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ISSN 2367-654X

CONTENT Page

Mathematics without Borders 2019-2020 Time Schedule 2


Letter of Intent 5
MWB Regulations 6
MWB Syllabus 8
MWB Final 2019 - Questions, Answers and Short Solutions 11

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TIME SCHEDULE
MATHEMATICS WITHOUT BORDERS 2019-2020

Autumn round – 21 – 31 October 2019;


Winter round – January 27, 2020 – February 10, 2020
Spring round – 23 – 31 March 2020
Final - Nessebar, Bulgaria – 3 – 6 July 2020

AUTUMN 2019

By October 19, 2019 – The schools must send a participation application form by e-mail to the
following address: mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com.
The application form must include your invoice details: recipient, UIC/VAT number, address.
By October 20, 2019 - The organizers will send the tests, the answer sheet, the answer key, a
sample report for the participants’ results and an invoice to the participanting schools;
21 - 31 October 2019 – The competition will be held on a day convenient for the school;
By November 3, 2019 – The schools must send the results report by e-mail to
mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com The result report (protocol) must be accompanied by a
scanned document as proof of a paid participation fee.
November 11, 2019 – The results from the Autumn Round will be published on the website of
the tournament;
By December 11, 2019 - The certificates for all participants and the medals for the winners will
be sent by post.

WINTER 2020

By January 25, 2020 - The schools must send a participation application form by e-mail to the
following address: mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com.
The application form must include your invoice details: recipient, UIC/VAT number, address.
By January 26, 2020 - The organizers will send the tests, the answer sheet, the answer key, a
sample report for the participants’ results and an invoice to the participanting schools;
January 27 – February 10, 2020 – The competition will be held on a day convenient for the
school;
By February 13, 2020 - The schools must send the results report by e-mail to
mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com The result report (protocol) must be accompanied by a
scanned document as proof of a paid participation fee.
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February 22, 2020 - The results from the Winter Round will be published on the website of the
tournament.
By March 20, 2020 - The certificates for all participants and the medals for the winners will be
sent by post.

SPRING 2020

By March 21, 2020 - The schools must send a participation application form by e-mail to the
following address: mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com.
The application form must include your invoice details: recipient, UIC/VAT number, address.
By March 22, 2020 - The organizers will send the tests, the answer sheet, the answer key, a
sample report for the participants’ results and an invoice to the participanting schools;
23 – 31 March 2020 – The competition will be held on a day convenient for the school;
By April 3, 2020 - The schools must send the results report by e-mail to mwb_en@abv.bg and
mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com The result report (protocol) must be accompanied by a
scanned document as proof of a paid participation fee.
April 12, 2020 - The results from the Spring Round will be published on the website of the
tournament;
By May 10, 2020 - The certificates for all participants and the medals for the winners will be
sent by post.

FINAL 2020

After the Winter round - Participation quotas for the finals in Bulgaria will be announced on
the web site of the tournament
March 2020 – Package offers will be sent to participants by the official travel agency of the
tournament.
By April 10, 2020 – The schools must send a list of their participants in the final round.
By April 20, 2020 - The schools must arrange their own participants' accommodation in
Nessebar with the official tour agency of the tournament.
By April 30, 2020 - The participants will be able to receive a free Visa through an official
invitation sent by the organisers.
By June 20, 2020 - Тhe final version of the programme of the tournament and the participants
hall allocation list with a specified starting time for both the individual and team competitions
will be published on the website.
July 3, 2020 – Registration of the participants by the group leader. Technical conference.
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July 4, 2020 – Opening of the Tournament. Individual contest.
July 5, 2020 – Team contest. Awarding the winners in the team conmtest.
July 6, 2020 – Awarding ceremony for the winners of the tournament – held at the Antique
Roman Forum in the Old Town of Nessebar.

Participation fee:

Remote rounds Fee per student


Fee for each round €10 (EUR)

Final Round Fee per student


Individual competition €50 (EUR)
Team competition €15 (EUR)

Bank account details:

Wired Transfer
Payment: (All bank transfer charges will be bearable
by the country partner.)
Beneficiary’s account No /
BG92FINV91502017318528
IBAN:
Bank Name: First Investment Bank

BIC/Swift Code: FINVBGSF


37 Dragan Tsankov Blvd
Bank's address
1797 Sofia, Bulgaria
Beneficiary’s name: Invariant M Ltd.
90 G. S. Rakovski Street
Beneficiary’s address:
6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

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Dear colleagues,

The 7th tournament will begin in autumn 2019.


If your school would like to participate in the competition, please send us a scanned copy of a
letter containing the following information by Seprember 30, 2019:

Date of sending the letter: ………….


Recipient: Mathematics Without Borders International Tournament
Address: P.O.Box 288, Central Post Office
6000, Stara Zagora
BULGARIA

Dear organisers,
Our school would like to participate in the Mathematics Without Borders tournament in autumn
2019, winter 2020 and spring 2020, as well as the final competition held from 3 to 6 July in
Nessebar, Bulgaria.

Following are details of our school and our readiness to organise the competition.
Name of the school/organisation:
Address:
Name and Surname of the recipient/School/ Number and Street name/Post code,
City/Town/Country:
Email Address:
Coordinator (name and surname, contact number – Viber/WhatsApp)
Place where the autumn, winter and spring rounds will be held – please include name of the
place, street name and number, city/town, country.
Please include a short text describing the measures your school will take to ensure that the
competition is held in an honest and fair way.

Person in charge:
(Name, Position and Signature)

5
MATHEMATICS WITHOUT BORDERS INTERNATIONAL TOURNAMENT
REGULATIONS

1. The tournament is for students aged 7 to 18 years, who will be divided into nine age groups.
Group 1 – students born in 2012 Group 5 – students born in 2008
Group 2 – students born in 2011 Group 6 – students born in 2007
Group 3 – students born in 2010 Group 7 – students born in 2006
Group 4 – students born in 2009 Group 8 – students born in 2005
Group 9 – students born in 2004 or earlier (15-18-year-old students)

2. The tournament is held remotely in three rounds and ends with a final contest in Bulgaria.
Autumn round – in October
Winter round – in January/February
Spring round – in March
Final – in July

3. The test for each group consists of 20 open-ended questions. Time allowed - 60 minutes.

4. An application form should be sent no later than 3 days before the start of each remote round
of the tournament to mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com.
The minimum number of participants is 10.

5. Before each remote round, the organisers will send the tests for each age group, the answer
key, an answer sheet and а sample result report.

6. The participating school must choose a convenient for them day and hour from the calendar
period for each round. The marking will be carried out by committees in the schools where
the competition takes place. The results report form must be sent to
mwb_en@mathematicalmail.com no later than three days after the competition has been held.

7. The ranking for each round is separate, and is carried out according to age groups. In the case
of an equal number of solved problems, the higher ranked participant will be the one who has
spent less time solving the problems.

8. The prizes for each remote competition are gold, silver and bronze medals, and certificates for
all participants.
6
The prizes will be sent to the address provided by the participant within 30 days of the
conduct of each of the preliminary rounds.
The number of students who receive medals in each competition will be up to 30% of the total
number of participants - 5% will receive gold medals, 10% - silver and 15% - bronze.

FINAL ROUND
9. Participation quotas for the finals in Bulgaria will be announced on the web site of the
tournament after the second round.
Travel and accommodation in the town of Nessebar, Bulgaria, for students who will
participate in the final competition and their teachers and / or parents will be at the expense of
the participants.

10. The finals consist of two different contests – individual and team, held over the course of two
days.

11. The participants who take the top three places in each age group in the final individual
competition and in the team competition will receive gold, silver and bronze medals (the
total number of medal holders will be 40% of the total number of the finalists from each age
group).
The ranking is carried out according to the number of solved problems (points earned). In
the case of an equal number of solved problems, the higher ranked participant / team will be
the one that has spent less time solving the problems.

12. The ranking for the Mathematics without Borders Cups will be determined based on the sum
of the two best results of the three remote rounds and the tripled result of the final
competition. The three most successful students from each age group and country will be
included in the ranking for the Tournament Cups.

13. Special prizes and the title Math Star of the Tournament will be received by each country's
most successful contestant.

14. The Mayor of Nessebar, a patron of the tournament, will reward the most successful
contestant and the teacher with the highest contribution to the tournament.

15. The teachers from all participating countries with the greatest contribution to the promotion
of the tournament will be awarded by the organisers.
7
Mathematics without Borders
SYLLABUS

Age
Round Topics added to those included in previous rounds/grades
group

Autumn Addition and subtraction of numbers up to 20.


Winter Addition and subtraction of numbers up to 20.
1
Shapes: triangle, rectangle and square.
Spring
Meter, decimeter, centimeter. Money.
Numbers from 21 to 100 (reading, writing, addition and subtraction).
Comparison of the numbers up to 100.
Kilogram.
Autumn Time.
Meter, decimeter, centimeter.
Perimeter of a triangle, rectangle and square.
Magical square.
Multiplication of single digit numbers by numbers up to 10.
Division of numbers up to 100 by numbers up to 10.
2
Winter Day, week, month, year.
Counting (e.g. no. of ways to choose 2 objects from 5 objects).
Simple logic problems.
Multiplication and division by single digit numbers.
Addition and subtraction of numbers up to 100.
Types of triangles: equilateral, isosceles, scalene.
Spring
Square, rectangle, segment.
Number sequences and patterns.
Simple cryptarithms.
Addition, subtraction, comparison of numbers from 101 to 1,000.
Autumn Kilometer, meter.
True/false statements.
Multiplication and division of two-digit numbers.
3 Angles: sharp, straight, and obtuse.
Winter
Types of triangles according to the angles.
Solving problems starting from the end (“backwards design”).
Multiplication and division of three-digit numbers.
Spring
Finding an unknown addend, minuend, multiplier, divisor and dividend.
8
Divisor, dividend, quotient and remainder.
“Guess and check” problem-solving technique.
Numbers greater than 1,000.
Roman numerals.
Autumn Addition and subtraction of numbers greater than 1,000.
Multiplication and division of numbers greater than 1,000 by a single-digit
number.
4
Multiplication and division of numbers greater than 1,000 by a two-digit
Winter
number.
Shapes: circle, rectangle, square.
Spring Area of a rectangle and a square.
“Extreme principle” problem-solving technique.
Prime and composite numbers.
Divisibility rule.
Autumn
Common factor. Greatest common factor (GCF).
Dirichlet's Box Principle.
Geometric shapes - triangle, quadrilateral parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus,
Winter square.
5
Sum and difference of segments.
Simple fractions. Decimals.
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of simple fractions and
Spring decimals.
Infinite periodic decimals.
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of infinite periodic decimals.
Exponentiation.
Autumn Percentage.
Rational numbers. Real axis.
Negative numbers.
6 Winter Sets. Union of sets. Intersection of sets.
Combinatorics. Combinations, permutations.
Circle. Circumference. Area of a circle.
Spring Proportions. Polynomials. Addition, subtraction and multiplication of
polynomials.
Short multiplication formulas.
7 Autumn
Factoring.

