nucleotides
- nucleotides: monomer of nucleic acids
- DNA and RNA
- nitrogen base
- pentose sugar
- phosphate group
4.a DNA
- A = T; C = G
4.b RNA
- A = U; C = G

5. Adenosine Triphosphate
- “energy currency” of living system
- ATP + H2O to ATPase to ADP + P + E
- ADP + P + E to ATP synthesis ATP + H2O
- cellular respiration: catabolism of glucose
A. Anaerobic phase: glu – pyruvic acid
: 2 molecules of ATP
B. Aerobic phase: glu – CO2 and H2O
: 36 to 38 molecules of ATP
Chapter 3

Cell Structures and their Funcitons

Cell – is the basic, living, structural unit of the body

Cytology – the scientific study of the cellular
Cell physiology

Plasma Membrane
- fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents and seperates them from the surrounding
- it is a selective barrier
- phospholipids for

Types and characteristics of movement across membranes

Selective permeability
- allows some substances

- solution (solute and the solvent)
- components or substances present in smaller amount
- dissolved particles/ substances
Concentration Gradient
1. Diffusion
- Solutes move from an area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration
- molecules will move passively through the plasma membrane by diffusion in two
conditions: A. They are small enough to pass through its pores
B. They can be dissolve in the fatty portions of the membrane

2 types of diffusion
1. Simple Diffusion
- unassisted diffusion
2. Facilitated Diffusion
- Protein carrier is needed to transport a certain molecule

2. Osmosis
- diffusion of water from region of higher to water concentration to region of lower
- Solvent moves
- Osmotic pressure – force required to prevent movement of water across a selective
permeable membrane (pulling force)
Hydrostatic Pressure
- ability of solution to change

Types of solution according to tonicity

1. Hypotonic
- occurs when there is a lower concentration of solutes and higher concentration of water
than the cytoplasm of the cell
- may cause the cell to swell which may lead to rupture or lysis
E.g. Distilled water, 0.18% NaCl
2. Isotonic
- the concentration of solutes and water are the same on both sides of the cell membrane
- the cell neither shrink or swell
3. Hypertonic
- has a higher concentration of solutes and a lower concentration of water than the
cytoplasm of the cell
- may cause the cell to shrink (Crenation)
E.g. Dextrose

3. Filtration
- movement of fluid through a partition containing small holes
- Pressure gradient – pushes solute containing fluid (Filtrate) from the higher pressure area
to lower pressure area

- “into the cell”, moves substances inside the cell
2 types
- “Cell eating”
- solid particles are ingested
- engulfed substances are relatively large particles such as bacteria and
dead body cells
- e.g. WBC

- “Cell drinking”
- use to take liquids that contain dissolve CHONs or fats

- “Out of the cell”; moves substances out of the cell

1. Nucleus
- Headquarters or the control center
- gene – containing structure
- the genetic material or deoxyribose nucleic; acid (DNA), is the blueprint that contains all the
instructions needed for building the whole body
2. Nucleoli
- are small, dark staining round bodies
- site where ribosomes are assembled
3. Ribosome
- Are tiny, round, dark bodies made of proteins
- actual sites of protein synthesis
- some float free in the cytoplasm and other attach to membranes
4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
- “network within the cell”
- is a system of fluid filled cisterns (tubules or canals) that coil and twist through the cytoplasm
- serves as a minicirculatory system within the cell
- is a series of membranes forming sacs and tubules that extend from the outer nuclear
membrane into the cytoplasm

2 types of ER
Rough ER
- is so called because it is studied by ribosomes
- cells “membrane factory”
- it contains enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of protein
- e.g. pancreatic cells, which produce digestive enzymes to be delivered to the small intestine

Smooth ER
- plays no role in protein synthesis
- site for Lipid synthesis
- Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism and detoxification of drugs
- Liver
- commonly found in the liver and in body cells that produced steroid based hormones
- for instance, cell of the male testes that manufacture testosterone
- attached to the nucleus

