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Anaphy 6.

Tectospinal – movement in response to visual

Limbic system reflexes
 responds to olfactory stimulation by initiating Protection of the CNS – three connective tissue
responses for survival such as thirst and hunger membranes covering and protecting the CNS structures
 influences memory, emotions, visceral are meninges
responses to emotions, motivation and mood 1. Dura Mater – outermost layer
Lesions in limbic system – voracious appetite, increased 2. Arachmoid Mater – connects the
sexual activity and docility (loss of fear and anger outermost layer to the innermost
responses) membrane
3. Pia Mater – innermost layer that claims
II. Spinal cord tightly to the surface of the brain and
 Long, glistening white continuation of the brain spinal cord
stem Spaces between Meninges
 Provides a two way conduction pathway to and  Epidural Space - between The dura mater and
from the brain periosteum of the vertebrae; site of injection
 Extends from foramen magnum of then skull to for epidural anesthesia
the level of 2 lumbar vertebrae  Subdural space – bet. The dura and the
 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from the cord and arachnoid mater
exit to form the vertebral column  Subarachnoid space – bet. The arachnoid and
the pia mater; filled with cerebrospinal fluid
White matter of the spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System
 Composed of myelinated fiber tracts  Nerve – bundle of neuron fibers found outside
 Divided into three regions CNS
1. posterior columns o Endoneurium – a delicate connective
2. lateral columns tissue that surrounds a neuron fiber
3. anterior columns o Perineurium – a coarser connective
Each of the column contains a number of tracts sheath that covers group of fibers
Ascending tracts (fascicles)
- consists of axons that conduct action o Epineurium – a tough fibrous sheath
potentials toward the brain that bounds together the fascicles
Descending tracts Cranial Nerves – 12 pairs
- away from the brain - Nerve that primarily supply the head and neck
- Only CN X (Vagus) extends from the thoracic
Gray matter of spinal cord and abdominal cavities
- shaped like the letter “H” I. Olfactory – SENSORY OF SMELL
- Divided into three regions - subject is asked to sniff and identify aromatic
1. posterior horns substances e.g. Coffee, vanilla oil, etc
2. lateral horns II. Optic – SENSORY OF VISION
3. anterior horns - Eye chart, finger moving into the visual field
 Ventral root III. Oculomotor – Motor: pupil constriction
 Dorsal root - Penlight, eye convergence. To follow moving
 Dorsal root ganglia objects
 Spinal nerve IV. Trochlear – Motor: Supplies superior oblique
- Same test with CN III, ability to follow moving
Spinal cord reflexes objects
 knee jerk reflex/patellar reflex - a stretch reflex - Extra Optic Movement
that happens when the patellar ligament is V. Trigeminal – Both sensory and motor: With three
tapped causing leg extension branches (ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular)
- ophthalmic (S): Cotton wisp; blink reflex)
 withdrawal reflex/flexor reflex - to remove a
- maxillary (S): Safety pin and hot or cold objects (round
limb/body part from painful stimulus
or shard pin)
- mandibular (M): Open and close the jaw with
Ascending tracts - pathway that carry impulses from the
resistance and move side to side
periphery to various parts of the brain
VI. Abducens – Motor: Supplies the lateral rectus of the
1. Spinothalamic tract- transmits pain, light touch,
deep pressure
- ability of each eye to move laterally
2. Dorsal column – responsible for transmission of
*LASOT (lateral abducens, superior oblique, trochlea) –
proprioception, touch, deep pressure, and
controls movement of the eyes
VII. Facial – Both sensory and motor; facial expressions,
3. Spinocerebellar – proprioception to cerebellum
lacrimal and salivary glands, sensation of the interior
Descending tracts - pathways that carry impulses from
2/3 of the tongue
the brain to periphery
-facial expressions: Close eyes, smile, whistle, etc.
1. Lateral corticospinal- muscle tone and skilled
-Lacrimal glands – tested with ammonia fumes
movements especially the hand
-tongue – tested for different tastes
2. Anterior corticospinal – muscle tone and
VIII. Vestibulochlear – Sensory; with 2 branches –
movements of the trunk muscles
vestibular and cochlear
3. Rubrospinal – movement coordination
- Vestibular – Romberg’s Test
4. Reticulospinal –posture adjustment
- Cochlear – Watch tick’s test
5. Vestibulospinal – posture and balance
IX. Glosspharengeal – Both sensory and motor; sensory
to posterior 1/3 of the tongue ; motor to swallowing
- Test posterior tongue for different taste and ask client
to swallow
X. Vagus – Sensory: Sensation of pharynx, larynx and
- Motor : Palate, pharynx and larynx
-same test with CN IX
XI. Spinal Accessory – Motor; innervates
sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle
- Ask client to flex his/her neck and shrug the
shoulders with resistance
XII. Hypoglossal – motor; tongue movement
- Ask client to move his/her tongue
*gag reflex – CV 9 & 10
*3, 4, 6 – eyes

Spinal Nerves
- Arises along the spinal cord upon the union of
the dorsal and ventral roots
- 31 pairs
o Cervical – 8
o Thoracic - 12
o Lumbar - 5
o Sacral - 5
o Coccygeal - 1
- Organized into 3 plexus
o Cervical plexus – originates from c1-c4
o Innervates the diaphragm via the
phrenic nerve
o Brachial Plexus – originates from c3-t1
Comprises 5 nerves
1. Axillary Nerve – innervates shoulder muscle
2. Median Nerve – innervates the interior
forearm and intrinsic muscle
3. Musculocutaneous Nerve – innervates the
interior muscles of arm and skin on the radial
side of the forearm
4. Radial Nerve – innervates the posterior arm
and forearm
5. Ulnar Nerve – innervates the two anterior
forearm muscles and most of the intrinsic hand
o Lumbosacral Plexus - originates from L1-S4
o With four major nerves to innervate the
lower limb
1. Obturator Nerve – innervates the muscles of
the medial thigh and the skin over the same
2. Femoral Nerve –innervates the anterior thigh
muscles and the skin over the anterior thigh and
medial side of the leg.
Sciatic Nerve – largest nerve in the body and
innervates posterior surface of the thigh, divides
3. Tibial Nerve – innervates the posterior leg
muscles, intrinsic foot muscles, skin over the
sole of the foot
4. Common Peroneal Nerve – innervates the
muscles of the lateral thigh and leg and some
intrinsic foot muscles
 Innervates the skin over the
anterior and lateral leg and
dorsal (top) surface of the foot