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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Presented By
Sehar Abbas
Saima Hanif
2 CONTENTS

 Data, Information & Knowledge


 Knowledge Hierarchy
 Types of Knowledge
 What Is Knowledge Management
 Why KM
 History of KM
 KM Models
 KM life cycle

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C ONTINUE …

 Characteristics of KM in Libraries

 Terms Used in KM

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D ATA , I NFORMATION &
K NOWLEDGE

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5 K NOWLEDGE H IERARCHY

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E XPLICIT / TACIT
K NOWLEDGE -T YPES

 Tacit knowledge: That type of knowledge which


people carry in their mind, and is, therefore,
difficult to access.

 Explicit knowledge: That type of knowledge


which has been or can be articulated, codified,
and stored in certain media.

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7 F EATURES

Explicit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge

Tangible Intangible
Physical objects, e.g. in Mental objects, i.e. it's in
documents or databases people's head's
Context independent Context affects meaning
Easily shared Sharing involves learning
Reproducible Not identically replicated

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W HAT I S K NOWLEDGE
M ANAGEMENT

 Knowledge Management is the


collection of processes that govern the
creation, dissemination, and utilization
of knowledge.

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9 W HY KM

 To share the knowledge, a company creates


exponential benefits from the knowledge as
people learn from it.

 To build better sensitivity to “brain drain”

 To reacting to new business opportunities

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H ISTORY O F KM

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11 I N 70’S

A number of management theorists have


contributed to the evaluation of KM.

 Peter Drucker: Information and knowledge as


organizational resources

 Peter Senge: "learning organization"

 Chaparral Steel: A company having knowledge


management strategy

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
12 I N 80’ S

 Knowledge as a competitive asset was apparent.

 Managing knowledge that relied on work done in


artificial intelligence and expert systems.

 Knowledge management-related articles began


appearing in journals and books .

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
13 I N 90’ S U NTIL N OW

 A number of management consulting firms had


begun in-house knowledge management
programs. E.g. ADAM’s Model

 Knowledge management was introduced in the


popular press.

 The International Knowledge Management


Network(IKMN) went online in 1994.

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14 KM M ODELS

There are some KM Models:

 Nonaka/Takeuchi Knowledge Spiral (1995)

 ADAM’s Model (2000-01)

 The Choo Sense-making KM Model (1998)

 WIIG KM Model

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N ONAKA /TAKEUCHI
KNOWLEDGE SPIRAL (1995)

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ADAM’ S M ODEL (2000-01)

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T HE C HOO S ENSE - MAKING
KM M ODEL (1998)

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18 WIIG’ S KM M ODEL

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K NOWLEDGE F ORM BY
WIIG M ODEL

 Public Knowledge
 Sharing Knowledge
 Personal Knowledge

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20 CONTINUE…

 The knowledge which is explicit and can be


learned and shared, called Public Knowledge.
 The knowledge which is an intellectual assets
and held exclusively by employees and shared
during work or embedded in technologies, called
Sharing Knowledge.
 The knowledge which is the least accessible, but
the most complete form of knowledge. It’s
usually tacit and used without knowing, called
Personal Knowledge.

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K NOWLEDGE T YPES BY
WIIG M ODEL

 Factual Knowledge
 Conceptual Knowledge
 Expectational Knowledge
 Methodological Knowledge

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 That type of knowledge which deals with data


and measurements, and directly observable and
verifiable, called Factual Knowledge.

 That type of knowledge which deals with


systems, concepts and perspectives, called
Conceptual Knowledge.

 That type of knowledge which deals with


hypothesis, judgments and expectations held by
knowers, called Expectational Knowledge.

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 That type of knowledge which deals with


reasoning, strategies and decision making
methods, called Methodological Knowledge.

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KM L IFE CYCLE

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
26 C ONTINUE …

 Information Mapping: ( To categorize the


knowledge assest) Information mapping is a
process by which organizations can identify and
categories knowledge assets within their
organization.

 Information Storaging: Information storing that


contains knowledge repositories such as
databases, data warehouses, and information
centers and indicates electronic environment of
organizational memory.

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 Information Retrieving: In this stage, knowledge


is stored and retrieved via information retrieval
systems.

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28 K NOWLEDGE U SING

Organizations use knowledge for three reasons:

 Knowledge can be used for determining


organization’s work processes and making
strategies for sustainable competitive advantage.

 Knowledge can be used for designing and


marketing product.

 Knowledge plays a critical role of organization’s


services quality

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29 K NOWLEDGE A UDITING

 Knowledge auditing means what amount of


knowledge can be used in organization’s
products, services and processes.

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C HARACTERISTICS OF KM IN
L IBRARIES

The characteristics of KM in libraries are:

 Human Resource Management Is the Core of


Knowledge Management in Libraries.

 The Objective of Knowledge Management in Libraries


is to Promote Knowledge Innovation.

 Information Technology Is a Tool for Knowledge


Management in Libraries.

 The knowledge acquired must be accumulated and


converged into knowledge warehouses of libraries.

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
31 T ERMS U SED IN KM

There are some terms used in KM:

 Knowledge architect

 Knowledge assets

 Knowledge bridge

 Knowledge Workers

 Knowledge Economy

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32 K NOWLEDGE ARCHITECT

 Knowledge architect is the staff member who


oversees the definitions of knowledge and
intellectual processes and then identifies the
technological and human resources required to
create, capture, organize, access and use
knowledge assets.

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33 K NOWLEDGE ASSETS

 Knowledge assets, also called intellectual capital,


are the human, structural and recorded
resources available to the organization. Assets
reside within the minds of members, customers,
and colleagues and also include physical
structures and recorded media.

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34 K NOWLEDGE BRIDGE

 Knowledge bridge is the connection that a KM


expert builds between the business processes
and the technological, sociological, personal,
financial, sales, creative, and customer oriented
functions of the organization.

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35 K NOWLEDGE W ORKERS

 Employees and managers who contribute


significantly to the intellectual capital of the
company are called knowledge workers.

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36 K NOWLEDGE E CONOMY

 The knowledge economy is a term that refers


either to an economy of knowledge focused on
the production and management of knowledge
in the frame of economic constraints, or to a
knowledge-based economy.

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
37 R EFERENCES

 http://www.slideshare.net/nabendumaji/knowle
dge-management-10353260
 http://www.skyrme.com/kmbasics/kchars.htm
 http://www.bridgefieldgroup.com/bridgefieldgro
up/glos5.htm
 http://www.unc.edu/~sunnyliu/inls258/Introduct
ion_to_Knowledge_Management.html
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_econo
my

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 http://home.earthlink.net/~ddstuhlman/defin1.htm

 Shanhong, T. “Knowledge Management in Libraries


in the 21st Century”

 SAĞSAN , M. “A NEW LIFE CYCLE MODEL FOR


PROCESSING OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT”

 Crista, S.D. (2009), “Perspectives on knowledge


management models”

 Bergeron, B. “Essentials of Knowledge Management”

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