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# PH563- Assignment Sheet 5 -17 Oct 2019

## marked problems to be submitted on 31st Oct

1. SO(4) denotes the group of orthogonal matrices in four dimensional space with determinant
1.
(i) Using orthogonality property, show that the number of independent parameters is 6.
(ii) We know that φk (k = 1, 2, 3) denotes rotation about k-axis in three dimensions. Similarly,
we can give geometrical meaning by choosing the six parameters as φij (i > j, i = 1, 2, 3, 4)
to denote rotation in the ij-plane. Let Lij = ri pj − rj pi be the generators of rotation about
ij-plane. Show that the generators obey a closed algebra.
Note: There are six such rotation planes possible in four dimensional space.
2. Suppose one of the coordinates is chosen to be time (say k = 4), then we require Lorentz
transformations and the group will be SO(3, 1).
(a) Write down the matrix representation of the generators of boosts along x-direction (Kx =
Lxt ) and rotation about z-axis (L̃z = Lxy ). Then find out the commutator [L̃z , Kx ].
(b) Similarly determine [Kx , Ky ] commutator.
(c) Suppose we write M = L̃ + iK and N = L̃ − iK. Write the algebra satisfied by M and
N.

3. • Assume that the symmetrized form of the Runge-Lenz vector K ~ in hydrogen atom satisfies
 
−2E
[Ki , Kj ] = ih̄ijk Lk ,
µ

where µ is the reduced mass and E is the energy. Now rescale them as K̂i = aKi so that
[K̂i , K̂j ] = iijk Lk . Combine 1/2(Li ± K̂i ) = Mi± and check the algebra satisfied by them.
4. • Suppose we are confined to a two-dimensional space (that is space time is 3-dimensional in-
stead of 4-dimensional), obtain the generators of Lorentz transformations and check whether
this is a subalgebra of the four dimensional Lorentz algebra.
5. Determine whether the following system possess space and time translational symmetry:
(i) Free particle system (ii) Harmonic oscillator (iii) Forced harmonic oscillator with time
dependent force F (t).

## 6. Show that for infinitesimal rotations UR† (δ φ)~

~ rUR (δ φ)
~ = ~r + δ φ
~ × ~r.

7. (a) SU (N ) denotes group of N × N unitary matrices with determinant 1. Show that the
generators are traceless hermitean matrices.
(b) Also prove that the number of independent parameters of SU (N ) is N 2 − 1.
(c) Suppose we look at unitary group U (N ) (no condition on determinant), then the number
of independent parameters will be same as SU (N ) or different?
8. • Consider a two spin 1/2 particles (proton and neutron) described by the Hamiltonian
H = kŝn ŝ˙ p where k is a constant. Find the symmetry and the conserved quantity. Determine
the energy eigenstates and eigenvalues.

1
9. If S(k, q) and T (k, q) are two irreducuble tensor operators of rank k, prove that ω =
Pk
q=−k T (k, q)S(k, −q) is a scalar operator.

10. • A deuteron has spin 1. Use the Wigner-Eckart theorem to find the ratios of the expectation
values of the electric quadrupole moment operator Q(2, 0) for the three orientations of deutron
(m = 0, +1, −1).

## 11. Using the Clebsch-Gordan coefficient,

s
j(2j − 1)
hj1 = jj2 = 2m1 = jm2 = 0|J = jm = ji = ,
(j + 1)(2j + 3)

verify the following statement for quadrupole moment tensor: The static 2k pole moment
of a charge distribution has zero expectation value in any state with angular momentum
j < (k/2).
12. Construct the decimet baryon wavefunction obtained from quarks transforming as funda-
mental representation of SU 3).
13. Suppose we are given a six-dimensional multiplet belonging to a irreducible representation
of a unitary group of rank less than 3. How do we check whether the six states |ii belong
to spin 5/2 of SU (2) or symmetric tensor of rank 2 representation of
SU (3)? Explain.
14. Construct the octet baryon wavefunctions obtained from quarks transforming as fundamental
representation of SU 3).

15. • Assume quarks occur in four flavors. For this case, determine the irreducible representations
and their dimensions for baryons and mesons.
16. For quarks belonging to the fundamental representation of SU (N ), determine the dimensions
of meson multiplets.
17. Determine the irreducible representations and their dimensions for di-baryon bound states
obtained from baryons belonging to the octet multiplet of SU (3).

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