9
Linear equations.
Winter Venn diagrams.
Verbal problems – making up a math model, solving the equations.
Congruent triangles.
Spring
Linear inequalities.
Irrational numbers. Square root.
Autumn Converting irrational expressions.
Diophantine linear equations.
Midsegment of a triangle. Centroid of a triangle.
Quadratic equations. Equations, which are reduced to quadratic equations.
Winter
Graph of a linear function.
8 Direct and inverse variation.
Parallelogram. Rectangle. Rhombus. Square.
Circle – arcs and central angles; inscribed angles; angles whose sides intersect
a circle.
Spring
Circumcircle and incircle of a triangle.
Inscribed and circumscribed polygons.
Systems of linear equations and inequalities.
Autumn Irrational equations.
Systems of quadratic equations.
Winter
9 Similar triangles.
Vieta's formulas.
Spring
Pythagorean theorem.

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FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 1
Problem 1. Calculate  if 1 + 2 + 3 + 7 + 8 + 9 -  = 11.

Problem 2. Calculate  +  if

→ →  

Problem 3. The sum of a one-digit number and the number 4 is equal to the sum of
a two-digit number and the number 3. Find the one-digit number.

Problem 4.

+ =5

+ =6

+ =3

+ + = ?

Problem 5. By how many are the visible dots more than the hidden dots?

Problem 6. An ant collected 7 grains.


Another ant collected 3 grains more than the first ant.
A third ant collected as many grains as the first and second ant together.
What was the total number of grains collected?

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Problem 7. How many numbers are missing?

Problem 8. Which digit should we remove from 10 + 23 = 24 in order for the


equation to be correct?

Problem 9. Peter wrote down the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on a board. John


erased two of them, which had a sum of 3, and Stephen erased another two, which
had a sum of 10. Peter erased the smaller of the remaining two numbers. Which
number remained on the board?

Problem 10. Find the missing number.


0, 2, 6, 12, 20, ?, 42

Problem 11. My bunny eats either 2 cabbages or 5 carrots every day. It ate 15
carrots in one week. How many cabbages did it eat during this week?

Problem 12. Four line segments have eight end-points in total. Two of the line
segments were divided in two. How many end points are there now?

Problem 13. Alex and Felix are twins and are 3 years younger than their sister
Amy, who is 11 years old. What is the sum of the ages of all three children?

Problem 14. Place four of the numbers 5, 6, 8, 7 and 9 in the squares so that the
equation would be correct. Which of the numbers is not used?

□ -□ = □ - □
Problem 15. Each of the children in a family has at least 1 brother and at least 2
sisters. At least how many children are there in this family?

Problem 16. Place the numbers 1, 2 and 3 in the squares so that the following
would be true:
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 <  + 2 <  + 3.
What is the sum of the numbers in the highlighted squares  ?

Problem 17. The 10 balloons shown below must be distributed among 9 children.
Each child must get at least one balloon. How many balloons would the child with
the most balloons have?

Problem 18. Ivan has a blue, a green, and a red shirt, as well as a blue and a black
pair of trousers. In how many different ways can he combine his shirts and trousers
so that they are of different colours?

Problem 19. If I had another 9 sweets, I would have 20 sweets in total. How many
more sweets do I need in order to have 15 sweets?

Problem 20. Maria decided to count from 1 to 100. After reaching the smallest
two-digit number with 2 as the sum of its digits, she skipped the numbers that
followed, and continued counting from the greatest two-digit number with 17 as
the sum of its digits. How many numbers did Maria count?

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FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 2

Problem 1. Calculate , if 11 + 22 + 43 + 57 + 78 + 89 -  = 123.

Problem 2. Calculate  +  , if
→ → 

Problem 3. How many two-digit numbers are there that have less than 3 tens?

Problem 4. Find the unknown factor (□).


3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 6 + 1 + 6 + 1 + 6 + 1= □ 7

Problem 5. What number is behind the square ?


×9- = 48

Problem 6. We have a tape with a length of 25 cm. By how many millimeters is it


longer than a tape with a length of 2 dm?

Problem 7. A group of students are standing in rows of 5 students each. Peter


counted the rows and found that there are 3 rows in front of him and 3 rows behind
him. How many students are there in total? (Peter is one of the students.)

Problem 8. There are as many even numbers from 5 to 15 as there are odd
numbers from 22 to the even number X. Find the number X.

Problem 9. There are 18 numbers to the left of the number А and 8 numbers to its
right. How many numbers are there between the number A and the number in the
middle?

14
Problem 10. Find the missing digit .

Problem 11. The product of two numbers is 12. If we decrease one of the numbers
by 1, keep the other number as it is, and then multiply the two numbers, how many
different products can we get?

Problem 12. A builder was trying to hammer a nail at a 12 cm distance from one
end of a plank of wood with a length of 50 cm, but got distracted and hammered
the nail at a 21 cm distance from the opposite end. How many centimeters away
from the place he was originally aiming for did he hammer the nail?

Problem 13. 9 sticks have 18 endpoints in total. Five of the sticks were separated
in two. How many endpoints are there now?

Problem 14. How many three digit numbers have the sum of their digits equal to
22, where each digit is different?

Problem 15. The 10 balloons shown below must be divided among 4 children.
Each child must get at least one balloon. At least how many balloons will the child
with the most balloons have?

15
Problem 16. Use the digits 2, 0, 1 and 9 to write down all even two-digit numbers
made up of different digits, then place them in the squares below.
 <  <  < < 
Find the sum of the numbers in the highlighted squares .
Write down the sum and the inequalities in the answer sheet.

Problem 17. John has one blue, one green, and one red shirt, as well as blue, green
and black pairs of trousers. In how many different ways can he combine his shirts
and trousers so that they are of different colours?

Problem 18. An ant collected 7 grains.


Another ant collected 3 times more grains than the first ant.
A third ant collected as many grains as the first and second ant together.
What was the total number of grains collected by all three ants?

Problem 19. Some flatbreads are fried in a large pan. At most 4 flatbreads can be
fried in the pan at the same time. It takes 3 minutes to fry each side of a flatbread.
At least how many minutes will it take to pan-fry 15 flatbreads?

Problem 20. If I had another 47 sweets, I would have 200 sweets in total. How
many more sweets do I need in order to have 159 sweets?
.

16
FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 3
Problem 1. How many even numbers are there from 97 to 207?

Problem 2. Anya was supposed to find the difference of the number 56 and the
number Х. Instead, she added them together and got 111. Find the difference.

Problem 3. How many minutes should we subtract from 120 seconds in order to
get 1 minute?

Problem 4. Insert brackets to make the equation correct.


– – .
Write down your answer in the answer sheet.

Problem 5. Calculate the sum of the integers from 3 to 39, which can be expressed
as the product of two different factors, the smaller of which is 4.

Problem 6. For how many three-digit numbers is the following statement true?
“After erasing the hundreds digit, we get a number smaller than 10.”

Problem 7. I wrote down 11 two-digit numbers and 12 one-digit numbers. Nine of


them are even. Three of the even numbers are not one-digit numbers. How many
digits were used to write the odd numbers?

Problem 8. There are 28 students in a class. They are standing in rows of 4


students each. Peter counted and found that there are 3 rows in front of him. How
many students are there in the rows behind him? (Peter is one of the students in the
class.)

17
Problem 9. Find the tens digit of the number equal to

Problem 10. How many two-digit numbers ̅̅̅̅ are there, if the digits X and Y are
different and ̅̅̅̅ ?

Problem 11. We are given a tape with a length of 1 m. How many times longer is
it than a tape with a length of 5 mm?

Problem 12. The following solid is made of 7 cubes. If the whole solid has been
painted, how many faces of the cubes have not been painted?

Problem 13. Nine numbers were placed in a “magic” square in such a way that the
sum of numbers across each row, down each column, or along either of the
diagonals is the same. After that 5 of the numbers were erased.

6 8

9 4

What is the sum of the numbers that were erased?

Problem 14. A grasshopper can make jumps in a straight line of either 1 meter or 2
meters. In how many ways can it reach a leaf which is 4 meters away?

18
Problem 15. How many centimeters is the perimeter of a rectangle if the sum of its
two longer sides and one of its shorter sides is 25 cm, and the sum of its two
shorter sides and one of its longer sides is 23 cm?

Problem 16. How many odd two-digit numbers are there that are divisible by 9?

Problem 17. A large square is formed by 36 smaller squares with a side length of 5
cm. Calculate the perimeter of the large square in cm.

Problem 18. Some flatbreads are fried in a large pan. At most 5 flatbreads can be
fried in the pan at the same time. It takes 6 minutes to fry each side of a flatbread.
At least how many minutes will it take to pan-fry 29 flatbreads?

Problem 19. Use the digits 2, 0, 1 and 9 to write down all possible three-digit
numbers that contain different digits. How many such numbers are there?

Problem 20. Today is Saturday. If we start counting from tomorrow, what day of
the week will it be after 69 days have passed?

19
FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 4
Problem 1. Find the tens digit of the number equal to

Problem 2. I wrote down all natural numbers from 2019 to X as follows:


201920182017…..
If I have used 2020 digits, what is the last number that I wrote down?

Problem 3. How many integers are there from 1900 to 2020 that are made up of four different
digits?

Problem 4. I wrote down 11 two-digit numbers and 12 one-digit numbers. Seven of them are
even. Four of the even numbers are NOT one-digit numbers. How many digits have been used to
write down the odd numbers?

Problem 5. The product of the numbers 25, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 is the number ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
Calculate .

Problem 6. Place the digits 2, 0, 1 and 9 in the circles below in such a way as to get an even
four-digit number in which the digits 1 and 2 are adjacent and the digit 0 is not adjacent to the
digit 1.

How many such numbers are there?

Problem 7. Alec wrote down the numbers 2, 6, 10, 14, ..., 50, 54, 58, and Peter wrote down the
numbers 57, 60, 63, 66, ... , 111, 114, 117.
How many numbers in total did both of them write?

Problem 8. The sum of 100 natural numbers is 102. Find the possible products of these 100
numbers.

Problem 9. How many two-digit numbers ̅̅̅̅ are there, if the digits X and Y are different, and
̅̅̅̅ ?

20
Problem 10. The sum of each 3 consecutive numbers in a sequence of N numbers is an even
number. The sum of 4 consecutive numbers in the same sequence is an odd number. How many
possible values of N are there?

Problem 11. The following rectangle is made up of 9 squares, two of which have a side length
of 1 cm. Find the perimeter of the rectangle in cm.

Problem 12. Annie drew a straight line and placed a few points on it. Then Lilly placed an extra
point in between each two adjacent points. Finally, Mary placed one extra point in between each
two adjacent points. There are now 33 points along the straight line. How many points did Mary
place on the straight line?

Problem 13. Three squares with areas of 9 cm2, 16 cm2 and 25 cm2, respectively, are placed next
to each other as can be seen on the figure below:

Find the perimeter of the figure in cm.

Problem 14. How many triangles are there that have 3 of the following 6 points as their
vertices?
●A ●B ●C ●D
●E ●F
(The points А, В, C and D lie on the same straight line.)

21
Problem 15. A grasshopper can make jumps in a straight line of either 1 metre or 2 metres. In
how many ways can it reach a leaf which is 7 metres away?