5. Golgi apparatus
- principal “traffic director” for cellular proteins
- major functions is to modify and package proteins (sent to it by rough ER via transport
- it pinches off sacs containing proteins and phospholipids destined to be part of the
plasma membrane and packages hydrolytic enzymes into membranous sacs called lysosomes that
remain in the cell

6. Secretory Vesicles
- small, membrane – bound sac that transports or stores materials within cells
7. Lysosomes
- Vesicles formed from Golgi complex that contain digestive enzymes
- appears in different sizes
- “Demolitions sites”
8. Peroxisomes
- are membranous sacs containing powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular oxygen
to detoxify a number of harmful or poisonous substances, including alcohol and formaldehyde
- converts hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
- are numerous in liver and kidney cells which are very active in detoxification
9. Mitochondria
- are tiny threadlike or sausage shaped organelles with inner and outer membranes
- powerhouse of the cell
- “metabolically busy cells” like liver and muscle cells, use huge amounts of ATP and
have hundreds of mitochondria
- the outer membrane is smooth, but the inner membrane has shelf – like protrutions
called “cristae”
10. Cytoskeletons
- elaborate network of protein structures extending throughout the cytoplasm
- acts as “Cells bones and muscles”
- made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments
Parts of the Cytoskeletons
a. Microtubules
- tubelike structure that determines the overall shape of the cell
distribution of organelles
b. Intermediate filament
- strong, stable ropelike structures that resist internal pulling of the cells
c. Microfilaments
- are most involved in cell motility and producing changes in cell shape
11. Cilia
- whiplike cellular extensions that move substances along the cell surface
- e.g ciliated cell of the respiratory systems that move mucus up and away from the
12. Flagella
- are also cellular extensions similar of cilia but are much longer
- the only example of flagellated cell in the human body is the sperm
13. Microvilli
- are tiny finger – like projections that greatly increase the cells surface area for
Chapter 4
Tissue Level of organization

- Are group of cells grouped together to carry out specialized activities
- ex bones
Types of Tissues
1. Epithelial
- Covers the body surfaces
- ex: skin, lines hollow organs, body cavities and ducts
- it also forms the glands
2. Connective
- Protects and supports the body
- binds organs together
- store energy reserves and helps provide immunity
3. Muscular
- For movement
- generates body heat
4. Nervous
- detects changes inside and outside of the body
- sensory receptors
- respond to changes by generating action potential thus activating muscular contraction and glandular


- is the lining, covering and glandular tissue of the body
- found all throughout the body covering the internal and external surfaces
- functions include protection, absorption and filtration and secretion
- Penetration, Absorption, Filtration, Secretion (PAFS)\
- vascular gets its nutrients from diffusion
Special Characteristics
- Epithelial cells fit closely to form continuous sheets
- the membranes always have one free surface or edge
- the lower surface of an epithelium rests on a basement membrane, a structure less material secreted
by the cells
- epithelial tissue have no blood supply of their own and depend on diffusion from the capillaries in the
underlying tissue for food and oxygen
Classification of Epithelia
- each epithelia is given two name
- the first indicates the relative number of cell layers it has:
1. Simple epithelium (One layer of cells)
2. Stratified epithelium (More than one cell)
1.Simple Epithelia
- are most concerned with absorption secretion and filtration
1.1 Simple Squamous Epithelia
- is a single layer of thin squamous cells resting on a basement layer
- usually form membranes where filtration or exchange of substances by rapid diffusion occurs
- located in the air sacs in the lungs and forms the walls of capillaries
1.2 Simple Cuboidal Epithelia
- is a layer of cuboidal cells resting on a basement membrane
- involve in active transports, facilitated diffusion or secretion of waste products
- forms the walls of the kidney tubules and covers
1.3 Simple Columnar Epithelia
- is a single layer of tall, thin cells
- involve in protection of the inner lining of the entire length of the digestive tract from the esophagus
to anus
- GOBLET CELLS – produces a lubricating mucus
1.4 Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia
- stratified due to sizes
- consists of one layer of cells, with all the cells attached to the basement membrane
- some of its cells are shorter than the others and their nuclear appear at dif heights above the
basement membranes
- lines some of the glands and ducts
2. Stratified Epithelia
- consists of two or more cell layers
- primarily function to protect
A. stratified Squamous Epithelium
- the most common stratified epithelium In the body
- consist of several layer of cells
- found in sites that receive a good deal of friction such as esophagus, the mouth and
the outer portion of the skin (keratinized stratified squamous epithelium)
B. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
- consists of one or more layer of cuboidal epithelial cells
- functions to absorb, secrete and protect
- found in sweat gland ducts, ovarian follicular cell and salivary glands
C. Stratified Columnar Epithelium
- are columnar cells only in the surface, but its basal cells vary in size and shape
- found in mammary gland ducts, the larynx and a portion of the male urethra
D. Transitional Epithelium
- are stratified squamous epithelium that forms the lining of urinary bladder, the ureters
and part of the urethra
- these parts are subject to considerable stretching
- 0.8 to 1.2 liters could be held by the bladder
- when the organ is stretched – the epithelium thins and the surface cells flatten and
become squamouslike
- when organ is not stretched – the membrane is many layered and the superficial

