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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Lecture 1: Outline
•  Course Information
•  Course Syllabus
•  DSP is Everywhere
•  Why Signal Processing?
•  Limitations of Analog Signal Processing
•  Digital Signal Processing: Pros and Cons
•  Basic Discrete Time Signals and Operations
•  Unit Impulse
•  Unit Step
•  Exponential and Sinusoidal Signal

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Course Information
Instructor:
Dr. Muhammad Majid
Assistant Professor,
Department of Computer Engineering,
University of Engineering and Technology Taxila,
Pakistan.
Email:
m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk

Contact Hours:
06, Ground Floor, Friday, 14:00 to 15:30

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Course Information
Objective
•  To establish the idea of using computing techniques
to alter the properties of a signal for desired effects,
via understanding of
•  Fundamentals of discrete-time, linear, shift-
invariant signals and systems
•  To gain preliminary experience in computational
processing of real signal and to relate the above
understanding to real world scenario

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Course Information
Nuts and Bolts
Prerequisites:
Signals and Systems

Reference Book:
1. Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Prentice Hall,
2nd Edition by Alan Oppenheim, Ronald Schafer,
John Buck

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Course Information
Policies
•  Grading:
•  Assignments 10%
•  Quizzes 10%
•  Midterm Exam 30%
•  Final Exam 50%
•  Labs (Separate)

•  Exams:
•  Exams must be taken at scheduled time, no
makeup exams

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Course Information
Policies
•  Assignments:
•  Assigned Mon/Wed, due following Mon/Wed
before 3 pm
•  Assignments lose 25% credit per day late
•  Individual assignment
•  Attendance:
•  75% attendance is must for this course both in
class and lab. If attendance < 75% you are not
allowed in exams

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Course Syllabus
•  Introduction to Digital Signal Processing
•  Discrete-Time Signals and System
•  Discrete Time Fourier Transform
•  The Z-Transform
•  Sampling of Continuous-Time Signals
•  Structures for Discrete-Time Systems
•  Filter Design Techniques
•  The Discrete Fourier Transform

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Course Learning Outcomes
CLO 1: Become aware of digital signal processing
applications and apply fundamentals on discrete time
signals and systems.

CLO 2: Time and transform domain analysis of discrete


linear time invariant systems using convolution sum,
linear constant coefficient difference equation, discrete
time Fourier transform (DTFT) and z-transform.

CLO3: Understand the process of Analog to Digital


Conversion and Digital to Analog Conversion.
Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing
Course Learning Outcomes
CLO 4: Learn how to design IIR and FIR filters with
desired frequency response and able to draw the
structures.

CLO 5: Demonstrate discrete time signal processing


skills using Matlab.

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


DSP is Everywhere
•  Sound Applications
•  Compression, enhancement, special effects,
synthesis, recognition, echo cancellation,…
•  Cell Phones, MP3 Players, Movies, Dictation,
Text-to-speech,…
•  Communication
•  Modulation, coding, detection, equalization, echo
cancellation,…
•  Cell Phones, dial-up modem, DSL modem,
Satellite Receiver,…
•  Automotive
•  ABS, GPS, Active Noise Cancellation, Cruise
Control, Parking,…
Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing
DSP is Everywhere
•  Medical
•  Magnetic Resonance, Tomography,
Electrocardiogram,…
•  Military
•  Radar, Sonar, Space photographs, remote
sensing,…
•  Image and Video Applications
•  DVD, JPEG, Movie special effects, video
conferencing,…
•  Mechanical
•  Motor control, process control, oil and mineral
prospecting,…

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Signal Processing
•  Humans are the most advanced signal processors
•  speech and pattern recognition, speech
synthesis,…
•  We encounter many types of signals in various
applications
•  Electrical signals: voltage, current, magnetic and
electric fields,…
•  Mechanical signals: velocity, force, displacement,

•  Acoustic signals: sound, vibration,…
•  Other signals: pressure, temperature,…
Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing
Signal Processing
•  Most real-world signals are analog
•  They are continuous in time and amplitude
•  Convert to voltage or currents using sensors and
transducers
•  Analog circuits process these signals using
•  Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, Amplifiers,…
•  Analog signal processing examples
•  Audio processing in FM radios
•  Video processing in traditional TV sets