Problem 16. A block of ice is melting and losing half of its weight each 25 minutes. After 1 hour
and 15 minutes, its weight is now 125 grams. How much is the weight of the block of ice before
it started melting? Give your answer in kilograms.

Problem 17. Some flatbreads are fried in a large pan. At most 5 flatbreads can be fried in the pan
at the same time. It takes 6 minutes to fry each side of a flatbread. At least how many minutes
will it take to pan-fry 29 flatbreads?

Problem 18. How many different numbers (at most) can be written down using exactly 2019
digits?

Problem 19. Write down all the possible sums of the natural even numbers А and В where A
and B have a product of 100?

Problem 20. Calculate .

22
FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 5

Problem 1. Calculate

Problem 2. Calculate

Problem 3. Find the digit A in the repeating decimal ̅ if

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ̅

Problem 4. Instead of increasing a number by , I divided it by 5 and got 20.19 as a result. What

number was I initially supposed to get?

Problem 5. Find the natural number , if

Problem 6. The least common multiple of two natural numbers is 84, and the greatest common
factor of the same numbers is 14. Calculate the sum of these numbers.

Problem 7. If the natural numbers N and N + 3 have exactly 2 factors each (also natural
numbers), find the sum of all prime factors of the number N + 1000.

Problem 8. When dividing two natural numbers we get 7 as a quotient and 4 as a remainder.
Calculate the smallest possible sum of these numbers.

Problem 9. We are given 5 natural numbers:


The sums are even numbers.
The sums are odd numbers.
How many of the numbers are even?
23
Problem 10. Find the digit Y, if ̅̅̅̅ is a two-digit number and ̅̅̅̅ .

Problem 11. How many integers are there from 1900 to 2019 that are made up of four different
digits?

Problem 12. The sum of 100 natural numbers is 102. Find the possible products of these 100
numbers.

Задача 13. John has as many sisters as he has brothers, and his sister Maria has one third fewer
sisters than brothers. Find the total number of brothers and sisters in this family.

Problem 14. Write down 5 different natural numbers, such that the product of each 4 of them
would be divisible by the remaining number.

Problem 15. The following rectangle is made up of 9 squares, two of which have a side length
of 1 cm. Find the perimeter of the rectangle in cm.

Problem 16. The rectangle is made up of five identical smaller rectangles. Find the area
2
of the rectangle in cm , if = 3.3 cm.

24
Problem 17. Find the area of the shaded part.
18
34 2

7 55
?
23

60

Problem 18. How many triangles are there that have 3 of the following 6 points as their
vertices?
●A ●B ●C ●D
●E ●F
(The points А, В, C and D lie on the same straight line.)

Problem 19. Numbers are drawn at random from the 55 integers from 1 to 55. At least how
many numbers must be drawn to ensure that there are two numbers with a difference of 10?

Problem 20. Bertrand's postulate is a theorem stating that for any integer n > 1, there always
exists at least one prime number p, such that .
How many primes are there if n = 30?

25
FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 6
Problem 1. Calculate

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Problem 2. For which natural numbers x is the following inequality correct?

Problem 3. of all students in a class are girls. What percentage of students in this class are

boys?

Problem 4. Find the midpoint of the line segment with endpoints and (- 1).

Problem 5. If А and В are integers, for which | | and | | , find the greatest value of the
expression

Problem 6. Calculate , if and

Problem 7. The dividend is , and the divisor is . Find the quotient.

Problem 8. How many of the following fractions are reducible?

Hint: The number 673 is a prime.

Problem 9. Three different digits: and , were used to create the two-digit number ̅̅̅ and
the three-digit number ̅̅̅̅̅̅. If ̅̅̅ ̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅, calculate

Problem 10. The least common multiple of two natural numbers is 84, and the highest common
factor of the same numbers is 14. Find the sum of these numbers.

26
Problem 11. Numbers are drawn from the 100 integers from 1 to 100. At least how many
numbers must be drawn at random to ensure that there are two among them with a difference of
11?

Problem 12. Calculate , if and

Problem 13. How many of the four-digit numbers that consist of all four digits 2, 0, 1 and 9, are
divisible by 24?

Problem 14. For which prime numbers , smaller than 99, is also a prime?

Problem 15. There are six boxes that contain 15, 16, 18, 19, 20 and 31 coins, respectively. John
and Peter took a total of 5 boxes. The number of coins that one of them took is twice as much as
the number of coins the other took. Steven took the sixth box. How many coins are there in
Steven’s box?
Problem 16. We are given 5 line segments. The first line segment intersects 3 of the others. The
second one intersects 3 of the others. The third one intersects 4 of the others. The fourth one
intersects 4 of the others. Which segments does the fifth segment intersect?

Problem 17. Three metal cubes with edges of 9 cm, 12 cm and 15 cm, respectively, have been
melted in order to form a new cube. Find the edge of the new cube in centimetrеs.

Problem 18. If the areas of the rectangles are А, B, C and D, then


А В
C D
If

calculate .
Problem 19. John has as many sisters as he has brothers. His sister Maria has three times fewer
sisters than brothers. How many brothers and sisters in total are there in this family?

Problem 20. Write down 5 different odd natural numbers, such that the product of each 4 of
them is divisible by the remaining number.

27
FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 7

Problem 1. Calculate if .

Problem 2. Take a look at the following numbers:


, , , , …., , ,
At most how many of the numbers are negative?

Problem 3. If | | and | | calculate 5 – a.

Problem 4. Calculate

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Problem 5. Find the greatest integer which is not greater than the following expression.

Problem 6. Find the number of positive integer solutions of the following inequality:

Problem 7. Find the smallest possible value of the following expression:


| | | | | |.

Problem 8. The reciprocal value of 7 is expressed as the sum of the reciprocal values of two
natural numbers. Find the sum of these two natural numbers.

Problem 9. Two children have several apples each. If the first child were to give the second
child an apple, they would have an equal number of apples. If the second child were to give the
first child two apples, then the second child would have half of the apples of the first child. How
many apples do both children have in total?

Problem 10. For which smallest two-digit number N would the following equation have a
solution?

28
Problem 11. The number of diagonals of a polygon is a prime number. Find the number of its
vertices.

Problem 12. The bisector of the side BC of the rhombus ABCD intersects the diagonal AC at
point M. If AM = AB, how many degrees is ⦟ DAB?

Problem 13. The perimeter of a square is equal to 30% of the perimeter of another square. What
% of the area of the small square is the area of the large square?

Problem 14. The points M and N in the parallelogram ABCD are midpoints of the sides DC and
AB, respectively, and AM = NB. Find ∡ACB.

Problem 15. АВС is an isosceles triangle with a angle between sides АС and ВС. If the
point М is on the straight line АС, such that С is between А and М, and СМ = АВ, find ∡AMB.

Problem 16. Numbers are drawn from the 100 integers from 1 to 100. At least how many
numbers must be drawn at random to ensure that there are two among them with a difference of
11?

Problem 17. Find the sum of all two-digit numbers that have exactly 12 different natural factors.

Problem 18. How many two-digit numbers ̅̅̅ are there, such that ̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅̅?

Problem 19. Find all natural numbers n, for which the following inequality is true for each х, у
and z:

Problem 20. The digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 have been written in a random order round a
circle. Each three adjacent digits clockwise form a three-digit number. Find the sum of all 9
three-digit numbers.

29
FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 8
Problem 1. Calculate

√ √ ÷( √ ) √ √ ÷( √ )

Problem 2. If calculate the value of the expression

Problem 3. Given , find the value of

Problem 4. If p, q and r are primes, such that 21 + p = 10 + q = 4 + r, calculate


p + q + r.

Problem 5. Each one of 6 girls and each one of n boys own the same number of balls, that is
in total. How many balls do the girls own?

Problem 6. Find the sum of the rational numbers a and b, if √ is a root of the equation

Problem 7. Find the smallest possible value of the following expression:


| | | | | |.
Problem 8. How many natural numbers from 1999 to 2019 are there, that can be a value of the
discriminant of the quadratic equation with integer coefficients?

Problem 9. The reciprocal of the number 7 is expressed as the sum of the reciprocals of two
natural numbers. Find the sum of these numbers.

Problem 10. For which smallest natural number а does the following equation have exactly two
solutions?
|| | |
Problem 11. Two of the sides of a triangle have lengths of 21 cm and cm, respectively. The
altitude to one side is 2 cm longer than the altitude to the other side. Find the area of the triangle
in .

30
Problem 12. Calculate the area of the region enclosed by the function | | and the
coordinate axes.

Problem 13. The line segments АD, ВE and СF in the acute angled triangle АВС are altitudes, H
being their intersection point. How many circles have 4 of the 7 points (А, В, С, D, E, F and Н)
lying on them?

Problem 14. The graph of the quadratic function intersects the x-axis at points А
and В. Find the length of the line segment АВ.

Problem 15. The radius of a circle inscribed in a right-angled triangle is 3 cm, and the radius of
the circumscribed circle is 8.5 cm. Find the area of the triangle in cm2.

Problem 16. Numbers are drawn from the 100 integers from 1 to 100. At least how many
numbers must be drawn at random to ensure that there are two among them with a difference of
11?

Problem 17. How many zeros are at the back of the least number that is divisible both by 2, and
by 5, and has 2020 factors?
Hint: The number 101 is a prime.

Problem 18. For which natural numbers n is the following inequality true for each х, у and z?

Problem 19. Find the three-digit numbers ̅̅̅̅̅, such that ̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅ is divisible by 1000.

Problem 20. If
√ √
calculate

31
FINAL 2019
AGE GROUP 9

Problem 1. How many rational numbers are there in the following number sequence?

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Problem 2. Take a look at the following numbers:

, , , , …., , ,

At most how many of these numbers are negative?

Problem 3. Calculate

√ ( ) (√ ) ( )

Problem 4. Calculate the following expression:

√ √ ( √ ) √ √ ( √ )

Problem 5. For which natural number x does the number equal to contain 58
digits?

Problem 6. How many integers are there which are solutions of the following inequality?

Problem 7. Find the least possible value of the following expression.

| | | | | |

Problem 8. For how many integers a does the equation √

have three different real solutions?

Problem 9. Find the least natural number n, for which the tenths digit of the number
√ , i.e. the first digit after the decimal point, is 1.

Problem 10. The reciprocal value of 7 is expressed as the sum of the reciprocal values of two
natural numbers. Find the sum of these two natural numbers.

Problem 11. The point D is of the median CM of the triangle ABC and it is such that

2 СD = 3 DM. If point E is an intersection of the straight line AD and the side BC,
32
determine CE : CB.

E
D
А B
М

Problem 12. Two of the sides of a triangle have lengths of √ cm and √ cm, respectively. The
altitude to one side is x cm longer than the altitude to the other side. Find the area of the triangle
for one possible value of х. Write down the value of х and the area of the triangle in the answer
sheet.

Problem 13. The lengths of the legs of a right-angled triangle are 3 cm and 4 cm, respectively.
The hypotenuse is used to build a square external to the triangle. Find the distance from the
vertex of the right angle to the center of the square in cm.

Hint: In Euclidean geometry, Ptolemy's theorem is a relation between the four sides and two
diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral (a quadrilateral whose vertices lie on a common circle).