Cell Junctions
- connect epithelial cells
- are contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells
Cell Connections
A. Tight junctions
- web – like structure tat bind adjacent cell together to form permeability barriers
- prevent the passage of material between epithelial cells because the completely
surround each cell
- found in the lining of the intestines
B. Desmosomes
- mechanical links that functions to bind cells together
- are anchoring junctions that prevent cells subjected to mechanical stress from being
pulled apart
C. Hemidesmosomes
- modified desmosomes that anchor cells to the basement membranes
D. Gap Junctions
- Primarily acts to allow communication by allowing molecules such as nutrient and ions
to pass directly form one cell to another
- commonly seen in the heart and between embryonic cells
- is a structure that secretes substances onto a surface, into a cavity, or into the blood
- consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product (secretion)
- Two major types of glands
A. Endocrine Glands – lose their connection to the surface (Duct); thus they are called ductless
- e.g. thyroid, adrenal and pituitary
B. Exocrine Glands – their secretions empty through the ducts to the epithelial surface
- Can be simple or compound and its end can be tubular either straight

II. Connective Tissue

-is the most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types.
-usually characterized by large amounts of extracellular materials that separate cells from one another

Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue

- variations in blood supply, most are highly vascularized except for tendons and ligaments while
cartilages are avascular
- connective tissues are made up of many different types of cells plus varying amounts of non - living
substances from outside the cells, called the Extracellular Matrix
- components of extracellular matrix
- protein fibers
- ground substance (non 0 fibrous
Ground substance
- is the component of a connective tissue between the cell and fibers
- shapeless background on which the cell and collagen fibers are seen and attached
Blast Cells – 0produce the matrix
Cytes – maintain the cell
Clast cells – destroy cells for remodeling

- large cells that are capable of moving about and ingesting foreign substances including microorganisms
found in the connective tissues
- engulf and destroys bacteria, viruses in the lymph before it is returned to the blood
Mast Cells
-nonmotile cells that release chemicals, that promote inflammation
Classification of Connective Tissue
1. Loose Connective Tissue
- aerolar tissue
- is the most widely distributed connective tissue variety in the body
- is a soft pliable tissue that cushions and protects the body organs it wraps
- has extracellular matrix consisting mostly of collagen and a few elastic fibers
- Fibroblast – responsible for the production of the matrix
- functions as a universal packing tissue because it helps to hold the internal organs in place
2. Adipose Tissue
- commonly called Fats
- it is an aerolar tissue in which fats predominate
- individual cells are closely packed together
- functions to store energy
- forms the subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin where it insulates the body and protects it
from extremes of temperature
3. Dense Connective Tissue
- dense fibrous tissue
- has collagen fibers as its matrix
- forms ropelike structure such as tendon and ligaments