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Limitations of Analog Signal
Processing
•  Accuracy limitations due to
•  Component tolerances
•  Undesired nonlinearities
•  Limited repeatability due to
•  Tolerances
•  Changes in environmental conditions
•  Temperature
•  Vibration
•  Sensitivity to electrical noise
•  Limited dynamic range for voltage and currents
•  Inflexibility to changes
Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing
Limitations of Analog Signal
Processing
•  Difficulty of implementing certain operations
•  Nonlinear operations
•  Time-varying operations
•  Difficulty of storing information

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Digital Signal Processing
•  Represent signals by a sequence of numbers
•  Sampling or analog-to-digital conversions
•  Perform processing on these numbers with a digital
processor
•  Digital signal processing
•  Reconstruct analog signal from processed numbers
•  Reconstruction or digital-to-analog conversion

digital digital
signal signal
analog analog
signal A/D DSP D/A signal

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Digital Signal Processing
•  Analog input – Analog output
–  Digital recording of music
•  Analog input – Digital output
–  Touch tone phone dialing
•  Digital input – Analog output
–  Text to speech
•  Digital input – Digital output
–  Compression of a file on computer

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Digital Signal Processing:
Pros and Cons
•  Pros
•  Accuracy can be controlled by choosing word
length
•  Repeatable
•  Sensitivity to electrical noise is minimal
•  Dynamic range can be controlled using floating
point numbers
•  Flexibility can be achieved with software
implementations
•  Non-linear and time-varying operations are easier
to implement
Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing
Digital Signal Processing:
Pros and Cons
•  Pros
•  Digital storage is cheap
•  Digital information can be encrypted for security
•  Price/performance and reduced time-to-market
•  Cons
•  Sampling causes loss of information
•  A/D and D/A requires mixed-signal hardware
•  Limited speed of processors
•  Quantization and round-off errors

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Technology Trends

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Comparison of Chips

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


DSP in Real Time Embedded
Systems

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Discrete-Time Signals:
Sequences
•  Discrete-time signals are represented by sequence of
numbers
•  The nth number in the sequence is represented
with x[n]
•  Often times sequences are obtained by sampling of
continuous-time signals
•  In this case x[n] is value of the analog signal at
xc(nT)
•  Where T is the sampling period

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Discrete-Time Signals:
Sequences
10

-10
0 20 40 60 80 100 t (ms)
10

-10
0 10 20 30 40 50 n (samples)

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Basic Sequences and
Operations
•  Delaying (Shifting) a sequence
y[n] = x[n − no ]

•  Unit sample (impulse) sequence 1.5


1
⎧0 n ≠ 0
δ[n] = ⎨ 0.5

⎩1 n = 0 0
-10 -5 0 5 10

•  Unit step sequence 1.5


1

⎧0 n < 0 0.5


u[n] = ⎨ 0
⎩1 n ≥ 0
-10 -5 0 5 10
1

•  Exponential sequences 0.5

x[n] = Aαn 0
-10 -5 0 5 10

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Basic Sequences and
Operations
•  Sinusoidal Sequence
•  Important class of sequences
x[n] = cos(ωon + φ)

•  An exponential sequence with complex


α = α e jωo and A = A e jφ

n jωon n
n
x[n] = Aα = A e α e jφ
= A α e j(ωon+ φ )
n n
x[n] = A α cos(ωon + φ) + j A α sin(ωon + φ)

•  x[n] is a sum of weighted sinusoids


Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing
Basic Sequences and
Operations
•  Difference of continuous-time, discrete-time sinusoids

•  Have ambiguity of 2πk in frequency


•  Periodicity
•  Interpretation of high and low frequencies

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Discrete-Time Systems
•  Discrete-Time Sequence is a mathematical operation
that maps a given input sequence x[n] into an output
sequence y[n]

y[n] = T{x[n]} x[n] T{.} y[n]

•  Example Discrete-Time Systems


•  Ideal Delay System
•  Moving (Running) Average
•  Maximum
Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing
Discrete-Time Systems
•  Example Discrete-Time Systems
•  Memoryless System
•  A system is memoryless if the output y[n] at
every value of n depends only on the input x[n]
at the same value of n
•  Linear System
•  A system is said to be linear if it satisfies two
properties
•  Additivity
•  Homegenity or Scaling

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing


Discrete-Time Systems
•  Example Discrete-Time Systems
•  Time-Invariant (shift-invariant) Systems
•  A time shift at the input causes corresponding
time-shift at output
•  Causality
•  A system is causal it’s output is a function of
only the current and previous samples
•  Stability
•  A system is stable if and only if every bounded
input produces a bounded output

Muhammad Majid (m.majid@uettaxila.edu.pk) Digital Signal Processing