If a quadrilateral is inscribable in a circle then the product of the measures of its diagonals is
equal to the sum of the products of the measures of the pairs of opposite sides.

Problem 14. The lengths of the sides АС and ВС of the right-angled are 3 cm and 4 cm.
Point М belongs to its hypotenuse and is such that the distance from its projections P and Q on
the sides is the least possible ( ). Find PQ in cm.

Problem 15. In a rectangular coordinate system, the vertices of the triangle АВС have the
following coordinates: A(-2;0), B(6;0), C(5;6). Find the coordinates of the centroid of the
triangle.
Problem 16. (Isaac Newton’s problem) It would take 24 days for 70 cows to eat all the grass in a
field, and it would take 60 days for 30 cows to do the same. Find the number of cows that would
eat all the grass in 96 days. Don’t forget that the grass on the field grows evenly.

Problem 17. Calculate x + 2y + 3z, if the numbers х, у and z are real numbers which fulfill both
of the following conditions:

 ;

33
Problem 18. Numbers are drawn from the 100 integers from 1 to 100. At least how many
numbers must be drawn at random to ensure that there are two among them with a difference of
11?

Problem 19. Find the three-digit numbers ̅̅̅̅̅, such that ̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅ is divisible by 1000.
Problem 20. If

√ √

find the length of the third side of a triangle with sides a and b, and with an angle between them
equal to .

34
MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019
The answers to each problem are expressed by the symbols @, #, &, §, *
and are used to solve each following problem. Each team must fill out the same answer sheet.
Working time – 40 minutes.

MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019


AGE GROUP 1
Problem 1. There are 12 white roses and 14 red roses in two vases. The first vase contains 6
roses more than the second. There are at least @ white roses in the first vase. Find @.

Problem 2. Alex and @ of his friends wrote down 1 one-digit number each. The sum of the
numbers they wrote down is greater than 26 and is equal to #. Find #.

Problem 3. I have # sweets and I can give them to & children at most, so that each child would
get at least one sweet, and no two children would receive the same number of sweets. Find &.

Problem 4. The number of digits &, used to write down the numbers in the sequence 1, 3, 5, 7,
9, 11, ..., 91, 93, 95, 97, 99 is §. Find §.

Problem 5. Mary started counting the numbers from 1 to 100. When she got to the smallest two-
digit number with § as the sum of its digits, she skipped all following numbers and continued
counting from the greatest two-digit number with § as the sum of its digits. Mary counted *
numbers. Find *.

MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019


AGE GROUP 2
Problem 1. I drew a figure (either a triangle or a square) on each of 10 pages of my notebook.
These figures have 36 vertices in total. I drew @ triangles. Find @.
Problem 2. The sum of the odd numbers smaller than @ 6 is greater than the sum of the even
numbers smaller than @ 6 by #. Find #.
Problem 3. Write down the number # as the sum of 4 numbers with the greatest possible
product. Use & to denote the answer. Find &.

Problem 4. There are § natural numbers smaller than &, which are divisible by 9, but are not
divisible by 6. Find §.

35
Problem 5. I wrote down the numbers 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11 and 16 on a whiteboard. At first George
erased one of the numbers. Then Simon erased a second number. After that George erased a
third number. Then Simon erased another number and so on, until the only number left was the
number *. Find this number, if the sum of the numbers George erased is § times greater than
the sum of the numbers Simon erased.

MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019


AGE GROUP 3
Problem 1. I drew a figure (either a triangle or a square) on each of 10 pages of my notebook.
These figures have 36 vertices in total. I drew @ triangles. Find @.
Problem 2. The sum of the odd numbers smaller than @ 6 is greater than the sum of the even
numbers smaller than @ 6 by #. Find #.
Problem 3. Write down the number # as the sum of 4 numbers with the greatest possible
product. Use & to denote the answer. Find &.
Problem 4. There are § natural numbers smaller than &, which are divisible by 9, but are not
divisible by 6. Find §.
Problem 5. I wrote down the numbers 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11 and 16 on a whiteboard. At first George
erased one of the numbers. Then Simon erased a second number. After that George erased a
third number. Then Simon erased another number and so on, until the only number left was the
number *. Find this number, if the sum of the numbers George erased is § times greater than
the sum of the numbers Simon erased.

MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019


AGE GROUP 4
Problem 1. First, write down the two numbers 4 and 3. Each following number will be equal to
the ones digit of the product of the two numbers that precede it. The 2019th number in this
sequence is @. Find @.
Problem 2. A rectangle with a perimeter of @ decimetres has sides expressed in integer
centimetres. Its greatest possible area is # cm2. Find #.
Problem 3. The greatest of # consecutive natural numbers is an odd number. The least possible
sum of all these numbers is &. Find &.

Problem 4. Among & randomly chosen children, § were definitely born in the same month.
Find §.
Problem 5. Every day I solve either 4, or 3 problems. I solved a total of § problems in * days.
Find *.
36
MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019
AGE GROUP 5
Problem 1. There are three different one-digit prime numbers, whose sum @ is 5 times smaller
than their product. Find @.

Problem 2. Among the 2019 numbers 2, 22, 222, ..., ⏟ , there are # numbers which are

divisible by @. Find #.

Problem 3. Among # randomly chosen children, & were definitely born in the same month.
Find &.

Problem 4. Take a look at the numbers equal to 1!, 2!, 3!, …, &!. We can multiply § of them at
most, in order to get a perfect square. Find §.

Problem 5. Every day I solve either 4, or 3 problems. I solved a total of § problems in * days.
Find *.

MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019


AGE GROUP 6
Problem 1. 700 consecutive integers have been written on a whiteboard. The sum of the three
smallest numbers among them is (– 2019). The greatest number is @. Find @.
Problem 2. @ natural consecutive numbers have been written in a row:

For each number divisible by 3, the plus symbol has been changed to a minus symbol. Then,
for each number divisible by 4, the plus symbol has been changed to a minus symbol and the
minus symbol has been changed to a plus symbol. Find the sum # of the resulting numbers.
Problem 3. A rectangle has been built using 13 equal line segments with a total length of (# + 6)
cm:
А

В
How many routes with a length of 49 cm lead from point А to point В, if none of the segments is
used more than once? Use & to denote the answer. Find &.

37
Problem 4. Take a look at the numbers equal to 1!, 2!, 3!, …, &!. We can multiply (& - 2) of
them, in order to get a perfect square. One of the remaining numbers is § times greater than the
other. Find §.
Hint: 1! = 1, 2! = 1 2, 3! = 1 2 3, 4! = 1 2 3 4, ...
Problem 5. The volume of a cuboid expressed in integer centimetres is § cm3.
If we can use three of its edges to build a right-angled triangle, calculate the height to the
hypotenuse in cm. Use * to denote the answer.
Hint: If the sum of the squares of the two smaller sides of a triangle is equal to the square of the
largest side, the triangle is right-angled. ( )

MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019


AGE GROUP 7
Problem 1. Find the product @ of the three primes for which the product is 7 times their sum.

Problem 2. The following fractions have been written in a row:

Their sum is an irreducible fraction with a numerator #. Find #.

#
Problem 3. boys and girls are standing in a circle and holding hands. 23 of them are holding

hands with boys, and 13 are holding hands with girls. There are & girls. Find &.

Problem 4. The areas of the triangles АDC, ADF and CDE are 10, & and 5 cm2, respectively.
The area of the triangle АВС is § cm2. Find §.
C

E
D

A B
F

Problem 5. The remainder left when dividing


by 10 is *. Find *.

38
MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019
AGE GROUP 8

Problem 1. Let the natural number N be such that:



 it is divisible by all natural numbers smaller than √
The greatest possible value of N is @. Find @.
Problem 2. Find the sum of all three-digit numbers ̅̅̅̅̅, for which the following is true:
̅̅̅̅̅
Тhe sum of the digits of the resulting number is #. Find #.
Problem 3. The points Н and М in the triangle АВС are different and lie on the side АВ. If
СН АВ, АМ = ВМ, ∡ ∡ 𝐻 # and ∡ 𝐻 & find &.
(the angles are measured in degrees)

Problem 4. Let and be natural numbers, such that & Calculate the
value of the expression § = √
Problem 5. § girls and boys are standing in a circle and holding hands. 32 of them are holding
hands with boys, and 9 are holding hands with girls. There are * girls. Find *.

MATHEMATICAL RELAY – 30 JUNE 2019


AGE GROUP 9

Problem 1. The equation is true for the real numbers a and b.


The greatest possible value of is @. Find @.
Problem 2. There are # natural numbers N, for which the inequality

√ √
has a positive integer as a solution. Find #.
Problem 3. The points Н and М in the triangle АВС are different and lye on the side АВ. If
СН АВ, АМ = ВМ, ∡ ∡ 𝐻 # and ∡ 𝐻 & find &.
(the angles are measured in degrees)

39
Problem 4. The equation

& ( )

has § negative roots. Find §.


Problem 5. Two of the sides of a triangle have lengths of 6 cm and 4 cm, and the measurements
of the angles to the opposite of those sides have a ratio of § : 1. The length of the third side is *
cm. Find *.

ANSWERS AND SHORT SOLUTIONS


AGE GROUP 1
Problem Answer Solution

1 19 1 + 2 + 3 + 7 + 8 + 9 -  = 11.
⟺ 30 -  = 11 ⟺  = 30 – 11= 19.
→ ⟹

2 15 Therefore,
→ → ⟹ → ⟹
 

For  +  we get 7 + 8 = 15.


3 9  + 4 =  + 3 ⟺  + 1 =  ⟹ 

4 7 From 4 + 5 + 6 = 14 = 7 + 7 ⟹ we get that the number we are looking for is 7.

The visible dots are 6 + 4 + 1 = 11 in total. The hidden dots are 5 + 3 + 2 = 10


1 in total.
5
From 11 – 10 = 1, it follows that the number we are looking for is 1.

6 34 The second ant collected 7 + 3 = 10 grains. The third ant collected 7 + 10 = 17


grains. All three ants collected 7 + 10 + 17 = 34 grains in total.
7 3 The numbers are 11, 14 and 17.

8 0 10 + 23 = 24.

40
John erased 1 and 2. The remaining numbers are 3, 4, 5 and 6. Stephen erased
9 5 the numbers 4 and 6. The remaining numbers are 3 and 5. Peter erased the
number 3. The remaining number is 5.
⏟ , 6, 12, 20, ?, 42

0, ⏟ , 12, 20, ? 42

0, 2, ⏟ , 20, ?, 42
10 30

0, 2, 6, , ?, 42

The next number would be 20 + 10 = 30, and the number after that would be
30 + 12 = 42.

11 8 The bunny eats 15 carrots in three days. There are 4 days left until the end of
the week, i.e. the cabbages eaten would be 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8.
12 12 There are 6 segments. The endpoints are now 12.

13 27 Alex and Felix are 11 – 3 = 8 years old. The sum of the ages of all three
children is 8 + 8 + 11 = 27.
If the number 5 is left unused, then 9 – 8 = 7 – 6; 9 – 7 = 8 – 6.
14 5, 7 and 9 If the number 7 is left unused, then 8 – 5 = 9 – 6; 9 – 8 = 6 – 5.
If the number 9 is left unused, then 8 – 7 = 6 – 5; 8 – 6 = 7 – 5.
15 5 There are at least three girls and at least two boys.