A. Dense Collagenous Connective Tissue
Collagen> Elastic Fibers
E.G. Tendons, Ligaments
B. Dense Elastic Connective Tissue
Elastic>Collagen Fibers
E.G. vocal chord

4. Cartilage
- is less hard and more flexible than bone
- is found only a few places in the body
- formed by cartilage cells, the Chondrocytes
A. Hyaline Cartilage
- is the most abundant type of cartilage
- with rubbery matrix with glassy, blue white appearance
- form the supporting structures of the larynx, attaches the ribs to the sternum and
covers the end of the bones as they form the joints
B. Fibrocartilage
- has more collagen than does hyaline cartilage
- can withstand pulling and tearing forces
- forms the cushion like disks between the vertebrae of the spinal column
C. Elastic Cartilage
- contains elastic fibers in addition to collagen and proteoglycans
- located in the external ear, epiglottis and auditory tube
5. Bone
- osseous tissue
- formed by the osteocytes (Bone cells)
- involved in protection and support
- compact and cancellous as its two types
6. Blood
- vascular tissue
- consist of blood cells surrounded by a nonliving, fluid matrix called blood plasma
- transport vehicle of the cardiovascular system carrying nutrients, wastes and respiratory gases
III. Muscular Tissue
- are highly specialized to contract or shorten, to produce movement
- mad up of muscle cells or muscle fibers
Types of Muscle Tissues
A. Skeletal muscle
- packaged by connective tissues to organs called skeletal muscles
- form the flesh of the body
- can be controlled voluntarily
- cells are long, cylindrical, multinucleate and have obvious striations
B. Cardiac Muscle
- muscle of the heart responsible for pumping blood
- cells are round but shorter than skeletal muscles
- has also striations but cells are only uninucleate
- in under involuntary control
- cardiac cells are fit tightly together at junctions called intercalated disks
C. Smooth Muscle
- visceral muscle
- involves no striations, uninucleated and spindle – shape
- under involuntary control
- forms the walls of the hollow organs such as the stomach, bladder, uterus and blood
- Peristalsis – a wavelike motion that keeps the food moving through the small intestine


IV. Nervous Tissue

- forms the brain, spinal cord and the nerves
- functions to coordinate and control bodily activities
- consists of neurons and support cells
- Neuron – nerve cells consisting of an axons and a dendrite
- Neuroglia – support cells
Chapter 5
Integumentary system

- consist of the skin and accessory structures such as hair, nails and glands

Functions of the integumentary system

- Protection
- protection against abrasion and ultraviolet radiation(melanin)
- contains “keratin”, which toughen cells, prevents entry of micro – organism (unbroken surface
an acid mantle) and dehydration
- Sensation
- contains sensory receptors, which alert the nervous system to possible damage
- Vitamin D production
- skin produces a molecule that can be transformed into vitamin D
- Temperature Regulation
- involved in activity of sweat glands in the skin
 Heat Loss
- activating sweat glands and allowing blood into skin capillary beds (vasodilation)
 Heat retention
- not allowing the blood to flush into skin capillaries (vasoconstriction)
- Excretion
- removal of waste products in the body
e.g. Urea, uric acid and ammonia (Legumes – peurines)

Hypodermis/Subcutaneous Tissue
- below the dermis
- where the skin rest
- not part of the skin
- it is not considered part of the skin but it attaches skin to underlying bone and muscle and supplies it
with blood and nerves
- part of basement membrane
- loose connective tissue that contains half the bodys stored fat
- serves as shock absorber and insulates the deeper tissues from extreme temperature changes
- responsible for the curves that are more part of the womans anatomy

- made up of two major kinds of tissue layers
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis

1. Epidermis
– layer of epithelial tissue that rests on the dermis
- made up of stratified squamous epithelium that is capable of keratinizing or becoming hard or
- in its deepest layer, cells are produced by mitosis
- Avascular
- most cells of the epidermis are keratonycites
- Stratum Basale
- mitotic activities
- deepest cell layer of the epidermis
- lies closest to the dermis and contains only cells that receive adequate nourishment via
diffusion of nutrients from the dermis
- consist of cuboidal and columnar cells that undergo mitotic division every 19 days
- aka stratum germinativum
- Stratum Spinosum
- more superficial layer
- formed when the daughter cells from the stratum basale are pushed upward away
from the source of nutrients
- stratum Granulosum
- the layer above the stratum spinosum
- Stratum Lucidum
- a clear layer formed when cells from stratum granolosum become flatter and
increasingly full of keratin
- only occurs where the skin is hairless and extra thick
- Stratum Corneum
- most superficial stratum of the epidermis
- consists of dead squamous cells filled with hard protein, keratin joined by desmosomes
- composed of 25 or more layers

Dandruff – excessive stratum corneum cells sloughed from the surface of the scalp
Callus – a thickened area produced when the skin is subjected to friction, which increases the number of
layers in the stratum corneum
Corn – cone shaped structure caused by thickening of stratum corneum over bony prominences
- cells become fluid filled with protein

- Pigment that ranges In color from yellow to brown to black
- produced by special cell called melanocytes – found chiefly stratum basale
- Protective pigment – “umbrella” or “sunny” side of the nuclei that shields the DNA from damaging
effects of ultraviolet rays
- sunlight stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin
Melanosomes – vesicle derived from the golgi apparatuses where melanin is packaged
> melanin pigment – freckles, moles, genitalia, nipples
< melanin pigment – lips, palms of hand, feet
Albinism – recessive genetic trait that causes a deficiency or absence of production of melanin
Cyanosis – bluish discoloration of the skin caused by decreased in the blood oxygen content
Carotene – yellow pigment found in plants such as squash and carrots
- source of vitamin A
2. Dermis
- dense collagenous connective tissue
- fewer fat cells and blood vessels
- nerve ending, hair follicle, smooth muscles, gland and lymphatic vessels extended into the
- abundant with collagen and elastic fibers
- collagen fibers produce cleavage or tension lines
- Striae or stretch marks
- caused by overstretching of the skin
- With 2 layers
- Papillary
- Dermal papillae – finger like projections in the upper part of the dermis which
extend toward the epidermis
- others house the pain receptors (Free nerve endings) and Meissner’s corpsules
- palms of the hands and soles of the foot – papillae are arranged in the definite
patterns that form looped ridges on epidermal surface
- increase friction
- enhances gripping ability of the fingers and the feet
- Fingerprints – identifying films of sweat, formed by the ridges of the fingertips
(well provided with sweat pores)
- Reticular Layer
- deepest skin layer
- contains blood vessel, sweat and oil glands and PASCINIAN CORPUSCLES


1. Hair
- Hair follicle – flexible epithelial structure, An extension of the epidermis deep into the dermis
- shaft – protrudes above the surface of the skin
- root – hair enclosed on the follicle
- Hair bulb – growth zone, where the hair is formed by division of well nourished stratum basale
epithelial cells
Layer of the hair
- Medulla – central core
- cortex – hard structure that surrounds the softer central core ( medulla)
- Cuticle – formed by single layer of cells that overlap one another like shingles on a
roof, which encloses the cortex
- Most heavily keratinized region; provides strength and keep the inner hair
- Split ends
2. muscle
- arrector pili
- smooth muscle cells associated with each hair follicle
- contraction of the arrector pili
3. Glands
sebaceous glands
- Simple, branched acinar glands
- found all over the skin, except on the palms of hands and soles of foot
- sebum - oily white substance rich in lipids
- mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells
- containing chemicals
Condition that would affect the sebaceous glands
- whiteheads – caused by blockage of sebaceous gland ducts
- blackheads – occurs when the accumulated material oxidizes, dries and darken
- acne – active infection of the sebaceous gland accompanied by pimples, may lead to
permanent scarring
- seborrhea – known as “cradle crop” in infants, caused by overactivity of sebaceous glands
Sweat glands (aka sudoriferous glands)
- 2 major types
- Merocrine/ eccrine
- simple, coiled tubular glands located almost every part of the skin and are most
numerous in palms and soles
- sweat – clear secretion that is primarily water, salts, vitamin C, traces of metabolic
wastes and lactic acid
- good breeding ground of bacteria
- acidic
- secreted through pores
- Apocrine sweat glands
- simple coiled tubular glands that produce a thick secretion in organic substances
- they open to the hair follicles, but only in axillary and genitalia
- larger than eccrine glands
- secretions contain fatty acids and proteins, as well as all substances present in eccrine
secretions (milky or yellowish color)
- odorless
- become active at puberty because of influence of sex hormones
4. Nails
Nail – a thin plate consisting of dead stratum corneum cells that contain a very hard type of keratin
Nail body