The possible arrangements are


16 1 < 2 + 2 < 3 + 3 and 2 < 1 + 2 < 3 + 3.
4 or 5
Then the sums we are looking for are two: either 1 + 3 = 4, or 2 + 3 = 5.

17 2 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 = 10.

The blue shirt and each of the pairs of trousers equals 2 combinations; the
green shirt and each of the pairs of trousers equals 2 combinations; the red shirt
18 5 and each of the pairs of trousers equals another 2 combinations.
There are 2 + 2 + 2 = 6 combinations, however one of them is of the same
color (blue + blue). Therefore, there are 6 – 1 = 5 combinations.

19 4 I have 20 – 9 = 11 sweets. In order to have 15 sweets, I need another


15 – 11 = 4 sweets.

41
The smallest two-digit number with 2 as the sum of its digits is 11.

20 14 The greatest two-digit number with 17 as the sum of its digits is 98.
Maria counted the numbers from 1 to 11, and then she counted 98, 99 and 100.
She counted 14 numbers in total.
AGE GROUP 2
Problem Answer Solution
11 + 22 + 43 + 57 + 78 + 89 -  = 123 ⟺ 300 -  = 123 ⟺
1 177
 = 300 – 123 = 177.
→ → 

From  → ⟹
2 30
Therefore, → → ⟹ → ⟹
 

For  +   we get 5 + 5 5= 30.


3 20 The numbers are 10, 11, 12, ..., 28, 29. They are 20.
4 8 ⟹
5 6 ⟹

6 50 25 cm – 2 dm = 5 cm = 50 mm.
7 35 3 5+5+3 5 = 35.
The even numbers from 5 to 15 are 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14.
8 32 The odd numbers after 22 are 23, 25, 27, 29, 31.
The number we are looking for is 32.
There are 27 numbers. There are 13 numbers to the left of the number in the
middle, and there are also 13 numbers to the right of the number in the
9 4 middle. The 14th number is in the middle. Number A is the 19th number.
There are 4 numbers between the 14th and 19th numbers: the 15th, 16th, 17th
and 18th numbers.
The sum of the numbers to the left is an odd number, therefore the options
10 3 are the digits 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. If we check, we will find out that the number
we are looking for is 3.
From 12 = 12 1=6 2=4 3, we get the following options:
(12-1) 1= 11 or 12 (1 - 1) = 0;
11 6 (6-1) 2 = 10 or 6 (2 - 1) = 6;
(4 - 1) 3 = 9 or 4 (3 - 1) = 8.
The different products are 0, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11.
12 17 50 – (12 + 21) = 17

42
From the 9 sticks we get 9 – 5 + 5 2 = 4 + 10 = 14 sticks. There are now
13 28
14 + 14 = 28 endpoints.
From 22 = 5 + 8 + 9 = 6 + 7 +9, it follows that the numbers we are looking
14 12
for are 589, 598, 859, 895, 958, 985; 679, 697, 769, 796, 967, 976.
15 4 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10.

102 10 < 12 < 20 < 90 < 92


16
10 < 12 < 20 < 90 < 92 The sum we are looking for is 10 + 92 = 102.
3 3–2=7
We have the following options:
17 7
Blue-Green, Blue-Black, Green-Blue, Green-Black , Green-Red, Black-
Green, Black-Red.
The first ant collected 7, the second ant collected 21, and the third ant
18 56
collected 28 grains. The three ants collected 56 grains in total.
It takes 6 minutes to fry 4 flatbreads on both sides. The time it takes to fry 15
19 24
flatbreads would be the same time it takes to fry 16 flatbreads: 24 minutes.
I have 200 – 47 = 153 sweets. In order to have 159 sweets, I need 159 – 153
20 6
= 6 sweets.
AGE GROUP 3
Problem Answer Solution

The numbers are ⏟ ,⏟ ⏟


1 55
2 + 50 + 3 = 55 numbers in total.
56 + X = 111 ⟹ X = 111 – 56 ⟹ X = 55.
2 1
56 – 55 = 1.
120 seconds = 2 minutes;
3 1
2 minutes – 1 minute = 1 minute
– – –
4 –

The numbers are 4 5, 4 6, 4 7, 4 8и4 9.


140
5 Their sum is 20 + 24 + 28 + 32 + 36 = 140.
The digit of hundreds is 1, 2, 3, ..., 8, 9.
6 90 It is possible to get the numbers 00, 01, ..., 09: ten numbers in total.
Therefore, there would be 9 10 = 90 numbers in total.
There are 9 – 3 = 6 one-digit even numbers. There are 3 two-digit even
7 22
numbers.

43
Therefore there would be 12 – 6 = 6 odd one-digit numbers and 11 – 3 = 8 two-
digit odd numbers.
They are written using 6 1+8 2 = 22 digits in total.
8 12 ⟹
1×2÷2+2×3÷3+3×4÷4+4×5÷5+5×6÷6+6×7÷7+8×9÷8 =
9 3
= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 9 = 30.
̅̅̅̅ ⟹ ⟹

10 8
The digit Х is each digit from 1 to 8.
There are eight numbers: 19, 29, 39, ...79, 89.
11 20 1 m ÷ 50 mm = 100 cm ÷ 5 cm = 20.
The seven cubes have 7 6 = 42 faces. There are two cubes on top and 8 of
their faces have been painted. There are 5 cubes underneath them and 5 + 4 + 4
12 14
+ 3 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 28 of their faces have been painted.
42 – 28 = 14 faces have not been painted.
6 8

b
а 9 4
The sum of the numbers along the diagonal that contains 8 is 8 + a + b.
The sum of the numbers across the row that contains 4 is а + 9 + 4.
13 18
If we compare the two sums 8 + a + b and а + 9 + 4 we will get that b = 5.
Therefore, the sum of the numbers along the diagonal that contains 6 is 6 + 5 +
4 = 15.
The sum of the numbers in the magic square is 15 + 15 + 15 = 45.
The sum of the erased numbers is 45 – (6 + 8 + 9 + 4) =18.
From 4 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 2 + 2 = 1 + 1 + 2 = 1 + 2 + 1 = 2 + 1 + 1,
14 5
it follows that the grasshopper can get to the leaf in 5 ways.
The tripled sum of the length and the width of the rectangle is 25 + 23 = 48.
15 32 Then the sum of the length and the width would be 48 ÷ 3 = 16, and the
perimeter of the rectangle would be 2 16 = 32.
The numbers are
16 5
There are 5 numbers in total.
The side length of the large square is 6 5 cm = 30 cm, therefore its perimeter
17 120
is 120 cm.

44
It takes 12 minutes to fry 5 flatbreads on both sides. The time it takes to fry 29
18 72
flatbreads would be the same time it takes to fry 30 flatbreads: 72 minutes.
We can use the digits 0, 1 and 2 to write 102, 120, 201 and 210;
We can use the digits 0, 1 and 9 to write down 109, 190, 901, 910;
We can use the digits 0, 2 and 9 to write down 209, 290, 902, 920;
19 18
We can use the digits 1, 2 and 9 to write down 129, 192, 219, 291, 912 and
921.
18 numbers in total.
In 7 days it will be Saturday. In 70 days it will be Saturday again. Therefore,
20 Saturday
the 69th day would be a Friday.
AGE GROUP 4
Problem Answer Solution

1 2

2 1515 ⟹

First, we have to find how many numbers of the type ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ there are from 1900 to
2000. We are looking for these two-digit numbers and one-digit numbers which are

3 63 written down using two different digits among the digits 0, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
There are numbers.
The numbers 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 are of the same type.
The numbers are 56 + 7 = 63 in total.
There are 7 – 4 = 3 one-digit even numbers. There are 4 two-digit even numbers.

4 23 Then the odd one-digit numbers are 12 – 3 = 9, and the odd two-digit numbers are
11 – 4 = 7.
They are written down using digits in total.

5 6

The numbers would be even if last digit of each number is either 0 or 2:
0

6 3 2
The options in the first case are: 3120; 2130; 1230
The second option is not possible because the only way to arrange the numbers
would be 0912 and this is not a four-digit number. The numbers are 3.

45
7 36 Alec wrote down 15 numbers; Peter wrote down 21 numbers. They wrote 15 + 21 =
36 numbers in total.
There are two options:
8 3 or 4 ⏟ and ⏟ . Then the products

are either 3 or 4.
̅̅̅̅ ⟹ ⟹ ⟹

9 8
The digit Х is each of the digits from 1 to 8. There are 8 numbers:: 19, 29, 39, ...79,
89.
The fourth number is odd. The 5th and 6th numbers are also odd. There can’t be a 6th

10 4 or 5 number in the sequence because the sum of the last three consecutive numbers
would be an odd number. Therefore, the greatest possible value of N is 5. The
possible values are 4 and 5.
We must consider that the side lengths of the other squares are 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34.
11 178 Then the rectangle has side lengths of 34 and 55. The perimeter of the rectangle is
cm.
If Annie places 7 points along the straight line, Lilly will place 6, and Mary will
place 12 = 25 points in total.
If Annie places 8 points, Lilly will place 7, and Mary will place 14 = 29 points in
12 16 total.
If Annie places 9 points, Lilly will place 8, and Mary will place 16 = 33 points in
total.
Therefore, Mary placed 16 points along the straight line.
If the side lengths of the squares are а, b and с (a < b < c), then the perimeter is 2a
13 34 + 2b + 4c. In this case they are 3, 4 and 5.
Then the perimeter is 6 + 8 + 20 = 34 cm.
There are 20 ways in which we can choose 3 out of 6 points.
14 16 In the case of 4 of these options, the 3 points are lying on the same straight line.
Therefore, the number of triangles is 20 – 4 = 16.
First option:
Up to … meters 1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m

15 21 Number of ways 1 2 3 5
3 = 1 + 2, 5 = 2 + 3 ⟹ the result is a sum of the results in the previous two steps.
Therefore,
Up to … meters 1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m
46
Number of ways 1 2 3 5 8 13 21
In fact,
7 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1+ 1;
7 = 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1+ 1 = 1 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1+ 1 = 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 1+ 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 +
2 + 1 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2;
7=2+2+1+1+1=2+1+2+1+1=2+1+1+2+1=2+1+1+1+2=1
+2+2+1+1=1+2+1+2+1=1+2+1+1+2=
= 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 2;
7 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 1 = 2 + 2 + 1 + 2 = 2 + 1 + 2 + 2 = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2.
In 1 hour and 15 minutes = 75 minutes, the ice block would lose half of its weight 3
16 1
times: ← ← ←
The block weighed 1 000 grams = 1 kg.

17 72 It takes 12 minutes to fry 5 flatbreads on both sides. The time it takes to fry 29
flatbreads would be the same time it takes to fry 30 flatbreads: 72 minutes.

18 709 From ⟹ we can write down 709 numbers


at most.
19 20 or 52 There are two options: or . The respective sums are 52 and 20.

20 8074

AGE GROUP 5
Problem Answer Solution

1 1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 8

The number that should have been increased is 20.19 5 = 100.95. The number that
4 101.15
I was supposed to get is 101.95 + 0.2 = 101.15.