Eponychium – stratum corneum that extends into the nail body

Nail bed – where the nail root and nail body are attached
Nail matrix – thickened proximal area of the nail bed
Lunula – whitish crescent shape
1. Partial thickness burns
- some part of the stratum basale remains viable and regeneration of the epidermis occurs from
within the burn area as well as from the edges of the burn area
- first degree burns – involved only the epidermis and are red and painful and slight
edema or swelling can be present
- can by sunburn or brief exposure to hot or cold object
- heal without scarring
- second degree burns
- damage the epidermis and dermis
- minimal damage – redness, pain, edema and blister
- healing take about 2 weeks
- no scarring
Deep into the dermis
- appears red, tan or white
- take several months to heal
2. Full thickness or third degree burns
- the epidermis and dermis are completely destroyed
- recovery occurs from the edges of the burn wound
- usually painless because sensory receptor in the dermis and epidermis have been destroyed
- appear white, tan, brown, black or deep cherry red

An adult who has been burned the percent of the body involved can be calculated as follows
Head – 9
Chest front – 9
Abdomen front – 9
Upper/mid/low back and buttocks – 18
Each arm

Burns are considered critical if

- over 25% of the body has second degree burns
- over 10 % of the body has third degree burns
- there are third degree burns if the face, hands and feet
Chap 6
Skeletal System
- includes the bones, joints, cartilages and ligaments

Functions of the Skeletal System

1. Support
2. Protection
3. Movement
4. Storage
5. Blood cell production

2 Divisions
1. Axial Skeleton – bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body
2. Appendicular Skeleton – includes the bones of the limbs and the girdles (where the limbs
attach) Pectoral (2 scapula and 2 clavicular) and Pelvic ( Ilium, Ischium and pubis) girdle

Classification of Bones (according to structure)

2 types of bone tissue
1. Compact bone – dense, looks smooth and homogenous
- Central/Haversian Canal – sets of concentric ring that contain the blood vessel
supplying the bone tissue
2. Spongy bone – composed of needlelike pieces and lots of open space

Classification according to shape

Long bones - usually composed of compact bone
e.g. bones of the limbs except the wrist and ankle bones
Short bones – cube – shaped and contain most
Structure of Long Bone
Diaphysis – shaft of long bone, composed of compact bone
Periosteum – fibrous connective tissue that covers and protects the diaphysis
Sharpey’s Fibers – secure the periosteum to the underlying bone
Endosteum – a thinner connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity
Epiphysis – ends of the long bone
Articular Cartilage – covers the ends of the long bone
- provides smooth, slippery surface that deceases the friction at joint structures
Epiphyseal line – a thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis
- remnant of the epiphyseal plate
Epiphyseal Plate – causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone
Yellow Marrow – located in the medullary cavity
- cavity of the shaft that primarily functions as a storage area of adipose tissue

Axial Skeleton Skull

2 sets of bones:

1. Cranium – covers and protects the fragile brain tissue

2. Facial Bone – holds the facial muscles in place
- joined together by structures which are interlocking, immovable joints.

Cranium – boxlike structure composed of 8 bones

1. Frontal Bone – forms the forehead, bony projections under the eyebrow and superior part of the
eye’s orbit
2. Parietal Bone – forms the most part of the superior and lateral walls of the cranium
3. Temporal bone 0 paired bone that lies inferior to the parietal bone, they join them at the squamous
- bone markings present in temporal bone
External Auditory Meatus (EAM) – is a canal that leads to the eardrum and the middle ear

Zygomatic Process – a thin bridge of bone that joins with the cheekbone (zygomatic bone)
Mastiod Process – is a rough projection posterior and inferior to the EAM
4. occipital bone – most posterior bone of the cranium forms the inferior and posterior bone of the
- Join the parietal bones anteriorly at the lambdoid suture
Foramen Magnum - large opening at the base of occipital bone
Occipital condyles – located laterally to the foramen magnum which rest on the first
vertebra of the vertebral column
5. Sphenoid Bone – butterfly – shaped bone that spans the width of the skull and forms part of the floor
of the cranial cavity
Sella turcica – a depression that holds the pituitary gland
Foramen ovale – an opening in lined with the posterior portion of sella turcica that
allow the fiber of cranial nerve 5 to pass
Trigeminal Nerve (largest cranial nerve) (nerve 5)
6. Ethmoid Bone – irregularly shaped bone that lies anterior to the sphenoid bone
Crista Galli – outermost covering of the brain attaches to this bone
Cribriform plate - allows fibers carrying impulses from the olfactory receptors to reach the brain
7. Facial bones – 14 bones compose the face, 12 are paired, only the mandible and the vomer are single
Maxillae – paired bone that fused to form the upper jaw
- main bones of the face
- carries the upper teeth
Palatine Bones – lies posterior to the palatine processes of the maxillae

Zygomatic Bones – “Cheekbones”

Lacrimal Bones – bones forming part of the medial wall of each orbit
Nasal Bones - bones forming the bridge of the bone
Inferior Nasal Conchae - thin, curved bones projecting from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
Superior Nasal Conchae- curved bones projecting from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
Vomer Bone – is the single bone in the medial of the nasal cavity
Mandible – “lower jaw” and the only freely movable joint of the face (mostly use)

8. Hyoid Bone – closely related to the mandible and temporal bone.

- not part of the skull and does not have any attachment to the skull
- elevates the larynx when speaking and swallowing
Vertebral Column (Spine)
- Central axis of the skeleton extend from the skull to the pelvis
- Before birth = 33 bones
- cervical = 7
- thoracic = 12
- lumbar = 5
- sacrum = 1
- coccyx = 1
Intervertebral disks – pads of fibrocartilage that pads and cushions the vertebrae and absorb shock
Primary Curves – thoracic and sacral curvatures
Secondary Curves – cervical and lumbar curvatures

5 Major functions
- supports the weight of the head and the trunk
- protects the spinal cord
- allows the spinal nerves to exit the spinal cord
- provides a site for muscle attachment
- permits movement of the head and trunk

Parts of the Vertebra

Body or centrum – disc – like, weight – bearing part of the vertebra]
Vertebral arch – surrounds a large opening which is the vertebral foramen
Vertebral foramen – canal through which the
Superior and inferior articular
Process – projections lateral to the vertebral foramen, allowing a vertebra to form joints with adjacent

Cervical Vertebra – C1 – C&

- Atlas(C1) – “yes” joint
- Axis (C2) – “no” joint – odontoid process\
- C3 – C7 – “typical” cervical vertebrae

Thoracic Vertebrae – T1 – T12

- All typical
- Apple shaped
- Larger than the cervical vertebra
- with long spinous process directed inferiorly

Lumbar Vertebrae L1 – L5
- is the sturdiest of the vertebrae
- massive, short, hatched – shaped spinous process

Sacral Vertebrae - formed by the fusion of the five vertebrae

Alae – articulates
Coccyx – fusion of three to four small, irregular vertebrae

Thoracic Cage
1. flat bone – typical flat bone
- results form the fusion of three bones
- manubrium, body and xyphoid process
2. Ribs – 12 pairs
1 – 7 – true ribs
8 – 12 – false ribs
11 – 12 – floating ribs (muscle attachment)
Intercoastal space (space between the ribs)0101