5 5

6 70 or 98 The numbers are of the type 2×7×a and 2×7×b, where а and b are coprime.

47
From 84 = 2×2×3×7, and 14 = 2×7, we can establish that а and b are 3 and 7 or 1
and 21. Therefore the numbers we are looking for are 42 and 28 or 84 and 14. Their
sum is 70 or 98.
The two numbers are prime, therefore, one of them is 2, because if it wasn’t, the
number N + 3 would be an even number greater than 2, i.e. it would be composite.
7 172
Then N + 1000 = 1002. The prime factors of 1002 are 2, 3 and 167. Their sum is
172.
The remainder is 4, therefore the smallest possible value of the divisor is 5, which
8 44 means that the smallest possible value of the dividend is
, and the sum of the two numbers is 39 + 5 = 31.
From being an even number and being an odd number,
it follows that х is an odd number.
From being an even number and being an odd number,
it follows that y is an odd number.
Then from being odd numbers, but being an even number ⟹ c is
9 1 an even number.
are odd numbers, с is an even number, therefore b is an odd
number.
From being an even number, аnd b+ c being an odd number ⟹ a is an
odd number.
Only 1 of the numbers is even.
̅̅̅̅ ⟹ ⟹ ⟹
10 9

First, we have to find how many numbers of the type ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ there are from 1900 to
2000. We are looking for these two-digit numbers and one-digit numbers which are
written down using two different digits among the digits 0, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
11 63
There are numbers.
The numbers 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 are of the same type.
The numbers are 56 + 7 = 63 in total.
There are two options:

12 3 or 4 ⏟ и ⏟ . Therefore, the

products are 3 or 4.
Let us denote the number of brothers by х. Then the sisters would be х - 1.
13 5
Maria has х – 2 sisters and 3 brothers. (x - 2) ⟹ ⟹

48
There are 3 boys and 2 girls: 5 in total.
1, 2, 4, 8, A possible answer:
14
16
We get that the side lengths of the other squares are 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34.
15 178 Then the rectangle has side lengths of 34 and 55. The perimeter of the rectangle is
cm.
The length of each of the small rectangles is 3.3 cm, and its width is 1.1.
16 18.15 Then the area of 1 small rectangle is cm2.
The area of the rectangle is cm2.
17 75 34 + 2 + 18 + 23 + 60 = 7 + ? + 55 ⟹ ? = 75
There are 20 ways in which we can choose 3 out of 6 points.
18 16 With 4 of these choices, the 3 points are lying on the same straight line. Therefore
the number of triangles would be 20 – 4 = 16.
First we divide the numbers into groups:
1, 2, 3, ..., 9,10
11, 12, ...., 19, 20;
21, 22, ..., 29, 30;
31, 32, …, 39, 40;
41, 42, 43,44, 45;
19 31
51, 52, 53, 54, 55.
46, 47, 48, 49, 50
We pick 10 numbers from the first group, 10 numbers from the third group, 5
numbers from the fourth group and 5 numbers from the sixth group. This equals 30
numbers in total. The 31st number will be in one of the other groups: second, fourth
or fifth. This means there would be two numbers with a difference of 10.
20 7 The numbers are 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59 - 7 in total.
AGE GROUP 6
Problem Answer Solution

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 -25 =( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 7 and 8 ⟺ ⟹

49
3 The boys are ⟹

Let x be the number we are looking for. Then


4
( ) ⟹ ( )⟹ .

We can get the greatest value in the case of the greatest value of А and the least
5 29
value of В, i.e.
⟹ ⟹

6 -27 ⟹

7 41
. The quotient is 41.
Let k be a natural number, such that 1< k < 2019.

The fraction would be reducible if k is divisible by 3 or by 673.

There are 672 numbers k from 1 to 2018, which are divisible by 3. There are 2
numbers k, which are divisible by 673: 673, 1346.
8 674
There are 674 reducible fractions in total.
Another option: Then,

( ) ( ) There are 1344 irreducible

fractions, and 2018 – 1344 = 674 reducible fractions.


̅̅̅ ̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅ ⟺ ⟺ ⟺
9 18
̅̅̅̅̅ ⟺ ⟹
The numbers are of the type 2×7×a and 2×7×b, where а and b are coprime.
From 84 = 2×2×3×7, and 14 = 2×7, we can establish that а and b are 3 and 7 or 1
10 70 or 98
and 21. Therefore the numbers we are looking for are 42 and 28 or 84 and 14. Their
sum is 70 or 98.
Let us divide the numbers into groups:
1, 2, 3, ..., 10, 11
12, 13, ...., 21, 22;
23, 24, ..., 32, 33;
11 56
...
89, 90, ..., 98, 99;
100.
I pick 11 numbers from the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth groups each, 55 in
50
total.
The 56th number will belong to one of the groups – the second, fourth, sixth or
eight, or the number 100. This means there will now be two numbers with a
difference of 11.

12 2019
y – 7x = 2187 – 168 = 2019.
The sum of the digits is divisible by 3. Therefore, all four-digit numbers will be
divisible by 3. In order for the number to be divisible by 24, it has to be even.
The numbers are:
- either of the type ***0, where we have to replace the symbols *** with the
remaining three digits 1, 2 and 9;
13 2
- or of the type ***2, where we have to replace the symbols *** with the
remaining three digits 0, 1 and 9.
Thus we get to the numbers 1290, 1920, 2190, 2910, 9120, 921, 1902, 1092, 9102,
9012.
Only two of them are divisible by 24. Then the numbers are 1920 and 9120.
If x = 2, then 7x + 3 = 17 is a prime number.
If x > 2, then it is an odd number; 7x would also be an odd number, and 7x + 3 > 3
14 2
would be an even number, i.e. 7x + 3 would not be a prime number.
The only prime number is obtained when x = 2.
The total number of coins that both of them took is divisible by 3.
The total number of coins in all the boxes is 119. When divided by 3, the number
119 leaves a remainder of 2. Therefore, we must remove the number 20 from the
15 20
sum, because it is the only number that leaves a remainder of 2 when divided by 3.
There are 20 coins in Steven’s box.
Either Peter or John took coins, which is a sum of 15 and 18.
One option:
1 2 3 4 5
1  + + + -
1, 2, 3, 4
2 +  + + -
16 or 3 and
3 + +  + +
4
4 + + +  +
5 - - + + 
The fifth line segment intersects the 3rd and 4th line segments.
51
Another option:
1 2 3 4 5
1  - + + +
2 -  + + +
3 + +  + +
4 + + +  +
5 + + + + 
The fifth line segment intersects the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th line segments.
17 18 From it follows that the edge of the new cube is 18 cm.


18 16

⟹ ⟹
Let us denote the number of brothers by х. Then there would ne х – 1 sisters.
For Maria the sisters are х – 2, and the brothers are
19 5
3. (x - 2) ⟹ ⟹
The boys are 3, and the girls are 2: 5 in total.
1, 3, 9, For example:
20
27, 81
AGE GROUP 7
Problem Answer Solution

1 4

The numbers are 100 + 50 = 150. Let us divide them into 50 triplets.
, , , ….,
2 100 , ).
The products of the numbers in each group are positive numbers. Then each group
could consist of two negative numbers at most, 100 in total.
| | ⟺ 3 or ;
| | ⟺ ⟺
3 10
The two conditions are only fulfilled if
Therefore, 5 – a = 5 + 5 = 10.
4 110
52
In this case, a = 1.1, b = , c = , d = 100. The value we are looking for is 110.

5 8
= 9
6 9 The inequality is equivalent to There are 9 positive integer solutions.
Let А = | | | | | |
If ⟹

7 1 If ⟹
If ⟹
If ⟹
The smallest value of А is 1 and we will get it if х = .
Let the numbers be х and у. Then

⟹ ⟹ ⟹

We get to the following options:



8 28 or 64
If y = 8 ⟹ x = 56 ⟹ 64;
If y = 6 ⟹ x = 42, impossible;
If y = 14 ⟹ x = 14 ⟹ 28;
If y = 56 ⟹ x =8 ⟹ 64.
The sums are either 28, or 64.
Let us use х to denote the number of apples of the first child. If he gives 1 apple to
the other child, he will be left with х – 1, and the second child will also have х – 1.
Therefore, initially the first child has х apples, and the second child has х - 2
9 18 apples.
From the second condition, it follows that ⟹
The first child has 10 apples, and the second child has 8 apples.
The two children have 18 apples in total.
The left side of the equation for an even number N is and for an odd number
N is 1.
10 11
The equation only has a solution for odd numbers N.
The smallest two-digit number we are looking for is 11.
11 4 or 5 If n is the number of vertices of the polygon, then the number of diagonals is

53
If ⟹ then one of the numbers n and n – 3 is even, i.e. the
divisors of

apart from the number itself and 1, are or

Therefore, if ⟹ is a composite number.

If n = 4 or 5, then the diagonals are 2 and 5, i.e. prime numbers.


If ⦟ ACB = x ⟹ ⦟ CBM = x ⟹ ⦟ AMB = 2x ⟹ ⦟ MBA = 2x.
12 72
The angles in the triangle АВМ are 2х, х and 2х ⟹ x = ⟹ ⦟ DAB =
Let us use b to denote the side length of the large square. Then the side length of
the small square would be

The area of the small square is


13
The percentage we are looking for is

If АВ = 2x, then
14 90 Let us observe ∆ АСD. The median АМ is half of DC ⟹ ∡ ⟹

Let us build an equilateral triangle ABQ, such that the points Q and С belong to
the same half-plane in regards to the straight line АВ.
От ⟹ ;
От CA ⟹
15 30 Then, ;

{ ⟹∡ ∡
∡ ∡
⟹∡
Let us divide the numbers into groups:
1, 2, 3, ..., 10, 11
12, 13, ...., 21, 22;
16 56
23, 24, ..., 32, 33;
...
89, 90, ..., 98, 99;
54
100.
We pick 11 numbers from the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth group each, 55 in
total.
The 56th number will belong to one of the following groups – second, fourth, sixth
or eighth. This means that there are now two numbers with a difference of 11.
It is known that if p, q and r are different primes, the number of natural numbers
which are factors of the number equal to is
(1 + x) (1 + y) (1 + z).
From 12 = 2 2 3=4 3=6 2=1 12
The exponents are 1, 1, 2; 2 and 3; 1 and 5; 11.
The numbers we are looking for are of the type

The numbers of the type are:

17 402

The numbers are 60, 84, 90.


There is one two-digit number of the type because
= 72;
There is one two-digit number of the type because:

There are no two-digit numbers of the type because


All the numbers are 60, 72, 84, 90, 96. Their sum is 402.
⟹ divides
Since n and n-1 are co-primes, then either
2  4 divides n and 25 divides n - 1,
18
or
 25 divides n and 4 divides n – 1
⟹ n = 25, 76.
Since we want the given inequality to be true for each x, y and z, we can set
1. Therefore, . With we know that
19

55
Each digit can be placed only once either in the units place or in the tens place or in
20 4995 the hundreds place.

AGE GROUP 8
Problem Answer Solution

√( √ ) ( √ ) √(√ ) ( √ )
1 2
| √ | ( √ ) |√ | ( √ )

⟹ ⟹
2 34
⟹ ⟹

3 80

21 + p = 10 + q = 4 + r ⟹ .
Therefore, the numbers q and r are odd and the sums of 10 + q and 4 + r are odd
numbers.
4 34 If p is an odd number, then the sum of 21 + p is an even number. Therefore the
equations 21 + p = 10 + q = 4 + r are not possible.
There is only one option left, which is p = 2. Therefore q = 13, r = 19.
Therefore, p + q + r = 2 + 13 + 19 = 34.
The number of balls each child owns is:

which is an integer. This would be possible if n + 6 is either 1 or 19, therefore n =


5 72 13.

Each of the girls and each of the boys has 12 balls. The number we are looking
for is

56
√ ( √ ) ⟹ √
6 1
⟹| ⟹ ⟹

Let А = | | | | | |
If ⟹

7 1 If ⟹
If ⟹
If ⟹
The least value of А is 1 and we get that when х = .
The quadratic equation is either
or
Then or , i.e. when dividing D by 4, we
8 10 get a remainder of 0 or 1.
Among all the numbers, only 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2013,
2016, 2017 leave a remainder of 0 or 1 when divided by 4. There are 10 such
numbers.
Let us use х and у to denote the numbers. Then

⟹ ⟹ ⟹

We get the following options:



9 28 or 64
If y = 8 ⟹ x = 56 ⟹ 64;
If y = 6 ⟹ x = -56, impossible;
If y = 14 ⟹ x = 14 ⟹ 28;
If y = 56 ⟹ x =8 ⟹ 64.
The sums are either 28, or 64.
In order for the equation to have a solution, it is necessary that ⟺

Let а = 2. Then the equation would be || | | and would have two


solutions: ( 1) and 3.
10 2
Let
We get
|| | | ⟺ | | or | |
⟺ | | or | |

57
The equation | | when always has two solutions.
Therefore, | | should not have two solutions, i.e. – ⟹

We get that the equation would have two solutions, if


The least value for which the equation has two solutions is а = 2.
Let us denote the smaller altitude by h, then the greater altitude is h + 2 ⟹
11 126
⟹ ⟹ S= 126
We get the triangle ОАВ, the coordinates of the points being O (0, 0), A (4/5, 0), B
12 1.6
(0, 4). The area of the triangle is 1.6.
The quadrangles AFHE, FBDH, EHDC are inscribed in a circle because their
opposite angles are supplementary.
The quadrangle ABDE is inscribed in a circle with the midpoint of the side AB as
its center and a radius of

The quadrangle BCEF is inscribed in a circle with the midpoint of the side BC as
13 6
its center and a radius of

The quadrangle ACDF is inscribed in a circle with the midpoint of the side AC as
its center and a radius of

There are 6 circles that have 4 of the 7 points (А, В, С, D, E, F and Н) lying on
them.
14 √ | | √ √ √
Let us use a, b and с to denote the two legs and the hypotenuse of the triangle.
15 60
and ⟹ ⟹

Let us divide the numbers into groups:


1, 2, 3, ..., 10, 11
12, 13, ...., 21, 22;
23, 24, ..., 32, 33;
...
16 56
89, 90, ..., 98, 99.
We pick 10 numbers from the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth group each, 55
in total.
The 56th number will belong to one of the following groups: second, fourth, sixth
or eighth. This means that there are now two numbers with a difference of 11.
From
17 3
it follows that the least number is
58
There are 3 zeros.
Since we want the given inequality to be true for each x, y and z, we can set
1. Therefore, . If it follows that
18

Let n = ̅̅̅̅̅
̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ ⟹ divides
Since n and n-1 are co-prime, then either 8 divides n and 125 divides n-1, or 125
divides n and 8 divides n -1 .
From n being a three-digit number and 125 dividing n ⟹
n = 125, 250, 375, 500, 625, 750, 875.
625 and For these values of n, 8 must divide n-1. We get the first possible value:
19
376 n = 625.
From n being a three-digit number and 125 dividing n -1 ⟹
n = 126, 251, 376, 501, 626, 751 и 876.
and for these values of n, 8 must divide n.
Let us check: n = 376
The numbers we are looking for are 625 and 376.
6252 = 390625, 3762 = 141376

√ √ √ √
20 √ √
⟹ ⟹
AGE GROUP 9
Problem Answer Solution
From √ √ √ √ √ √ it
1 23 follows that the number of rational numbers is equal to the amount of numbers 1,
3, 5, 7, ..., 43, 45. The answer is 23.
The numbers are 100 + 50 = 150. Let us divide them into 50 triplets.
, , , ….,
2 100 , ).
The products of the numbers in each group are positive numbers. Then each
group could consist of two negative numbers at most, 100 in total.

59
3 √
In this case, √ ,b= , c = , d = 100. The value we are looking for is

√ .

√ √ ( √ ) √ √ ( √ )
4 5
(√ )( √ ) (√ )( √ )
Let us denote that:
.
If х = 6, then

i.e. the number contains 52 digits.

5 7 If х = 7, then

i.e. the number contains 58 digits.


If х = 8, then

i.e. the number contains 63 digits.


All integers within the interval [20;2019], as well as the number 19, are solutions
6 2001 to the inequality.
There are 2001 integer solutions to the inequality.
Let А = | | | | | |
If ⟹

7 1 If ⟹
If ⟹
If ⟹
The smallest value of А is 1 and we get it when х = .
One of the solutions is 3. Then the solution must have 2 different real
solutions.
8 8
This would be possible if . Then the solutions are √ Three conditions
must be fulfilled: ( √ ) ; √ √ ⟺

60
There are eight integers for which the equation has three different real solutions.
From
√ √ √ ⟹ [√ ]

From

9 4 (√ – )

and х = 1 ⟹

(√ – ) ⟹ ⟹

The smallest number we are looking for is 4.


Let the numbers be х and у. Then

⟹ ⟹ ⟹

We get to the following options:



10 28 or 64
If y = 8 ⟹ x = 56 ⟹ 64;
If y = 6 ⟹ x = -56, impossible;
If y = 14 ⟹ x = 14 ⟹ 28;
If y = 56 ⟹ x =8 ⟹ 64.
The sums are either 28, or 64.
Let the point Q lie on the straight line СМ, СМ = MQ. Point М is between С and

11 3/7 Q.

Then ⟹ ⟹

Let the length of the altitude to the side √ be denoted by h.


1/4
Then
√ √
12 √ √ ⟹ (√ )
From √ и √ ⟹ √ √ .
√ √ √ √
One value of х is ⟹ √

The triangle is АВС, the right angle is at the vertex С, and О is the center of the

√ square.
13
Let us apply Ptomely’s theorem to the quadrangle АОВС, which is inscribed in a
circle.

61

√ √

The quadrangle MPCQ is a rectangle ⟹ .


14 2.4 The least possible value of СМ is found when СМ is an altitude of from
the vertex С. Therefore, СМ = 12/5 cm= 2.4 cm.
Let М (x;y) be the triangle centroid, 𝐻
15
𝐻 ⟹ ⟹ ⟹

Let each cow eat 1 portion of grass each day. In 60 – 24 = 36 days, there will be
30 × 60 – 70 × 24 = 120 portions on the field. Therefore, apart from the 1800
16 20 portions eaten by 30 cows in 60 days, we add another 120 portions. The total
number of portions will be 1920, which will be eaten by 1920 ÷ 96 = 20 cows in
96 days.
The numbers х and у are roots of the equation

17 3 The discriminant of this equation is ⟹ ⟹ ⟹

Therefore, x + 2y + 3z = 3.
Let us divide the numbers into groups:
1, 2, 3, ..., 10, 11
12, 13, ...., 21, 22;
23, 24, ..., 32, 33;
...
89, 90, ..., 98, 99;
18 56
100.
We pick 11 numbers from the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth group each, 55
in total.
The 56th number will belong to one of the following groups – second, fourth,
sixth or eighth.
This means that there are now two numbers with a difference of 11.
Let n = ̅̅̅̅̅
625 and ⟹ divides
19
376 Since n and n-1 are co-prime, then either 8 divides n and 125 divides n-1, or 125
divides n and 8 divides n-1.

62
From n being a three-digit number and 125 dividing n ⟹
n = 125, 250, 375, 500, 625, 750, 875.
For these values of n, 8 must divide n-1. We get the first possible value:
n = 625.
From n being a three-digit number and 125 dividing n -1 ⟹
n = 126, 251, 376, 501, 626, 751 и 876.
and for these values of n, 8 must divide n.
Let us check: n = 376
The numbers we are looking for are 625 and 376.
From
√ √ √ √
20 5
√ √
and ⟹ ⟹

MATHEMATICAL RELAY
ANSWERS AND SHORT SOLUTIONS
AGE GROUP 1

Problem Answer Solution

From 12 + 14 = 26, 26 – 6 = 20 and 20 = 10 + 10, we get that there are 16


roses in the first vase and 10 roses in the second vase.
1 @=2
The first vase would contain the least number of white roses if it contains
the greatest number of red roses: there are 16 – 14 = 2 red roses.
The sum of three one-digit numbers can be 27 at most. All three of them
2 # = 27
wrote down the number 9.
From 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 21, we get that we can distribute 21 sweets
3 &=6 among 6 children at most. We cannot distribute them among 7 children,
since 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 = 28.
There is at least one digit 6 in the numbers 61, 63, 65, 67 and 69. That is 5
4 §=5
digits in total.
The smallest two-digit number with 5 as the sum of its digits is 14, and the
greatest such number is 50. Therefore, Mary skipped the numbers 15, 16, ...,
5 * = 65
49, i.e. 49-14 = 35.
She counted 100 – 35 = 65 numbers.

63
AGE GROUP 2

Problem Answer Solution

If I only drew squares on all 10 pages, the total number of vertices would
be 40. However, according to the condition, they are 36. This means that
1 @=4
there are 40 – 36 = 4 triangles and 10 – 4 = 6 squares.
Check: 4 6+3 4 = 24 + 12 = 36.
(1 + 3 +... + 21 + 23) – (2 + 4 + ...+ 20 + 22) = 12.
1 3 ... 21 23
2 # = 12
2 4 ... 22
1 1 1 1 23 – 11 = 12
3 & = 81 12 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3, therefore & = 81.
Among the numbers 9 1, 9 2, 9 3, 9 4, 9 5, 9 6, 9 7, 9 8, only
4 §=4
9 1, 9 3, 9 5 and 9 7 fit the condition. Therefore, § = 4.
The sum of the numbers on the whiteboard is 51.
51 – 1 = 50, 51 – 3 = 48, 51 – 4 = 47, 51 – 7 = 44, 51 – 9 = 42,
51 – 11 = 40, 51 – 16 = 35.
We are looking for a sum of the erased numbers that is divisible by
§ + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5.
The numbers are 50, 40 and 35, which we get when erasing all numbers
other than 11 or other than 6.
If the sum is 50, Simon erased the numbers with a sum of 50 ÷ 5 = 10.
5 * = 11
There are no three numbers with a sum of 10 among the numbers that
were written down.
If the sum is 35, Simon erased the numbers with a sum of 35 ÷ 5 = 7.
There are no three numbers with a sum of 7 among the numbers that were
written down.
If the sum is 40, Simon erased the numbers with a sum of 40 ÷ 5 = 8.
There are three numbers with thе sum of 8 among the numbers: 1, 3 and 4.
The number that was erased is 11.

AGE GROUP 3

Problem Answer Solution

A–B=A÷B⟹4–2=4÷2
1 @=6
⟹ A + B = 6 ⟹ @ = 6.

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We can solve the problem by checking the possible answers. There are at
least 7 sweets.
For # = 12: 6 6 3 12.
2 # = 12
For # = 8: 6 2 3 8.
For # = 12: 6 6 = 3 12.
Each of the children had at least 12 sweets.
3 & = 81 12 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3⟹ & = 81.
First, we find the possible sums of the 2 consecutive numbers:
0 +1 = 1; 1 + 2 = 3; 2 + 3 = 5, 3 + 4 = 7, 4 + 5 = 9, ...., 40 + 41 = 81;
Then, we find the possible sums of the 3 consecutive numbers:
4 § = 14 0 +1 + 2 = 3; 1 + 2 + 3 = 6; 2 + 3 + 4 = 9, ...., 26 + 27 + 28 = 81;
The numbers we are looking for must be odd and must be divisible by 3.
The numbers are 3, 9, 15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57, 63, 69, 75, 81,
therefore, § = 14.
3 + 3 + 4 + 4 = 14; 3 + 4 + 3 + 4 = 14; 3 + 4 + 4 + 3 = 14;
5 *=6
4 + 4 + 3 + 3 = 14; 4 + 3 + 4 + 3 = 14; 4 + 3 + 3 + 4 = 14.

AGE GROUP 4

Problem Answer Solution

The numbers are


1 @=2 ⏟

From 2 dm = 20 cm, we get that the sum of the two side lengths is 10 cm.
10 = 1 + 9 = 2 + 8 = 3 + 7 = 4 + 6 = 5 + 5.
2 # = 25
Therefore, the possible areas are 9, 16, 21, 24, 25 cm2.
The greatest possible value is # = 25.
If the first number of the 25 consecutive numbers is even, the 25th
number will also be even. In this case, in order to find the least sum, we
3 & = 325 will start with the least natural number, which is odd:
1 + 2 + ...+ 25 = 325.
We get that & = 325.
4 § = 28 From 325÷12 = 27 (remainder 1) ⟹ § = 27 + 1 = 28.
28 = 4 problems 7 days = 4 problems 4 days + 3 problems 4 days
5 * = 8, 7 or 6 = 3 problems 4 days + 4 problems 4 days = 4 problems 1 day + 6
problems 4 days

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⟹ * = 7 + 0 = 7 = 4 + 4 = 8 days, or * = 1 + 5 = 6.

AGE GROUP 5

Problem Answer Solution

Let us denote the numbers by a, b, c ⟹

One of them is 5. Let this be the number с. Then,


1 @ = 14
The numbers а and b are among 2, 3 and 7. If we check, we will find
that the numbers are 2 and 7:
. Therefore, @ = 2 + 5 + 7 = 14.
The first number divisible by 14 is 222222. All numbers written down
2 # = 336 using 6, 12, 18, ..., 2016 twos are divisible by 14. There are 2016 ÷ 6 =
336 such numbers. We get that # = 336.
3 & = 28 From 336 ÷ 12 = 28 (remainder 0) ⟹ & = 28.
From

4 § = 27
, it follows that we can multiply 27 of
them at most, in order to get a perfect square.
27 = 4 problems 6 days + 3 problems 1 day = 4 problems 3 days +
5 * = 7 or 8
3 problems 5 days ⟹ * = 6 + 1 = 7 or * = 3 + 5 = 8.

AGE GROUP 6

Problem Answer Solution

Let the numbers be n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5, n + 6, …


n + n + 1+ n + 2 = - 2019 ⟹ n = - 674.
1 @ = 25
The greatest number is n + 699 = 25
⟹ @ = 25.
1, 2, -3, 4, 5, -6, 7, 8, -9, 10, 11, -12, 13, 14, -15, 16, 17, -18, 19, 20, -
21, 22, 23, -24, 25
2 # = 85 1, 2, -3, -4, 5, -6, 7, - 8, -9, 10, 11, +12, 13, 14, -15, - 16, 17, -18, 19, -
20, - 21, 22, 23, +24, 25
The sum is
66


We get that # = 85.
Each route with a length of 49 cm is determined by 3 vertical segments
(we use the first segment to move to the lower row, we use the second to
3 & = 10
climb back up, and we use the third to move to the lower row). We can
do this in 10 ways. We get that & = 10.
From

4 § = 60
, it follows that we can multiply 8 of
them at most, in order to get a perfect square. The remaining numbers are
2! and 5!. Therefore, § = 5! ÷ 2 ! = 60 ⟹ § = 60.
and ⟹

5 * = 2.4

The triangle has side lengths of 3, 4 and 5, therefore,

⟹ h = 2.4 cm ⟹* = 2.4.

AGE GROUP 7

Problem Answer Solution

The numbers are 7, p and q. Then


1 @ = 105 ⟹ ⟹
⟹ ⟹

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2 # = 52

( )

We get that # = 52.


From 23 + 13 = 36, it follows that 36 - 26 =10 children are holding
hands with both girls and boys. Then from 13 – 10 = 3, it follows that 3
3 &=8 of the children are holding hands with girls only. These 3 children are
holding 3 2 = 6 girl hands, another 10 are holding one girl hand each –
the girl hands are 6 + 10 = 16 in total, and the girls are 16÷2 = 8.
C

E
D

A B
F

4 § = 45 Let us use х to denote the area of the triangle DEF, then

Let us use y to denote the area of the triangle BEF, then

The area of the quadrangle DEBF is ⟹ § = 10 + 5 + 8 +


22 = 45.
The last digit of matches the last
digit of for each natural number n.
The last digits of the first 10 numbers are 6; 4; 0; 0; 0; 6; 4; 0; 0; 0,
Then the last digit of

5 *=0

is ⏟

Therefore, the expression is divisible by 10, and the remainder is 0 ⟹


* = 0.

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AGE GROUP 8

Problem Answer Solution

We can find the answer by carrying out a check, starting from 30. The
1 @ = 24 number 24 is the greatest natural number which is divisible by all natural
numbers smaller than √ ⟹ @ = 24.
̅̅̅̅̅ ⟹ ⟹

2 #=3
⟹ b = 0, ⟹ the numbers are 102, 204, 306, 408. Their sum is
1020. We get that # = 3.
We circumscribe a circle around ∆ АВС. Let СМ intersect the circle at
point D. We compare the angles of ∆ACD and ∆ВСН. It turns out that
∡ ∡ 𝐻 and ∡ ∡ 𝐻
Then the centre of the circumscribed circle lies on DC and on a straight
3 & = 84
line that goes through point М and is perpendicular to АВ. Therefore,
the centre is point М. We can conclude that ∆АВС is right-angled and
has a straight angle at the vertex С.
The angle we are looking for is ∡ 𝐻 ⟹ & = 84.
⟹ ( – ) ⟹ .
4 § = 37 √ | |

From 32 + 9 = 41, it follows that 41 - 37 = 4 children are holding hands
with both girls and boys. Then from 9 – 4 = 5, it follows that 5 of the
5 *=7 children are holding hands with girls only. These 5 children are holding
5 2 = 10 girl hands. Another 4 children are holding one girl hand each.
The girl hands are 10 + 4 = 14 in total, and the girls are 14÷2 = 7.

AGE GROUP 9

Problem Answer Solution

( )
1 @ = 49 ( ) ⟹


From
2 # = 35
√ √ ⟺ √

69
we get
√ ⟹√ ⟹ ⟹#
We circumscribe a circle around ∆ АВС. Let СМ intersect the circle at
point D. We compare the angles of ∆ ACD and ∆ ВСН. It turns out that
∡ ∡ 𝐻 и ∡ ∡ 𝐻 .
Then the centre of the circumscribed circle lies on DC and on a straight
3 & = 20 line that goes through point М and is perpendicular to АВ. Therefore,
the centre is point М. We can conclude that ∆ АВС is right-angled and
has a straight angle at the vertex С.
Therefore, the angle we are looking for is ∡ 𝐻 ⟹
&

Then the equation is

4 §=2 We get to two equations in regards to х:


and
The number of negative roots is 2.
⟹ § = 2.
Let the side lengths be a = 6, b = 4 and с, and let the angles opposite
them be and , where
5 *=5

⟹ ⟹ * = 5.

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The excited students awaiting the start of the The Promise of Fair Competition read in
tournament Bulgarian, English and Russian

Atanas Stefanov, Professor of Mathematics, A traditional Bulgarian welcoming ceremony


University of Kansas

Individual Contest Individual Contest

Vanya Dimova, Lyubomir Lyubenov and Galina Belyanskaya

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Our Bulgarian colleagues and teachers

…and our colleagues from the 15 participating countries

The rose plants of North Macedonia, the Philippines The rose plants of Ukraine and Slovenia
and Romania

The rose garden planted by participants


Bulgaria’s rose plant from each country

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Maths Stars of 6th Tournament Mathematics without Mayor’s Cup Winners: Demira Nedeva,
Borders 2019 Bulgaria, and Christian Gendrano, the
Philippines

Teachers awarded by the Mayor of Nessebar: Stoyan


Teachers awarded by Mathematics without
Deskov, Bulgaria, Rechilda Villame, the Philipines, and
Borders Foundation
Shahla Alieva, Azerbaijan

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Excited audience from 15 participating countries at the
ancient theatre in Old Nessebar

Gold Cup Winners:

Georgia Georgieva Mihaleva (Bulgaria, Burgas, 1);Martin Tsvetomirov Matov (Bulgaria, Sofia, 1); Nicole
Zdravkova Nikolova (Bulgaria, Plovdiv 2); Pavel Rumenov Genchev (Bulgaria, Razgrad, 2); Aviana Ivanova
Gasheva (Bulgaria, Plovdiv, 3); Askaruly Akhmet (Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan city, 3); Martin Diyanov Dimitrov
(Bulgaria, Varna, 4); Sydorenko Kateryna (Ukraine, Kiev, 4); Sara Krasimirova Ilieva (Bulgaria, Sofia, 5); Sibal,
Renzterton R. (Philippines, Mandaluyong City, 5); Demira Georgieva Nedeva (Bulgaria, Plovdiv, 6); Gendrano,
Christian D. (Philippines, Paranaque City, 6); Deyan Deyanov Hadzhi-Manich (Bulgaria, Varna, 7); Pak, Mi Jung
(Philippines San Pedro, Laguna, 7); Blazhe Suklevski (North Macedonia, Skopje, 8); Margulan Erlanovich
Ismoldaev (Bulgaria, Varna, 8); Zhara Nedkova Elenska (Bulgaria, Veliko Tarnovo, 8); Yoan Naydenov Naydenov
(Bulgaria, Sofia, 10); Marquez, John Henry T. (Philippines Quezon City, 9)

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ISSN 2367-654X
„Образование без граници- мотиви, реализация, амбиции”
ISSN 2367-654X
„Education without Borders – objectives, realization, ambitions”

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